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Dealing with the origin of words 
and their sense development thus illustrating 
the history of civilization and culture 



A word fitly spoken is like apples of gold in pictures of silver 







First Published 1965 - First Reprinted 1969 






lam what my MOTHER and my FATHER made of me 




To know the origin of words 
is to know the cultural history of mankind. 

In infinite humility I bend the knee and bow before the Eternal Who gives power to the faint, 
and to him who has no might increases strength. 

Blessed be the Eternal Who granted me life and sustenance and permitted me to write and 
complete this etymological dictionary, whose first volume is just leaving the press. 

This dictionary is a modest tribute of my devotion to Canada, the country whose citizen I am 
proud to be, the country in which the spirit of the Bible has dominion from Sea to Sea, the coun- 
try in which the Human Rights are a happy, living reality, a reality called upon to serve as a 
shining example to mankind. 

On this occasion I would like to extend my heartfelt thanks to the Canada Council, whose 
grant made it possible for me to have the manuscript of my dictionary typed in order to pre- 
pare it for the press. The generosity of this noble institution will continue to serve for me as a 
precious stimulus for further scientific work. 

Between 193 1 and 1944, 1 was Rabbi of the Jewish Congregation in Nove Zamky (Czecho- 
slovakia), whence I was deported by the Nazis to Auschwitz and, from there, to the concen- 
tration camp Allach-Dachau. After the liberation from the latter place by Amerian troops in 
1945, 1 returned home to find only the ruins of what had once been the flourishing Jewish com- 
munity of Nov6 Zamky. There I learned that my Father, my wife, my only child Joseph and two 
of my three sisters had suffered martyrdom in Auschwitz. Of my family, my sister Mrs. Paul 
Horvath (nee Elizabeth Klein) and her husband have survived. 

After my return I decided to write an etymological dictionary of the English language, the 
language which I had loved and admired since my early childhood. 

This project materialized in Toronto where I settled together with my sister Elizabeth and 
her husband, and where my friends established the congregation Beth Yitshak, which was 
named after my Father of blessed memory, and chose me for their rabbi. 

It was before all my sister who through her selfless love and infinite dedication, with which 
she has taken care of me, made it possible for me to devote my time to my congregation and to 
writing this dictionary. 

On this occasion I would like to extend my affectionate feelings to two of my closest and 
dearest friends in Toronto, whom I love both as if they were brothers to me in the literal sense of 
this term : Mr. Arthur Minden, Q.C., whose friendship and love I treasure as one of the greatest 
gifts bestowed upon me by Providence and whose zeal and encouragement have been an im- 
portant factor in my writing and completing this dictionary, and Mr. Leo Bermann, whose 
sincere brotherly affection and friendly devotion have always been and continue to be a grati- 
fying source of spiritual joy to me, and who had a decisive role in the history of the publication 
of my dictionary. 

My abiding gratitude is extended to Mr. Marsh Jeanneret, president of the Toronto Uni- 
versity Press, and to Miss F. Halpenny, its editor, for their helpfulness and encouragement, 
which were important factors on the way leading to the publication of my work. 


My grateful acknowledgements are also due to the whole staff of the University of Toronto 
Library for the facilities extended to me in the use of its books. 

May this dictionary, which plastically shows the affinity and interrelationship of the nations 
of the world in the way in which their languages developed, contribute to bringing them nearer 
to one another in the sincere pursuit of peace on earth — which was one of my cardinal aims 
in writing this dictionary. 

Toronto, October, 1965 

Dr. Ernest Klein 


Since my youth I have devoted myself to philology, with special regard to etymology. 

The reasons inducing me to write 'A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the 
English Language' may be summed up as follows : 

It is a well-known fact that in the course of the last sixty years philology has attained a high 
degree of development. It is so much the more to be regretted that modern lexicography has 
remained far behind the achievements of philology. As a rule, even the most authoritative 
English etymological dictionaries give such etymologies as reflect the level reached by philology 
about half a century ago. In most cases etymologies given up by serious science long ago are 
still wandering out of one dictionary into another and continue living with tenacity, appa- 
rently ignoring the truths established in the field of philology in the course of the latter decades. 

One example may suffice to prove this. Despite the fact that Tocharian (this language extinct 
long ago but newly discovered at the end of the Nineteenth Century) occupies a very important 
place among the Indo-European languages, Tocharian references appear only quite excep- 
tionally in the etymological dictionaries of the English language. This is so much the more strik- 
ing, because Tocharian may help us understand the development of many a word in the different 
Indo-European languages, inasmuch as the words of the Tocharian language often represent 
the transitory form — 'the missing link' — between the Old Indian and the other Indo-European 
languages. In this dictionary Tocharian words are regularly referred to together with the other 
Indo-European equivalents. 

English belonging to the great family of the Indo-European languages, it is quite evident 
that in tracing any word to its source, an etymological dictionary must take into consideration 
all the important cognates of this word in the other Indo-European languages. If we want to 
understand the history of an English word, we must compare this word with as many corre- 
spondences as possible. 

Most etymological dictionaries do not pay enough attention to this circumstance and there- 
fore cite equivalents from the kindred languages quite at random, often enumerating the less 
important ones but omitting such as had a decisive influence upon the form of the word treated 
or upon the development of its meaning. This dictionary tries to be a dependable guide to the 
reader in this respect too, by giving him all the necessary information about the origin, for- 
mation and sense development of any word that might interest him. 

The scientific value of most etymological dictionaries is much impaired by the circumstance 
that their authors are not familiar with the structure of the Semitic languages, a fact thrown 
into relief by the inconsistencies of the transliteration of Hebrew, Aramaic and Arabic words, 
on the one hand, and by the lack of any etymological analysis of these words, on the other. In 
this dictionary the words of Semitic origin — about 750 in number — are fully analyzed : they 
are traced to their etyma, the cognates are given, the stem is distinguished from the prefixes and 
suffixes added to it, etc. In brief: the words of Semitic origin are treated exactly as the Indo- 
European words. This is why my dictionary may also serve as a preliminary work for an ety- 
mological dictionary of the Semitic languages themselves. 

In all etymological dictionaries we frequently come across such words as are declared to be 
'of unknown origin', even in cases when the etymology of such words can be established beyond 
any doubt. In many other cases the etymology is not given either, but the origin of the respec- 


tive word is referred to by such vague terms as 'of uncertain etymology', or 'probably of Orien- 
tal origin', etc., whereas their provenance is very well known. My dictionary contains the ety- 
mology of several hundred such words. 
This dictionary gives also the etymologies of personal names and mythological names. 

Some other features of this dictionary: 

What the elements are to chemistry, what the sounds are to music, are words to language. 
However, words are not only the elements of a language but also of the history of the people 
speaking it. They are important milestones along the way leading to the majestic Palace of 
Human Knowledge. 

One of the basic features of this dictionary is that — in contradistinction to other etymolo- 
gical dictionaries — its aim is not only to give the history of words, but to give also History in 
words. This dictionary is the first attempt to give the history of human civilization and culture 
condensed in the etymological data of words. We not only speak but think and even dream 
in words. Language is a mirror in which the whole spiritual development of mankind reflects 
itself. Therefore, in tracing words to their origin, we are tracing simultaneously civilization 
and culture to their real roots. 

Another important aim that I set to myself in composing this dictionary was to mirror in it the 
history of the humanities and sciences. Since the history of a word is at the same time the history 
of the thing denoted or the idea expressed by that word it is obvious that by giving the history 
of the technical terms of any branch of science we also give the history of that branch of science 
itself. In consideration of this fact one of the goals of an etymological dictionary should be to 
deal with the history of scientific technical terms in a manner that would enable the reader to 
reconstruct through them the history of the various branches of the humanities and sciences. 
This dictionary represents the first attempt to live up to this goal. E.g. in order to know the 
important phases of the development of medicine one will only have to look up the medical 
terms occurring in this dictionary. 

For the illustration of this fact I am quoting here a few entries from this dictionary dealing 
with medical terms: 

abiotrophy, n., loss of vitality (med.) — Coined by the English neurologist Sir William Richard Gowers 
(1845-1915) fr. Gk. d$io<;, 'without life', and -xpoqjii, fr. xpocprj, 'nourishment'. See abio- and 

Derivative: abiotroph-ic, adj. 
accoucheur, n., a man who acts as midwife. — F., fr. accoucher, 'to go to childbed' ; first used by Jules 
Clement in the second half of the 17th cent. See accouchement. 

Achilles' tendon. — So called from the myth of Achilles being held by the heel when his mother Thetis 
dipped him into the river Styx to render him invulnerable ; first used by the Dutch anatomist Verheyden 
in 1693 when dissecting his own amputated leg. See Achilles and tendon. 

acrodynia, n., disease characterized by pain in the hands and feet (med.) — Medical L., coined by Char- 
don in 1828, and lit. meaning 'pain in the extremities', fr. aero- and Gk. oSuvtj, 'pain'. See -odynia. 

actinomycosis, n„ an inflammatory disease caused by the actinomycetes (med.) — Coined by the German 
pathologist Otto Bollinger (1843-1909) in 1877 fr- Actinomyces and suff. -osis. 

agoraphobia, n., morbid fear of being in open spaces (med.) — Coined by Westphal in 1871, who first 
described this morbid condition. The word lit. means 'fear of a public place'. See agora and -phobia. 

albuminuria, n., the presence of albumen in the urine (med.) — Medical L., fr. F. albuminuric a hybrid 
coined by the French physician Martin Solon (1795-1856) in 1838 fr. L. albumen, 'white of the egg', 
andGk. o5pov, 'urine'. See albumen, urine and -ia. 

allopathy, n., treatment of disease by remedies that produce effects opposite to those caused by the 
disease. — G. Allopathic, coined by the German physician Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) fr. Gk. 


aXkoQ, 'other', and -mx&eia, fr. roi&oc., 'suffering'. See alio- and -pathy and cp. enantiopathy, homeo- 

Derivatives: allopath-ic, adj., allopath-ic-ally, adv., allopath-et-ic,aA].,allo-path-e1-ical-ly, adv., allo- 
path-ist, n. 

anaphylaxis, n., exaggerated susceptibility, especially to protein (med. and biol.) — Coined by the 
French physiologist Charles Richet (1850-1935) in 1893 on analogy of prophylaxis (q.v.) Anaphylaxis 
accordingly means the opposite of what is expressed by prophylaxis; it is formed fr. ana- and Gk. 
(jjiiXa^t?, 'a watching, guarding'. See phylaxis. 

anarthria, n., inability to articulate words (med.) — Medical L., coined by the French neurologist 
Pierre Marie (1 853-1940) fr. Gk. avap^po?, 'without joints' (see anarthrous). For the ending see suff. -ia. 

antitoxin, n., a substance neutralizing poisonous substances (immunology). — Coined by the German 
bacteriologist Emil von Behring (1854- 19 17) in 1890 fr. anti- and toxin. Cp. autotoxin. 

aperient, adj., laxative. — L. aperiens, gen. -entis, pres. part, of aperlre, 'to uncover, open', which 
stands for *ap-werire and is rel. to operlre (for *op-werlre), 'to cover, close', and cogn. with OI. apa- 
vrndti, 'uncovers, opens', api-vrndti, 'closes, covers', fr. I.-E. base *wer-, 'to enclose, cover'. See weir 
and cp. words there referred to. The word aperient was used by Bacon in 1626. 
Derivative: aperient, n., a laxative drug. 

aphemia, n., a kind of aphasia (med.) — Medical L., coined by the French surgeon and anthropologist 
Paul Broca (1824-80) in i860 fr. priv. pref. a- and Gk. 9V 7 ). 'voice', which is rel. to cpdvoci, 'to say, 
speak'. See fame and -ia and cp. aphasia. 

aspirin, n. (pharm.) — A hybrid coined by H. Dreser in Pfliiger's Archiv in 1899. The acetylo-salicylic 
acid occurs in the flowers of the plant Spiraea ulmaria. In order to distinguish from this natural pro- 
duct the same substance gained chemically, the word aspirin was formed by Dreser from priv. pref. 
a-, the above mentioned plant Spiraea, and chem. suff. -in. Hence aspirin prop, means 'acetylo-sali- 
cylic acid which is gained not from the Spiraea ulmaria (but in a chemical way)'. 

astigmatism, n., defect of the eye that prevents the rays of light from converging to a point on the retina 
(med. and optics). — Coined by the English mathematician and philosopher William Whewell (1794- 
1866) in 1819 fr. priv. pref. a- and Gk. a-uyfia, gen. crTiyu.aToq, 'a prick, puncture, mark'. See stig- 
matic and -ism. 

athetosis, n., affection of the nervous system marked by involuntary movements of the fingers and toes 
(med) — Medical L., coined by the American nerve specialist William Alexander Hammond (1828- 
1900) in 1871 fr. Gk. a-S-eTO?, 'not fixed', and suff. -osis. See prec. word. 

aureomycin, n., an antibiotic drug resembling penicillin (med.) — A hybrid coined fr. L. aureus, 'golden' 
(so called from its color), Gk. u.uxt)<;, 'fungus', and chem. suff. -in; see aureate and myco-. The correct 
form would be chrysomycin, in which both elements are of Greek origin (see ehryso- and cp. Aureo- 

batophobia, n., a morbid fear of being at great heights or passing near high objects (med.) — Medical L., 
compounded of Gk. Pccto?, 'passable', verbal adj. of paCveiv, 'to go', and -<pop£i, fr. tp6(3o<;, 'fear'. 
See base, n. and phobia. The association of Gk (3a-:6<; with height is due to a connection of this 
word with the second element in acrobat. (Acrobats are used to display their art in the height.) 
A more adequate name for this condition is hypsophobia. 

bronchiole, n., a minute bronchial tube(ana/.) — Medical L. bronchiola, a diminutive coined by E. Schuhz 
fr. L. bronchia (pi.), 'the bronchial tubes'; see bronchia. Cp. Joseph Hyrtl, Onomatologia anatomica, 

Derivative: bronchiol-ar, adj. 
bronchitis, n„ inflammation of the bronchial tubes (med.) — Medical L., coined by Charles Bedham in 
1 808 fr. bronchus and suff. -itis; introduced into medicine by P. Frank in his Interpretationes Clinicae 
in 1812. 

Caesarean section, Caesarean operation. — So called from the belief that Julius Caesar was thus deliv- 
ered. This belief is refuted by the fact that the mother ofJ. Caesar was still alive at the time of the Gallic 
wars, whereas, on the other hand, we know that in antiquity this operation was never performed on the 
living mother. 

calciphylaxis, n., increased sensitivity to calcium (med.) — A Medical L. hybrid coined by Dr. Hans 
Selye (born in 1907), professor of the University of Montreal, fr. calcium, a word of Latin origin, and 
Gk. 9iiXa^L?, 'a watching, guarding'. See phylaxis. 

Chloromycetin, n., an antibiotic drug of the penicillin-streptomycin family discovered by Dr. Paul 
R.Burkholder of Yale University (med.) — Coined fr. chloro-, Gk. [auxtjs, 8 en - u.uxtqto<;, 'fungus' 
(see myceto-), and chem. suff. -in. 

cirrhosis, n., a disease of the liver (med.) — Medical L., coined by the French physician Rene-Theo- 
phile-Hyacinthe Laennec (1781-1826) fr. Gk. xippo?, 'tawny', which is of uncertain origin ; so called 
in allusion to the yellowish color of the diseased liver. For the ending see suff. -osis. 


cynanthropy, n., insanity in which the patient believes himself to be a dog (med.) - Formed with suff. 
-v (representing Gk. fr. Gk. xuvtb^wcoc 'of a dog-man', which is compounded of xouv, gen. 
xuvic 'a dog', and Sv&pcoTro?, 'man'. See cyno- and anthropo-. The name cynanthropy prop, derives 
fr. Gk. v6ao 5 xuvav&pu™?, lit. 'dog-man's disease', a name given to this mama by Galen (see Galen, 
19, 7«9). 

The examples have been taken from among the medical terms beginning with the letter A, 
B or C hence such as are contained in the present (i.e. I) volume of this dictionary. 

Similarly, in dealing with the technical terms of the other branches of science in this dictiona- 
ry one of my chief aims was to show the historic development of science in general and of its 
various branches in particular, with special regard to biology, zoology, botany, mineralogy, 
geography, geology, history, astronomy, physics, chemistry, mathematics, grammar, philo- 
sophy. The entries treating these branches of science in this dictionary, virtually contain the 
most important phases of their history. 

Two other characteristic features of this dictionary: 


Scientists are rarely also linguists. This is why many scientific terms are inexactly coined and 
often erroneous and misleading in sense. Many of these terms are hybrids, i.e. words made up 
of elements from different languages. In this dictionary hybrids are not only referred to as such 
but-quite frequently-a new, correctly formed word is suggested instead of the one used 

For an example see the entry aureomycin on preceding page. 


Loan translations are important guideposts on the road on which civilization and culture trav- 
eled in the course of centuries from nation to nation. Through them we learn e.g. that the 
chief elements of the science of grammar developed in ancient Greece and reached Western 
Europe through the medium of the Romans. (The overwhelming majority of grammatical terms 
in the modern languages are loan translations of, or derive directly from, Latin words ;, which 
themselves are loan translations of Greek words. Cp. e.g. the words subject, verb, adverb, nomi- 
native, accusative, genitive, dative in this dictionary.) 

In like manner, loan translations are of great importance for the reconstruction of the history 
of all the other branches of science as well. This is why, in this dictionary, special attention was 
paid to loan translations and their way was traced from language to language. 


Transliteration of Semitic Words 

The transliteration for Semitic words contained in the etymologies of this dictionary is such 
that it renders exactly every consonant, vowel and diacritical sign. It happens for the first time 
that the Hebrew and Aramaic words quoted in an etymological dictionary are transliterated 
according to a system which makes it possible to retransliterate these words into their original • 
characters, including all the phonetic signs particular to Hebrew and Aramaic. (See the follow- 
ing Rules for Transliteration.) 

As a rule, in this dictionary the accent in Semitic words (with the exception of the Akkadian, 
for which the laws of accentuation are not known), is indicated by the usual accent mark ' placed 
over the vowel of the accented syllable. 


Form of the Letter Its Name 
X dleph 













wdw or van 



Its Transliteration 

Not rendered at the 
beginning or the end 

Its Sounds 

Orig. the glottal stop. 
Now silent in the 

of a word; otherwise middle of words if it has 

marked by ' 



no vowel; 
otherwise it is pro- 
nounced according to 
the accompanying 
vowel sign. 

bh, v 

Pronounced like 
g in get. 

Orig. pronounced — 
with a slight aspira- 
tion of the sound - - 
like gh; now pro- 
nounced like g in get. 

Orig. pronounced like 
ih in litis; 

now pronounced d 

Pronounced like ch in 
Scot, loch 


Form of the Letter 

3 ; at the end 
of a word 

3; at the end 
of a word 

0; at the end 
of a word 

3 ; at the end 
of a word 





Its Name 








Its Transliteration Its Sounds 





An emphatic t 



A strong guttural 
sound; now usually 
treated in the pro- 
nunciation like an 

3 ; at the end pe 

of a word P p 

D ; at the end phe 

of a word ph J 

«, - - - iu- tz: occasionally pro- 

at the end tzadhe or sadhe 

„ nounced like an em- 

ofaword Y ,z „ 

' phatic s ( - s) 

P koph 1 an emphatic k 

"1 resh r r 

$ shin sh & 

sin s s 

taw or tdv t ' 

.. .- ,l Orig. pronounced like 

n thaw or thav th e v 

th in thing; now pro- 
nounced like t (by the 
Ashkenazic Jews like 



Vowel Sign 
Form Name 



A) Long Vowels 

qamatz gddhol a 

tzere e 

hiriq gddhol i 

holdm 6 

shuruq u 

like a in far 
like ai in rain 
like / in machine 
like o in fork 
like u in true 

B) Short Vowels 

hiriq qdtdn 
qamatz qdtdn 

like a in far 
like e in them 
like (' in pin 
like o in #one 
like u in />«/ 

C) Half Vowels 

schwa (nd') * 

hdtdph pattdh a 

hdtdph s*ghdl e 

hdtdph qamatz o 

like e in a^e/if 

like a very short 

like a very short 
s e "ghol 

like a very short 
qamatz qatan 

A point in the middle of a consonant, called ddghish hdzdq (daghesh forte, 'strong daghesh'), 
strengthens (i.e. doubles) the consonant. It is marked by the doubling of the respective conso- 

The sign ddghish qai (daghesh lene = 'light daghesh'), which is formally identical with the 
sign of the ddghish hdzdq, is used with the letters D . D , 3 ,"T , 1 , 3 , to indicate their 
original hard pronunciation. In this Dictionary fl , Q , 3 , 1 , 1 , 3 , are transliterated 
b, g, d, k, p, t, whereas H , D , 3 , 1 . 1 , 3 , are rendered by bh, gh, dh, kh, ph, th. 



Form of the Letter Its Name 



Its Transliteration Its Sound 

Marked by ' at the The glottal stop, 
beginning of a word 
or when it is pro- 
vided with hamza ; 
otherwise rendered 
by a macron. 



(like th in English 









(a sharp guttural 

pronounced like a 
strong h with friction 

(like ch in Scot, loch) 



(like th in English this) 




Form of the Letter Its Name 

J 9 











Its Transliteration Its Sound 
sh sh 



an emphatic s; pro- 
nounced like ss in 
English hiss 

palatal d 

an emphatic t 

an emphatic z 

a strong guttural 
sound ; cp. Heb. s 

a guttural, gargling 


an emphatic k 





Vowel Sign Its Name 

A) Short Vowels 

J_ fdthaf 1 

— kdsra h 

J ddmmah 

Its Transliteration Its Sound 

Pronounced like 
a in wan. 

Pronounced like 
i in pin. 

Pronounced like 
u in put. 

B) Long Vowels 


Pronounced like a 
in father. 

Pronounced like i 
in machine. 

Pronounced like u 
in rule. 


7 luimza 1 ' (sign of the g,OUal 


«., tashdid. It marks the doubling of a consonant. It is disregarded in the 

case of a l5 after an , The assimilation of the J tin the def. art. J ) to the so called solar 
letters is not tak-n into consideration (as e.g. in aldea, Aldebaran. Altair). unless this assimi- 
lation appears a' o in the European (in most cases Spanish or Portuguese) loan word itself 
(as in arrope, l alaya). 

Abbreviation of Books and Journals Frequently 

Referred to 

Bloch-Wartburg, DELF. = Bloch, Oscar, and W. von Wartburg, Dictionnaire etymologique 

de la langue francaise, 2nd ed., Paris, 1950. 
Boisacq, DELG. = Boisacq, Emile, Dictionnaire etymologique de la langue grecque, 4th ed., 

Heidelberg, 1950. 

Dauzat, DELF. = Dauzat, Albert, Dictionnaire etymologique de la langue francaise, 7th ed., 

E-M., DELL. = Ernout, A., and A. Meillet, Dictionnaire Etymologique de la langue latine, 
4th ed., Paris, 1959. 

Frisk, GEW. = Frisk, Hjalmar, Griechisches Worterbuch, 1955 — in progress. 
Gesenius-Buhl, HWAT. = Gesenius, W., Hebraisches und Aramaisches Worterbuch iiber 

das Alte Testament, bearbeitet von Dr. Frants Buhl, 16th ed., Leipzig, 1915. 
HEL. = Francis Brown, S. R. Driver and Charles A. Briggs, The Hebrew and English Lexicon 

of the Old Testament based on the Lexicon of William Gesenius, Oxford, 1952, corrected 


Hofmann, EWG. = J. B. Hofmann, Etymologisches Worterbuch des Griechischen, Munchen, 

JQR. = Jewish Quarterly Review. 

Kluge-Mitzka, EWDS. =-- Kluge, Friedrich, Etymologisches Worterbuch der deutschen Spra- 
che, 17. Auflage, unter Mithilfe von Alfred Schirmer bearbeitet von Walther Mitzka, Berlin, 

Meyer-Liibke, REW. = Meyer- Lubke, W., Romanisches etymologisches Worterbuch, 2nd 

ed., Heidelberg, 1924. 
OED. = The Oxford English Dictionary. 

Walde-Hofmann, LEW. = Walde, A., Lateinisches etymologisches Worterbuch, dritte, neu- 

bearbeitete Auflage von J. B. Hofmann, Heidelberg, 1938-55. 
Walde-Pokorny, VWIS. = Walde, A., Vergleichendes Worterbuch der indogermanischen 

Sprachen, herausgegeben von J. Pokorny, Berlin, 1928 ff. (3 volumes). 
ZDMG. = Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. 

Other Literature Consulted 

J. F. Bense, Dictionary of the Low Dutch element in the English Vocabulary. 
Berneker, E., Slavisches etymologisches Worterbuch, vol. i , Heidelberg, 1908-13. 
Carnoy, Albert, Dictionnaire etymologique de la mythologie greco-romaine, Louvam. 
Devic M Dictionnaire etymologique des mots francais derives de l'arabe, Pans, 1876; 

published also in Supplement to E. Littre's Dictionnaire de la langue francaise, Pans, 1884. 
Feist, S., Vergleichendes Worterbuch der gotischen Sprache, 3rd ed., Leiden, 1939- 
Frankel Siegmund, Die aramaischen Fremdworter im Arabischen, Leyden, 1886. 
Gamillscheg E., Etymologisches Worterbuch der franzosischen Sprache, Heidelberg, 1926-28. 
Hehn, V., Kulturpflanzen und Haustiere in ihrem Obergang aus Asien nach Griechenland und 

Italien' 8. Auflage, neu herausgegeben von O. Schrader, Berlin, 191 1. 
Holthausen, F., Etymologisches Worterbuch der englischen Sprache, 3 rded., Gottingen, 1949. 
Koehler, L., and W. Baumgartner, Lexicon in Veteris Testament! Libros, Leiden, 195 > • 
Lewis and Short, A Latin Dictionary, Oxford, 195 1- 
Lewy H Die semitischen Fremdworter im Griechischen, Berlin, 1895. 
Lidde'll and Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, in Henry Stuart Jones's recension, Oxford, 


Litmann E., Morgenlandische Worter im Deutschen, 2nd ed., Tubingen, 1924. 

Lokotsch, K. , Etymologisches Worterbuch der europaischen (germanischen, romanischen und 

slavischen) Worter orientalischen Ursprungs, Heidelberg, 1927. 
Manfred Mayrhofer, A Concise Etymological Sanskrit Dictionary, Heidelberg, 1956 - 

in progress. 

J R Partington, The History of Chemistry, London, 1961-62. 

Skeat, W. W., An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, New Edition, Oxford, 

Skinner, Henry Alan, The Origin of Medical Terms, 2nd ed., Baltimore, 1961. 
Weekley, E., A Concise Etymological Dictionary of Modern English, 2nd ed., 1952. 
Yule, H., and A. C. Burnell, Hobson-Jobson, revised by Crooke, 1903. 

General Abbreviations 




Canadian French 




capital (initial) 
























chemistry \ chemical 
























collective, collectively 




colloQuial, colloquially 











(411 llt^Ul *J 



aor . 









A ra m a 1 c 














































dialect, dialectal 


before the common era 

























Ecclesiastes, Ecclesiastical 


Britain, British 









East French rte 



East Frisian nel 



exempli gratia (for example) nei 




Egyptian ™ 



• his 

electricity nu 



. Hi 

embryology n] 


LI I. 


„ i Hi 

English n ' 



i H 
entomology n 



equivalent u > 





Esther lc 



Ethiopian j 


ethnology ir 




etymology ir 


Exodus j, 


Ezekiel - u 





French (always used in the |' 


sense of Modern French) 1 



, i 



. ■ i 




. „ ■ i 





























German (always used in the 

sense of New High German) 




















geology, geological 

t a 















































loco citato (= in the place 




Low German 

literal, literally 



Mandaean, Mandaic 





Old British 





\^iHH1p Tlrptnn 


Old Bulgarian 

A A f~*r\ 


MTiHHIp f~"firniviVi 

1V11U.UIC V>U1 111311 


Old Celtic 

AA F^ii 

Middle Dutch 


Old Cornish 


1Y11U.UJ.C JC/llgllail 


Old Danish 


m**r*h animal m pe ri f\ n 1 CS 


Old Dutch 


m pH i r* 1 ti e 


Old English 


Mpdieval Hebrew 


Old French 


Middle Ftrvntian 


Old Flemish 


f* q« a n i ti 

IVlCSartJ-'K+l 1 


Old Frisian 


liicuiiiui g_y 


Old Gaelic 


metn thesis: 


Old High German 




Old Indian 


1V11U.U1C J. AvllVll 


Old Irish 


\4iHrl1p Crrppk" 


Old Iranian 

M H\j. 

\^i/1rl1p 1-IioV) f~fPrman 
lVllUuit- iTLigii vjtiiiian 


Old Italian 


AJ[ h 


Old Latin 


militji rv 

llllAlKll J 


Old Low German 




Old Lithuanian 



IVllULliC J.lli->11 


Old Norse 


iVlCUlCVa.1 LjaUH 


Old North French 

\t I (~L 


rVtiHHlf 1 1 nw Cierman 

^VULVJ-vll^ L*/\J W X^rwl lllull 


Old Norwegian 


\/TnHprn P,nfflish 


Old Persian 



Old Picard 



Old Portuguese 


\A Aflprn T atiti 


Old Provencal 



Old Prussian 


rVToHprn Persian 

IV1UUC111 X Viol-till 


original, originally 

IVlOUrOi L. 

Modern Portucuese 




XylArlprn Prr*venf*fll ii r i uvviiyai 


Old Russian 

iVloaVv . 

lVIt>U.Clll *V Cloll 


Old Saxon 




Old Sabinic 


Middle Welsh 


Old Serbian 




Old Slavic 


Old Spanish 





IN American 

North American 


Old Swedish 

not l-i ic- + 

nai. nisi. 

■natural hiQtnrv 


Old Welsh 


fitn itir*Q 1 


North East 





participle, particip 






1 1CL1LCI 




Mnrth Frenrb 
l iUi in i. i viUfii 




n r»m i rt z\ t i VP 




1>U1 WCgla.ll 



^vTi i m l"\pt"c 
IN UlllL'Cl 3 

Peru v. 







North West 




philos. P 

hilosophy s 



Phoen. P 

hoenician S 



photogr. P 

hotography s 


oCaHQin a Vlall 

phrenol. P 

hrenology s 


scilicet (L., unaerbioou, 

Phryg. J 



phys. P 

ihysics, physical S 


bcottisn, acoicn 

physiol. P 

ihysiology s 



pi. F 

ilural s 



PN. I 

'ersonal Name; Proper S 



Name ' 



poet. I 

joetry ; poetical ; 



Pol. 1 

Polish '■ 



Port. 1 

Portuguese : 



possess. ] 



same meaning 

pp. 1 

past participle 







predicate, predicative, 














pres. part. 

present participle 










sub voce ^ — unuci liic 




pronoun, pronominal 


aoutn wesi 


















technical, tecanoiogy 







quod vide (L., 'which see') 




nn V 

quae vide (L., 'which see'; 


1 nessdiuui 









Roman Catholic Church 






relative; related 






ultimate, ultimately 



T T C A 

United States of Americ 




United Soviet Socialist 












South African 




South American 


Vulgar Arabic 


VL. Vulgar Latin WSem. West Semitic 

vulg. vulgar WTeut. West Teutonic 

Vulg. Vulgate 

Zech. Zechariah 

W. Welsh Zeph. Zephaniah 

W.African West African zool. zoology 

Symbols used in this Dictionary 

The asterisk (*) indicates a hypothetical form. 

The mark called macron (-) is placed over a vowel to show that it is long. 

The mark called breve (-) is placed over a vowel to show that it is short. 

In this dictionary the quantity of vowels (esp. in Greek and Latin words) is indica d on y 
when they are long. The brevity of vowels is indicated only in some special cases (e.g. in Latin 
tTJre X ^ to hang', in contradistinction to pendere, 'to hang' (see pendant). Hence 
when there is no mark over a vowel it is to be assumed that it is short. 

The mark ' after a consonant in the Slavonic languages indicates palatalization 

SemaTk - after a syUable or a group of syllables (as in ant-,anti-) indicates that this syllable 

"{Z^IS ^ or a group of syllables (as in -ate, -alio* mdicates that this 
syllable or group of syllables is a suffix. 


a, indef. article. — Form of an before a consonant. 

a, prep, meaning 'of, as in a clock = of the 
clock. — ME., fr. OE. of, 'from, off, of. See of. 

a, prep, meaning 'on'. — OE. an, on, 'on'. See on. 

a, prep, meaning 'to, at, in'. — F., fr. L. ad, 'to, 
toward'. See ad- and cp. a-, pref. corresponding 
to L. ad-. Cp. also a la. 

a-, pref. meaning 'of, as in akin. — ME. a-, 
fr. OE. of. See a, prep, meaning 'of. 

a-, pref. meaning 'on'; used to form adverbs 
from nouns as in abroad, ashore. — Fr. OE. an, 
on. See a, prep, meaning 'on'. 

a-, intensive pref. — OE. a-, rel. to OS., OFris. 
ur-, or-, Du. oor-, OHG..MHG. ur- (unstressed: 
OHG. ir-, ar-, MHG., G. -er), Goth. us-. The 
orig. meaning of these prefixes was 'out, away'. 
Cp. the pref. in oakum, ordeal. 

a-, pref. meaning 'away from, from' (occurring 
only before v), as in avert. — L. a-, fr. d, short 
form of ab, 'away from, from' ; rel. to Oscan 
aa-, Umbr. aha-, 'away from, from'. See ab-. 

a-, pref. corresponding to L. ad-, fr. ad, 'to, to- 
ward', either directly or through the medium of 
OF. a- or F. a. Cp. the pref. in abandon, acknow- 
ledge, ascend, ascribe, and see ad-. Cp. also a. 

a-, priv. pref. meaning 'not, less, without'. — 
Gk. a-, used before a consonant, the form be- 
fore a vowel being av-. See an- and cp. the priv. 
prefixes in- and un-. 

aam, n., a Dutch and German liquid measure. — 
Du., fr. L. ama (more exactly hamd), 'bucket', 
fr. Gk. &\xf\ (prop. oc(xt)), 'bucket', which is rel. 
to a|j.Safl-at, 'to draw, gather', au.viov, 'a bowl 
in which the blood of victims was caught'. See 

aardvark, n., a South African burrowing animal. 
— Du., lit. 'earth pig', fr. aard, 'earth', and 
vark, 'pig'. See earth and farrow. 

aardwolf, n., a South African hyena-like mam- 
mal. — Du., lit. 'earth wolf. See prec. word 
and wolf. 

Aaron, masc. PN. ; in the Bible, the brother of 

Moses. — Late L.,fr. Gk. ' Heb. Ahd- 

r6n, which is prob. of Egyptian origin. Arab. 

Harun is borrowed from Hebrew. 

Derivative: Aaron-ic, adj. 
Aaron's beard, name of several plants. — So 

called because of their resemblance to a beard 

■nd with allusion to Ps. 1 33 : 2. 
* -ro n's rod, 1) straight molding in architecture; 

2 ) popular name of the common mullein. — 

80 called with allusion to Nu. 17. 

n., name of the fifth Jewish month. — Heb. 

**. fr. Akkad. abu. 

*^"» Pref. in words of Latin origin, denoting de- 
parture, separation. — L. ab-, fr. ab, 'away from, 
from; by*. The form ab is regularly used before 

all vowels and h; before consonants except h, 
ab usually becomes a; before c, q, t, it becomes 
abs. L. ab derives fr. orig. *ap (cp. aperio, T 
open'), and is cogn. with OI. dpa, 'away from', 
Gk. <x7r6, 'away from, from', Goth, af, OE. of, 
'away from, from'. See of and cp. a-, 'away 
from', apo-, post-. 

aba, n., a form of altazimuth instrument. — So 
called after its inventor Antoine Thomson 

aback, adv. — OE. on bxc. See a-, 'on', and back. 

abacus, n., 1) frame with beads for calculation; 
2) (archit.) slab at the top of a column. — L. 
abacus, fr. Gk. <£pa£, gen. a|3axo<;, 'a square 
tablet strewn with dust', fr. Heb. dbhdq, 'dust', 
fr. root a-b-q, 'to fly off. The first type of abacus 
was a board covered with dust, whence its name. 

Abaddon, n., the bottomless pit. — Heb. dbhad- 
d6n, 'destruction', fr. abhddh, 'he perished', which 
is rel. to Aram, abhddh, 'he perished', Ugar. 'bd, 
'to perish', Ethiop. abdda, 'he wandered about', 
Arab, dbada, 'it (the animal) fled in fright'. 

abaft, adv., astern, aft; prep., behind. — Formed 
fr. a-, 'on', and OE. bexftan, fr. be, 'by, at', 
and xftan. 'behind'. See be- and aft. 

abalienate, tr. v., 1) to alienate; 2) to remove. — 
L. abaliendtus, pp. of abaliendre, 'to remove', 
lit. 'to make alien from', fr. ab- and aliendre. 
See alienate. 

abalienation, n., 1) alienation; 2) removal. — 
L. abaliendtio, gen. -dnis, fr. abaliendtus, pp. 
of abaliendre. See prec. word and -ion. 

abalone, n., a mollusk. — Sp.,of unknown origin. 

abandon, tr. v., to leave, forsake. — ME. aban- 
donee fr. OF. abandoner (F. abandonner), fr. a 
bandon in (mettre) a bandon, 'to give up to a 
public ban', fr. a, 'to' (fr. L. ad) and bandon, 
'power, authority, jurisdiction', fr. Late L. ban- 
dum, bannum, 'order, decree', which is of Teut. 
origin. See ad- and ban, 'proclamation', and cp. 

Derivatives : abandon, n., abandon-ed, adj., aban- 
don-er, n., abandon-ment, n. 
abase, tr. v., to lower. — OF. abaissier (F. abais- 
ser), 'to bring low', fr. VL. *adbassidre, which 
is formed fr. L. ad- and Late L. bassus, 'thick, fat, 
low'. See base, 'low', and cp. the second element 
in bouillabaisse. 

Derivatives : abas-ed, adj., abas-ed-ly, adv., abas- 
ed-ness, n., abase-ment, n. 
abash, tr. v., to confuse ; to put to shame. — ME. 
abassen, abaissen, abashen, fr. OF. esbahiss-, 
pres. part, stem of esbahir, 'to astonish', com- 
pounded of pref. es- (fr. L. ex; see 1st ex-) and 
a derivative of OF. baer (F. bayer), 'to gape', 
the change of conjugation (-ir for -er) being 
prob. due to the influence of the OF. adj. balf, 



'astonished'. The OF. verb baer derives fr. VL. 
batare, 'to gape, yawn'. See bay, 'part in the 
wall', and cp. words there referred to. 
Derivatives: abash-less, adj., abash-less-ly, adv., 
abash-ment, n. 

abasia, n., inability to walk (med.) — Medical L., 
formed fr. priv. pref. a- and Gk. (Wat;, 'stepping, 
step; base', from the stem of (Jaivsiv, 'to go'. 
See base, n., and -ia. 

abate, tr. and intr. v. — ME. abaten, fr. OF. abatre, 
abattre (F. abattre), 'to beat down', fr. VL. *ab- 
batere (whence also It. abbattere, Sp. abatir), 
fr. ab- and batere (L. battuere), 'to beat, strike'. 
See batter, 'to beat, strike', and cp. abatis, abat- 
toir, bate, 'to reduce'. 
Derivative: abate-ment, n. 

abatis, n., a defense made of felled trees (mil.) — 
F., 'things thrown down', fr. abattre, 'to beat 
down, throw down'. See prec. word and cp. 

abattoir, n., a slaughterhouse. — F., fr. abattre, 
'to beat down'. See abate. The subst. suff. -air 
corresponds to L. -drium, whence E. -ory. 

abb, n., the yarn for the woof. — OE. aweb, ab. 
See a-, 'on', and web. 

abba, n., title of honor. — L., fr. Gk. <xP(3S, fr. 
Aram, abba, 'the father; my father', emphatic 
state of dbh, 'father'. See abbot, and cp. ab- 
bacy, abbey. 

abbacy, n., the office or jurisdiction of an abbot. 
— Eccles. L. abbdtia, fr. abbas, gen. abbdtis. See 
abbot and cp. abba, abbey. Cp. also badia. 
abbe, n., a title given in France to a priest. — F., 
fr. Eccles. L. abbdtem, acc. of abbas. Cp. It. 
abbate, Sp. abad, 'abbot', which also derive fr. 
Eccles. L. abbdtem, and see abbot, 
abbess, n. — ME. abbesse, fr. OF. (= F.) abbesse, 
fr. Eccles. L. abbdtissa, fem. of abbas, gen. -dtis. 
See abbot and cp. It. abbadessa, badessa, and 
Sp. abadesa, 'abbess', which also derive fr. Ec- 
cles. L. abbdtissa. 
abbey, n., a convent headed by an abbot or an 
abbess. — ME., fr. AF. abbeie, fr. OF. abeie, 
abate (F. abbaye), fr. Eccles. L. abbdtia, fr. L. 
abbas. See abbot and cp. abba, abbacy, abbess. 
Cp. also It. abbadia, Sp. abadia, 'abbey', which 
also derive fr. Eccles. L. abbdtia. 
abbot, n. — OE. abbod, fr. L. abbdt-, stem of 
abbas, gen. abbdtis, fr. Aram, abbd, 'the father; 
my father', emphatic state of abh, 'father', which 

is rel. to Heb. abh, 'father'. See Aboth and cp. 

words there referred to. Cp. also abba, abbacy, 

abbe, abbey, abuna, badia. 
abbreviate, tr. v., to shorten. — L. abbrevidtus, 

pp. of abbrevidre, 'to shorten', fr. ab- and bre- 

vidre, 'to shorten', fr. brevis, 'short'. Seebrief,adj., 

and cp. abridge, which is a doublet of abbreviate. 

Derivatives: abbreviat-ed, adj., abbreviation, ab- 

breviator (qq.v.), abbreviat-ory , adj. 
abbreviation, n. — F. abreviation, fr. L. abbrevid- 

tidnem, acc. of abbreviate, fr. abbrevidtus, pp. 

of abbrevidre. See abbreviate and -ion. 

abbreviates, n. — L., fr. abbrevidtus, pp. of ab- 
brevidre. See abbreviate and agential suff. -or. 
Abderian, pertaining to Abdera. — See Abderite 
and -ian. 

Abderite, n., i) an inhabitant of Abdera; 2) a 
fool. — L. Abderita, fr. Gk. 'ApSiQpfar]?, 'in- 
habitant of Abdera', fr."Ap8r)pa (pi.), 'Abdera', 
a town proverbial for the stupidity of its in- 
habitants. For sense development cp. Gotha- 
mite. For the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 
abdest, n., the Mohammedan rite of washing the 
hands before prayer. — Pers. dbddst, lit. 'water 
for the hand', fr. ab, 'water', and ddst, 'hand'. 
Pers. db, 'water', is rel. to Avestic dp-, OI. ipah 
(fem. pi.), 'water'; see amnic and cp. the first 
element in abkari and the second element in 
doab and in julep. Pers. ddst, 'hand', is rel. to 
Avestic zasta, 'hand', fr. I.-E. base *ghosto-, 
whence also OI. hdstah, 'hand'. See hasta and 
cp. hath. 

abdicate, tr. v. — L. abdiedtus, pp. of abdicdre, 
'to renounce, resign, abdicate', fr. ab- and di- 
cdre, 'to proclaim, dedicate, consecrate, devote', 
which is related to dicere, 'to say, tell'. See dic- 
tion and verbal suff. -ate and cp. dedicate, in- 

abdication, n. — L. abdiedtid, gen. -onis, 'renun- 
ciation, abdication', from abdiedtus pp. of ab- 
dicdre. See prec. word and -ion. 
abdomen, n., the belly. — L. abdomen (later also 
abdumen), 'the lower part of the belly, paunch, 
abdomen', which prob. meant orig. 'the hidden 
part of the body', and stands for *abdemen, a 
derivative of abdo, abdere, 'to hide', which is 
formed from ab-, and -dere (used only in com- 
pounds), fr. I.-E. base *dhe-, *dli 1 -, 'to put, 
place' ; see do and cp. words there referred to. 
See Walde-Hofmann, LEW., I., p. 3. 
abdominal, adj., pertaining to the abdomen. — 
Medical L. abdomindlis, fr. L. abdomen, gen. 
abdominis. See prec. word and adj. suff. -al. 
Derivatives: abdominal, n., abdominally, adv. 
abdomino-, combining form denoting the ab- 
domen. — Fr. L. abdomen, gen. abdominis. See 

abduce, tr. v., to draw away. — L. abducere, 'to 
lead away'. See next word, 
abducent, adj., drawing back or away (said of the 
muscles); the opposite of adducent. — L. abdit- 
cens, gen. -entis, pres. part, of abducere, 'to lead 
away', fr. ab-, and ducere, 'to lead'. See duke 
and -ent. 

abduct, tr. v., to kidnap. — L. abductus, pp. of 
abducere, 'to lead away'. See prec. word, 
abduction, n. — L. abductid, gen. -idnis 'a leading 
away', fr. abductus, pp. of abducere, 'to lead 
away'. See prec. word and -ion. As a term of 
logic, L. abductid is a loan translation of Gk. 
ina.farh, 'a shifting (of the argument)', lit. 'a 
leading away', used to denote a syllogism whose 
major premise is certain, but whose minor pre- 
mise is only probable. 



abductor, n. (anat.) — Medical L., name of a 
muscle, lit. 'that which leads away', fr. L. ab- 
ductus, pp. of abducere, 'to lead away'. See ab- 
duct and agential suff. -or. 

abeam, adv., at right angles to the keel (naut.) — 
Lit. 'on the beam', fr. a-, 'on', and beam. 

abecedarian, adj., elementary, rudimentary. — 
ML. abeceddrius, 'pertaining to the alphabet', 
a word formed from the names of the first fdiir 
letters of the alphabet. For the ending see suff. 

abecedarium, n., an ABC book. — ML., prop, 
neut. of the adjective abeceddrius, used as a 
noun. See prec. word. 

abed, adv., in bed {archaic). — Formed fr. a-, 
'on', and bed. 

Abel, masc. PN. ; in the Bible, the second son of 

Adam and Eve. — L., fr. Gk. "A^eX, fr. Heb. 

Hebhel, lit. 'breath, vanity', 
abele, n., the white poplar. — Du. abeel, fr. OF. 

aubel, albel, fr. VL. *atbellus, 'whitish', dimin. 

of albulus, which itself is dimin. of albus, 

'white'. See alb. 
Abelmoschus, n., a genus of plants of the mallow 

family (bot.) — ModL., fr. Arab, habb-al-musk, 

in vulgar pronunciation habb-el-mosk, lit. 'grain 

of musk'. See hubba and musk, 
abelmosk, n., a plant of the mallow family. — 

Fr. prec. word. 

Abeona, also Adeona, n., the goddess watching 
over the first departure of children from the 
house (Roman mythol.) — L. Abeona, Adeona, 
formed on analogy of mdtrdna, 'matron', from 
the stem of abire, 'to go away', resp. of adire, 
'to approach'. See abiturient, resp. adit. 

aberdevine, n., the siskin. — Of unknown origin. 

aberrance, aberrancy, n. — L. aberrantia, fr. aber- 
rdns, gen. aberrantis. See aberrant and -ce, resp. 

aberrant, adj., deviating from what is normal. — ■ 
L. aberrans, gen. -antis, pres. part, of aberrdre, 
'to wander away, go astray', fr. ab- and err are, 
'to wander, stray about'. See err and -ant. 

aberration, n., — L. aberrdtid, gen. -onis, 'a wan- 
dering', fr. aberrdt-(um), pp. stem of aberrdre. 
See prec. word and -ation. 
Derivative: aberration-al, adj. 

•bet, tr. v. — ME. abetten, fr. OF. abeter, 'to 
bait', lit. 'to cause to bite', fr. a- (fr. L. ad, 'to') 
■nd OF beter, 'to bait', which is of Teut. origin; 
cp. ON. beita, 'to cause to bite', blta, OE. bitan, 
to bite'. See ad- and bait, bite, and cp. bet 
Derivatives : abet-ment, abett-al, abett-er, abett- 
or, nouns. 

■beto, n., the fir tree called Abies religiosa. — Sp., 
fr. L. abies, gen. abietis, 'the silver fir'. See Abies. 

■beyance, n., temporary inactivity. — AF. a- 
beiance, 'suspension', formed fr. a- (fr. L. ad, 'to', 
»ee «d-), and OF. beer (F. bayer), 'to gape', fr. 
L. batare 'to gape'. See bay, 'part in the wall', 
■od cp. words there referred to. 

•boor, tr. v. — L. abnorrire, 'to shrink away 

from', fr. ab- and horrere, 'to bristle, shudder'. 
See horror. 

abhorrence, n. — Formed fr. next word with 
suff. -ce. 

abhorrent, adj. — L. abhorrens, gen. -entis, pres. 

part, of abhorrere, 'to shrink away from'. See 

abhor and -ent. 

Derivative: abhorrent-ly, adv. 
abide, intr. and tr. v. — OE. dbldan, formed fr. 

intensive pref. a- and bidan, 'to remain, await'. 

See bide. 

Derivatives: abid-ing, adj., abid-ing-ly, adv. 

Abies, n., a genus of trees, the true fir (bot.) — 
L. abies, 'silver fir', cogn. with Gk. Sfkv (acc.), 
'silver fir', 'Afhxr|, name of Southern Russia, 
lit. 'a region of firs'. Cp. abeto. 

abietic, adj., pertaining to the crystalline acid 
CmHm0 2 (chem.) — Formed with suff. -ic fr. 
L. abies, gen. abietis, 'silver fir'. See prec. word. 

Abigail, fem. PN. ; in the Bible, the wife of Nabal, 
later of David. — Heb. Abhigdyil, lit. 'my father 
is rejoicing', fr. abh, 'father' and gil, 'to rejoice'. 
For the first element see Aboth. The second ele- 
ment is rel. to Arab, jdla, 'he went round' and 
to Heb. gdldl, 'he rolled, unfolded' ; see gelilah. 
The use of the name in the sense of 'waiting 
maid' is due to the passage in I Sam. 25 : 35, where 
Abigail calls herself a 'handmaid'. 

abigeat, n., cattle stealing (civil law). — L. abi- 
gedtus, fr. abigeus, 'cattle stealer', fr. abigere, 
'to drive away', fr. ab- and agere, 'to drive' ; see 
agent. The change of Latin d (in dgere) to f (in ab- 
igere) is due to the Latin phonetic law according 
to which in the unaccented open radical syllable 
of the second element of compounds, original 
S becomes i. Cp. accident, adhibit, ambiguous, 
ancipital, anticipate, artifice, comfit, conceive, 
consilient, constitute, contiguous, council, de- 
ceive, deciduous, deficient, delicious, delitescent, 
desipient, destine, destitute, difficulty, disciple, 
dissilient, efficient, elicit, exhibit, Illicium, inci- 
dent, incipient, inhibit, inimical, institute, insipid, 
insipient, irritate, 'to make null and void', navi- 
gate, obstinate, Occident, occiput, office, partici- 
pate, precipice, prodigal,proficient, prohibit, pros- 
titute, receive, recidivist, resilient, resipiscence, 
restitute, reticent, substitute, superficies, super- 
stition, supplicate, transilient. 

ability, n. — ME. abilite, fr. OF. ablete, habilite 
(F. habilite), fr. L. habilitdtem, acc. of habilitds, 
'aptitude, ability', fr. habilis, 'that may be easily 
handled or managed, suitable, fit, proper'. See 
able and -ity. 

-ability, subst. suff. expressing ability, capacity, 
fitnzss. — L. -abilitds, forming nouns from ad- 
jectives ending in -dbilis. See -able and -ity and 
cp. -ibility. 

abk>-, combining form meaning 'without life*. — 
Fr. Gk. Spioq, 'without life', fr. a- (see priv. 
pref. a-) and $'io<;, 'life'. See bio-. 

abiogenesis, n. supposed production of living or- 
ganisms from unliving matter; spontaneous 



generation. — Coined by the English biologist 
Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-95) in 1870 *>• 
Gk. a(3io<;, 'without life', and yhemi, 'origin, 
source'. See abio- and genesis and cp. bio- 

abiogenetic, adj., pertaining to abiogenesis. — See 
prec. word and genetic and cp. biogenetic. 
Derivative: abiogenetic-al-ly, adv. 
abiogenist, n., one who believes in spontaneous 
generation. — See abiogenesis and -ist. 
abiotrophy, n., loss of vitality (med.) — Coined 
by the English neurologist Sir William Richard 
Gowers (1845-1915) fr. Gk. fipio?, 'without 
life', and -Tpoipta, fr. Tpotpv], 'nourishment'. 
See abio- and -trophy. 
Derivative: abiotroph-ic, adj. 
abiturient, n., one who is preparing for the final 
examination of a high school. — G., fr. ModL. 
abituriens, gen. -entis, pres. part, of abiturire, 
'to wish to leave', a desiderative verb formed fr. 
L. abed, abire (neut. pp. abitum), 'to go away, 
leave', fr. ab- and ed, ire, 'to go'. See itinerate 
and cp. Abeona. For the Latin desiderative suff. 
-urire cp. esurient, micturition, parturient, vomi- 
turition. For the ending see suff. -ent. 
abject, adj., 1) miserable; 2) contemptible. — L. 
abjeetus, pp. of abicere (less correctly abjicere), 
'to throw away', fr. ab- and jacere (pp. jactus), 
'to throw'. See jet, 'to spirt forth'. For the change 
of Latin d(in jactus) to e (in ab-jectus),see accent 
and cp. words there referred to. 
Derivatives: abjection (q.v.), abject-ly, adv., 
abject-ness, n. 
abjection, n., the state of being abject (rare). — 
F., fr. L. abjectidnem, acc. of abjectid, 'dejection, 
despondency', lit. 'a throwing away', fr. abjeetus 
pp. of abicere. See prec. word and -ion and cp. 
dejection, ejection, projection, 
abjuration, n. — L. abjuratid, 'a denying on oath', 
fr. abjiirdtus, pp. of abjurare. See next word and 

abjure, tr. v., 1) to renounce on oath; 2) to re- 
cant. — L. abjurare, 'to deny on oath', fr. ab- 
and jus, gen. juris, 'right'. See jury. 
Derivatives: abjure-ment, n., abjur-er, n. 

abkari, n., the sale of intoxicating drinks; the 
excise duty on such sale (India). — Pers. abkari, 
'business of distilling', fr. dbkdr, 'a distiller', fr. 
ab, 'water', and kdr, 'doer, maker'. For the first 
element see abdest-The second element is related 
to Avestic kar-, 'to make', k'r'naoiti, OI. karoti, 
krndti, 'makes', fr. I.-E. base *q w er-, 'to make, 
form'. See corpus and cp. the second element in 
Sanskrit and words there referred to. 

ablactate, tr. v., to wean. — L. ablactdtus, pp. of 
ablactdre, 'to wean', fr. ab- and lactdre. See 

ablactation, n. — L. ablactdtid, gen. -dnis, 'the act 
of weaning', fr. ablactdtus, pp. of ablactdre. See 
prec. word and -ion. 

ablation, n., removal. — L. ablatio, gen. -dnis, 'a 
taking away*, fr. abldtus (used as pp. otauferre. 

'to carry or take away'), fr. ab- and Idtus (used 
as pp. of ferre, 'to bear, carry'), which stands 
for *tldtos, fr. *f/-, zero degree of I.-E. base 
*tel-, *tol-, 'to bear, carry', whence L. tollere, 
'to lift up, raise', tolerdre, 'to bear, support'. 
See tolerate and cp. collate and words there re- 
ferred to. For the ending see suff. -ion. 
ablative, adj. and n. — L. (casus) abldtivus, coin- 
ed by Quintilian from the pp. abldtus, 'taken 
away', to denote the case expressing direction 
from a place or time. Cp. F. ablatif and see prec. 
word and -ive. 

Derivatives: ablativ-al, adj., ablative-ly, adv. 
ablaut, n., vowel gradation. — G. Ablaut, lit. 
'off sound', coined by J.P.Zweigel in 1568 fr. 
ab, 'off' (which is rel. to OE. of, 'from, of, off'), 
and fr. Laut, 'sound, tone' (which is rel. to G. 
laut, 'loud'), and popularized by Jacob Grimm. 
See of and loud and cp. anlaut, inlaut, auslaut, 

ablaze, adv. and adj. — Formed fr. pref. a-, 'on', 
and blaze. 

able, adj. — ME., fr. OF. able (F. habile), fr. L. 
habilis, 'that which may be easily handled or 
managed, suitable, fit, proper', fr. habere, 'to 
have'. See habit and cp. ability. Cp. also habile, 
which is a doublet of able. 
Derivatives: able-ness, n., abl-y, adv. 

-able, suff. expressing ability, capacity, fitness. — 
F., fr. L. -dbilis, fr. d, stem vowel of verbs of the 
ist conjugation, and -bilis. See -ble and cp. 
-ible. It soon became a living suffix, because of 
its supposed connection with the adjective able 
(fr. L. habilis, 'handy'), with which it has noth- 
ing to do. 

Ablepharus.n., a genus of lizards (zool.) — ModL. 
formed fr. priv. pref. a- and Gk. pXecpapov, 
'eyelid'. See blepharo- and cp. next word. 

ablepsia, n., blindness. — L., fr. Gk. aplXe^ta, 
'blindness', lit. 'lack of sight', fr. a- (see priv. 
pref. a-) and fJX^rasiv, 'to see'. Cp. (JX&pocpov, 
'eyelid', and see blepharo-. For the ending see 
suff. -ia. 

ablet, n., the bleak (a small water fish). — F. 
ablette, dimin. formed fr. able (masc), fr. L. 
albulus, 'whitish', dimin. of albus, 'white'. See 

ablution, n., a washing, esp. as a ritual. — L. ab- 
latio, gen. -dnis, 'a washing, cleansing', fr. ab- 
ldtus, pp. of abluere, 'to wash off', fr. ab- and 
luere, 'to wash', which is rel. to lavdre, 'to wash'. 
See lave and -ion. 
Derivative: ablution-ary, adj. 

abnegate, tr. v., to deny, give up. — L. abnegdtus, 
pp. of abnegdre, 'to refuse, deny', fr. ab- and 
negdre, 'to say no, deny'. See negate. 

abnegation, n. — L. abnegdtid, gen. -dnis, 're- 
fusal, denial', fr. L. abnegdtus, pp. of abnegdre. 
See prec. word and negation. 

Abner, n., masc. PN.; in the Bible, commander 
of Saul. — Heb. Abknir, lit. 'my father is light', 
fr. abh, 'father', and iter, 'light*; cp. the Baby- 



Ionian PN. Abunuri. For the first element see 
Aboth, for the second see Menorab. 
abnormal, adj. — -A blend of L. abndrmis and 
ML. andrmdlis, this latter itself being a blend 
of L. andmalus and ndrmdlis. See anomalous and 
norm and cp. anormal. 

Derivatives: abnormal-ity, n., abnormal-ly, adv., 

abnormal-ness, n. 
abnormity, n. — L. abndrmitds, formed with suff. 

-itds fr. abndrmis. See prec. word and -ity. 
aboard, adv. and prep. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', 

and board. 

Abobra, n., a genus of plants of the gourd family 
(bot.) — ModL., fr. Port, abobora, abobra, 
'gourd', fr. L. apopores, apoperes (see Isidorus, 
XVII, 10, 16), from a Hispanic language. 

abodah, n., 1) service in the Temple in Jerusalem ; 
2) liturgy; 3) name of the seventeenth bene- 
diction of the Shemoneh Esreh, containing the 
prayer for the restoration of the Temple (Jewish 
liturgy). — Heb. 'abhddhd h , 'service', fr. 'db- 
hddh, 'he served, worshiped', which is rel. to 
Aram.-Syr. 'dbhddh, Arab, 'dbada, 'he served, 
worshiped', Dgar. 'bd, 'to serve, worship', and 
to Heb. 'ebhedh, Aram, 'abhdd, 'slave, servant, 
worshiper', Arab, 'abd, 'slave, worshiper'. Cp. 
Obadiah, Obed. 

abode, n., dwelling place. — Formed from the 
past tense of abide. See next word. 

abode, v., past tense of abide. — ME. abood, fr. 
OE. abdd, past tense of abidan. See abide and 
cp. prec. word. 

abolish, tr. v. — F. aboliss-, pres. part, stem of 
abolir, 'to abolish, suppress', fr. L. abolere, 'to 
destroy, efface, abolish', prob. a back forma- 
tion fr. aboleScere, 'to decay gradually, vanish, 
cease', which was prob. formed as the antonym 
of adolescere, 'to grow up, grow', a verb 
dissimilated fr. orig. *ad-alescere, lit. 'to grow 
forward', fr. ad- and alescere, 'to grow up, in- 
crease', fr. alere, 'to grow'. See ab-, adolescent 
and verbal suff. -ish. The change of conjugation 
in F. abolir and the related It. abolire, Sp. abolir, 
all verbs of the 4th conjugation (fr. L. abolere, 
a verb of the 2nd conjugation), is due to the 
influence of the noun abolitid, 'abolition' (fr. 
abolere), which was mistaken for a derivative of 
the (non-extant) Latin verb "abolire. Cp. abo- 

Derivatives: abolish-er, n., abolish-ment, n. 
abolition, n. _ f., fr. L. abolitidnem, acc. of abo- 
litid, 'abolition', formed with suff. -ion fr. abo- 
pp. of abolere, 'to destroy, efface, abolish'. 
See prec. word. 

Derivatives: abolition ary, adj., abolition-ism, n, 
obolition-ist, n. 

■•wjla, n., a thick woolen cloak. — L., of Sicilian 

origin. Cp. the Sicilian town *Ap6XX<x (now 

called Avola). 
•bomasum, n., the fourth stomach of a ruminant 

(anat.) — ModL., fr. ab- and L. omasum, 

'bullock's tripe*. See omasum. 

abominable, adj. — F. abominable, fr. L. abdmi- 
nabilis, 'deserving imprecation, abominable'. 
See next word and -able. 
Derivatives: abominab-ly, adv., abominable- 
ness, n. 

abominate, tr. v., to loathe, abhor. — L. abdmi- 
ndtus, pp. of abdmindri, 'to deprecate as an ill 
omen; to detest, abominate', fr. ab- and omen, 
gen. dminis, 'a foreboding, sign, token, omen'. 
See omen and verbal suff. -ate. 
Derivatives: abominate, abominated, adjs. 

abomination, n. — F., fr. L. abdmindtidnem, acc. 
of abdmindtid, 'abomination', fr. abdmindtus, 
pp. of abdmindri. See prec. word and -ion. 

aboriginal, adj. and n. — See next word. 
Derivatives: aboriginal-ly, adv., aboriginal-i- 
ty, n. 

Aborigines, n. pi., the first inhabitants of a coun- 
try; natives. — L. Aborigines, 'ancestors', name 
of the primeval Romans; formed from the 
words 'ab origine', 'from the origin', fr. ab, 
'from' (see ab-), and origine, abl. of origd, 'ori- 
gin'. See original. 

abort, intr. v., to miscarry. — L. abortdre, 'to 
miscarry', freq. of aboriri (pp. abortus), 'to dis- 
appear; to miscarry', fr. ab- and oriri, 'to rise, 
be born'. See orient. 

abort, n., miscarriage. — L. abortus, 'miscarriage, 
abortion', fr. abortus, pp. of aboriri. See abort, v. 

abortifacient, adj. and n., (anything) producing 
abortion. — See prec. word and -facient. 

abortion, n., miscarriage. — L. abortid, gen. -dnis, 
'miscarriage, abortion', fr. abortus, pp. of abo- 
riri. See abort, v., and -ion. 
Derivatives: abortion-al, adj., abortion-ist, n. 

abortive, adj., I) born prematurely; 2) unsuccess- 
ful. — L. abortivus, 'pertaining to miscarriage', 
fr. abortus, pp. of aboriri. See abort, v., and -ive. 
Derivatives: abortive-ly, adj., abortive-ness, n. 

Aboth, also Abot, n., i)the Mishnah treatise also 
called Pirke Aboth or The Ethics of the Fathers ; 
2) name of the first benediction of the Shemoneh 
Esreh (Jewish liturgy). — Heb. AbhSth, pi. of 
abh, 'father', rel. to Aram, dbh (absolute state), 
abba (emphatic state), Ugar. 'b, Arab, ab, 
Ethiop. ab, 'father' ; of uncertain origin, possibly 
traceable to *ab(a), a child's word for father. 
Cp. the first element in Abraham, Abner, Absa- 
lom, Abigail, and the second element in Joab, 
Moab, Barabbas. Cp. also abbot and words 
there referred to. Cp. also borage. 

abound, intr. v. — ME. abounden, fr. OF. (= F.) 
abonder, fr. L. abunddre, 'to overflow; to a- 
bound', fr. ab- and unda, 'wave'. See undate and 
cp. redound, surround. Derivatives: abound-er, 
n., abound-ing, adj., abound-ing-ly, adv. 

about, adv. — ME. abuten, abouten, aboute, fr. 
OE. abutan, onbutan, 'on the outside of, formed 
fr. a-, 'on', and butan, 'outside', which itself is 
formed fr. be, 'by', and utan, 'outside', fr. ut, 
'out'. See by and out and cp. but. 
Derivative: about, prep. 



above, adv. — ME. aboven, fr. OE. abufan, form- 
ed fr. a-, 'on', and bufan, 'above', which itself 
is formed fr. be, 'by' (see by), and ufan, 'up- 
ward, above'; cp. OE. ofer, 'over' which is the 
compar. of ufan, and see over. Cp. also about. 
Derivatives: above, prep, and adj. 

abracadabra, n., a magic formula. — Late L., fr. 
Gk. dppa&iSaPpa, in which word the letter c = 
s was misread for k. It was originally written 
as a magic formula on Abraxas Stones, whence 
its name. See abraxas. 

abrade, tr. v., to scrape off. — L. abradere, 'to 
scrape off', fr. ab-, and rddere, 'to scrape off, 
to shave'. See raze and cp. abrase. 

Abraham, masc. PN. ; in the Bible, the first of the 
patriarchs and father of the Hebrew nation. — 
Heb. Abhrdhdm, lit. 'father of the multitude', 
compounded of dbh, 'father', and *rdhdm, 
'multitude', which is rel. to Arab, ruhdm, of 
s.m.; see Gen. 17: 5. See Aboth and cp. next 

Abram, masc. PN.; in the Bible, former name of 
Abraham. — Heb. Abhrim, compounded of 
dbh, 'father', and ram, 'high, exalted', which is 
prop. part, of rum, 'to be high, to be exalted'. 
For the first element see Aboth and cp. Abra- 
ham. From the second element derive rami! 1 , 
'height' (prop. fem. part, of rum), romdm, 'ex- 
tolling, praise; song of praise', mdrdm, 'height', 
t l ruma h , 'contribution, offering (for sacred 
use)', lit. 'something lifted up, something sep- 
arated'. Cp. Aram.-Syr. ram, 'was high', Arab. 
rdma prop, 'he rose', hence 'he strove for', and, 
in Zanzibar and Oman, 'he was able to'. Cp. 
the second element in Hiram. 

Abramis, n., a genus of fishes (ichthyol.) — ModL., 
fr. Gk. appals, 'bream', fr. Egyptian rem, 

abranchiate, adj., having no gills. — Formed fr. 
priv. pref. a- and branchiate. 
Derivative : abranchiate, n. 

abrase, tr. v., to abrade. — L. abrdsus, pp. of 
abradere, 'to scrape off'. See abrade. 

abrasion, n. — Formed with suff. -ion fr. L. 
abrdsus, pp. of abradere. See prec. word. 

abrasive, adj. and n. — Formed with suff. -ive 
fr. L. abrdsus, pp. of abradere. See abrade. 

abraxas, n., a mystical word used as a charm. — 
Gk. ' APpi^a?, according to Irenaeus (in Adver- 
sus haereses I, c. 23 and 24) a word formed from 
the Greek letters a, |3, p, a, \, a, a, whose numer- 
ical value amounts to 365 (a = 1, P = 2, 
p = 100, a = 1, f; = 60, a = 1, a = 200), cor- 
responding to the number of aeons in Basilidian 
gnosticism and to the number of days in a year. 
It is more probable, however, that the word 
abraxas is an acrostic formed from the initials 
of certain consecutive Hebrew words. Cp. abra- 

abreast, adv. — Formed fr. a-, 'on*, and breast 
abrenroir, n., an interstice between stones (ma- 
sonry). — F., lit. *a watering trough', fr. abreu- 

ver, 'to give drink to (animals)', fr. OF. abevrer, 
abrever, fr. VL. *abbiberare, fr. ad- and L. 
bibere, 'to drink'. See beverage, and cp. It. abbe- 
verare, Proven?., Catal. abeurar, Sp., Port, abre- 
var, which all derive fr. VL. *abbiberdre. 
abridge, tr. v. — ME. abregen, fr. OF. abregier, 
abreger (F. abreger), 'to shorten', fr. L. abbre- 
vidre, fr. ad- and brevidre, 'to shorten', fr. brevis, 
'short'. See brief, adj., and cp. abbreviate, which 
is a doublet of abridge. 

Derivatives: abridg-ed, adj., abridg-ed-ly, adv., 
abridg-er, n., abridgment (q.v.) 
abridgment, abridgement, n. — OF. abregement 
(F. abregement), fr. abregier. See abridge and 

abrin, n., a toxic albumin (biochem.). — Formed 
with chem. suff. -in fr. Abrus; so called because 
it is found in the shrub Abrus precatorius. 

abroach, adv. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and broach. 

abroad, adv. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and broad. 

abrogate, tr. v., to annul, repeal. — L. abrogdtus, 
pp. of abrogdre, 'to annul, to repeal (a law)', fr. 
ab- and rogdre, 'to ask; to ask the people about 
a law, to propose a law'. See rogation and verbal 
suff. -ate. 

Derivatives: abrogation (q.v.), abrogat-ive, adj., 
abrogat-or, n. 

abrogation, n. — L. abrogdtid, gen. -dnis, 'repeal 
of a law', fr. abrogdtus, pp. of abrogdre. See 
prec. word and -ion. 

Abroma, n., a genus of plants of the chocolate 

family (bot.). — ModL., formed fr. priv. pref. 

a- and Gk. $p&y.a., 'food'. See broma. 
Abronia, n., a genus of plants of the four-o'clock 

family (bot.) — ModL., for *Habronia, fr. Gk. 

<xflp6<;. See Abrus. 

abrotanum, n., southernwood. — ML., fr. L. 
abrotonum, fr. Gk. dcPpdrovov, 'wormwood', 
ixPp6tovov Sppev, 'southernwood', which is of 
unknown origin. 

abrupt, adj. — L. abruptus, pp. of abrumpere, 'to 
break off', fr. ab- and rumpere, 'to break'. See 

Derivatives: abrupt-ed-ly, abrupt-ly, advs., ab- 
ruptness, n. 

Abrus, n., a genus of plants of the pea family 

(bot.) — ModL., for 'Habrus, fr. Gk. app6?, 

'graceful, delicate*. See habro-. 
Absalom, masc. PN.; in the Bible, King David's 

son; fig. a favorite son. — Heb. Abhshdldm, lit. 

'father is peace', fr. dbh, 'father', and shdldm, 

'peace'. See Aboth and shalom. 
abscess, n., a swelling in body tissues (med.). — 

L. abscessus, 'a going away, departure, abscess', 

fr. abcedere, 'to go away', fr. abs-, ab-, 'away 

from, from', and cedere, 'to go'. See ab- and 

cede and cp. cease. 

Derivative: abscess-ed, adj. 
abscind, tr. v., to cut off (obsol.) — L. abscindere, 

'to cut off', fr. ab- and scindere, pert, scidi, pp. 

scissus (for *scid-tos), 'to cut, split'. See shed, 

and cp. abscissa, icstiadi 



abscissa, n. (math.) — L. (lined) abscissa, lit. '(a 
line) cut off', fem. pp. of abscindere, 'to tear 
away; to cut off'. (The abscissa of a point P is 
the portion of the x axis cut off by the line 
drawn through P parallel to the y axis.) See 
prec. word. 

abscission, n., the act of cutting off. — L. ab- 
scissid, gen. -dnis, 'a cutting off', fr. abscissus, pp. 
of abscindere. See abscind and -ion. 

abscond, intr. v., to depart suddenly and secret- 
ly. — L. abscondere, 'to hide, conceal', fr. abs-, 
ab-, 'away from, from' (see ab-) and condere, 'to 
put together, hide', fr. con-, 'together' (see con-), 
and -dere (used only in compounds), fr. I.-E. 
base *dhe-, *dh 1 -, *dhd-, 'to place, put, make', 
whence also Gk. Tidivai, 'to place', L.facere, 
'to make, do', OE. don, 'to do'. See do, v., and 
cp. fact, theme. Cp. also Consus, recondite, 
sconce, 'metal bracket', scoundrel. 
Derivative: abscond-er, n. 

absence, n. — F., fr. L. absentia, fr. absens, gen. 
-entis, pres. part, of abesse, 'to be away from, 
be absent'. See absent and -ce. 

absent, adj. — F., fr. L. absentem, acc. of absens, 
pres. part, of abesse, 'to be away from, be ab- 
sent', fr. ab- and esse, 'to be'. See esse and -ent 
and cp. sans, senza. Cp. also present, adj. 
Derivatives : absent, v. (q.v.), absent-ly, adv., ab- 
sent-ness, n., absent-ation, n., absent-ee, n., ab- 
sent-ee-ism n., absent-er, n., absent-ly, adv., 
absent-ness, n. 

absent, tr. v., to keep (oneself) away. — F. ab- 
senter, fr. L. absentdre, 'to cause one to be ab- 
sent', fr. absens, gen. absentis. See absent, adj. 

absinth, absinthe, n., wormwood. — F. absinthe, 
fr. Gk. a<|;tv&iov, 'wormwood', which is of 
OPers. origin; cp. ModPers. dspdnd, sipdnd, 
of s.m. 

absolute, adj. — L. absolutus, pp. of absolvere, 'to 
loosen, set free'. See absolve and cp. consolute, 
dissolute, resolute. 

Derivatives: absolute, n., absolute-ly, adv., ab- 
soluteness, n. 

absolution, n. — OF. (= F.) absolution, fr. L. ab- 
solutidnem, acc. of absolutid, 'an acquittal', fr. 
absolutus. See prec. word and -ion. 

absolutism, n. — Formed with suff. -ism fr. L. 
absolutus. See absolute. 

absolutist, n. — Formed with suff. -ist fr. L. ab- 
solutus. See absolute. 

absolve, tr. v. — L. absolvere, 'to set free', fr. 
ab- and solvere, 'to loosen, set free'. See solve 
and cp. assoil. Cp. also dissolve, resolve. 

absorb, tr. v. — L. absorbere, 'to swallow up', 
fr. ab- and sorbere, 'to suck in, swallow up', 
which is cogn. with Arm. arbi (from. *srbh-), 
"I drank, Gk. poipeiv (for *apo<peiv), 'to sup 
«P\ Alb. gerp (for *serbhd-), 'I sip', OSlav. 
*riibati, Lith. surbiu, surbti, srgbiu, srebti, 'to 
Mir. srub, 'snout'. Cp. absorption, resorb, 
•**t v., and the second element in Sangui- 

Derivatives: absorb-ed, adj. absorb-ed-ly, adv., 
absorb-ed-ness, n., absorbent (q.v.), absorb-ing, 
adj., absorb-ing-ly, adv. 

absorbefacient, adj., tending to promote absorp- 
tion. — Compounded of L. absorbere, 'to swal- 
low up', and faciens, gen. -entis, 'to make, do'. 
For the first element see absorb, for the second 
see -facient, for the ending see suff. -ent. Cp. 

absorbency, n. — Formed fr. next word with 
suff. -cy. 

absorbent, adj. — L. absorbens, gen. -entis, pres. 
part, of absorbere. See absorb and -ent. 

absorption, n. — L. absorptid, gen. -dnis, fr. ab- 
sorptus, pp. of absorbere. See absorb and -ion. 

abstain, intr. v. — ME. absteynen, fr. OF. as- 
tenir, fr. VL. *abstenire, corresponding to L. 
abstinere, 'to abstain', which is formed fr. abs, 
ab, 'away from, from' (see ab-), and tenere, 'to 
hold'. See tenable and cp. appertain, contain, 
detain, entertain, maintain, obtain, pertain, re- 
tain, sustain. Cp. also abstention, abstinence. 
The ME. and E. forms have been refashioned 
after L. abstinere. 

Derivatives: abstain-er, n., abstain-ment, n. 
abstemious, adj., moderate in eating and drink- 
ing. — L. abstemius, 'sober, temperate', fr. abs, 
ab, 'away from, from' (see ab-), and the stem 
of temetum, 'intoxicating drink, mead, wine", 
which is rel. to temulentus, 'drunken'. See te- 
mulent. For E. -ous, as equivalent to L. -us, 
see -ous. 

Derivatives: abstemious-ly, adv., abstemious- 
ness, n. 

abstention, n. — F., fr. L. abstentidnem, acc. of 
abstentid, 'the act of retaining', fr. abstentus, pp. 
of abstinere. See abstain and -ion. 

absterge, tr. v., 1) to wipe away, cleanse; 2) to 
purge. — F. absterger, fr. L. abstergere, 'to wipe 
away', fr. abs-, ab-, 'away from, from' (see ab-), 
and tergere, 'to rub, wipe off'. See terse and cp. 
words there referred to. 

abstergent, adj., cleansing; n., a cleansing sub- 
stance. — F. abstergent, fr. L. abstergentem, acc. 
of abstergens, pres. part, of abstergere. See prec. 
word and -ent. 

abstersion, n., a cleansing. — F. fr. L. abstersus, 
pp. of abstergere. See absterge and -ion. 

abstersive, adj., cleansing. — F. abstersif (fem. 
abstersive), fr. L. abstersus, pp. of abstergere. 
See absterge and -ive. 
Derivative: abstersive-ness, n. 

abstinence, n. — OF. (= F.), fr. L. abstinentia, 
fr. abstinens, gen. -entis. See next word and -ce. 

abstinent, adj. and n. — OF. (= F.), fr. L. absti- 
nentem, acc. of abstinens, pres. part, of absti- 
nere, 'to refrain from'. See abstain and -ent. The 
change of *Latin e (in tenere) to I (in abs-tinere) 
is due to the Latin phonetic law according to 
which in the unaccented open radical syllable of 
the second element of compounds, original e 
becomes 1. Cp. assiduous, continent, continuous. 



corrigendum, diligent, dimidiate, eligible, indi- 
gent, insidious, pertinacious, reside. 
Derivative: abstinent-ial, adj. 
abstract, adj. — L. abstractus, pp. of abstrahere, 
'to draw away', fr. abs-, ab-, 'away from, from' 
(see ab-), and trahere 'to draw'. See tract, 

Derivative : abstract, n. 
abstract, tr. and intr. v. — L. abstractus, pp. of 
abstrahere. See prec. word and cp. the verbs 
contract, detract, distract, protract, subtract. 
Derivatives: abstract-ed, adj., abstract-ed-ly, 
adv., abstract-ed-ness, n., abstract-er, n., ab- 
straction (q.v.) 
abstraction, n. — F., fr. L. abstractidnem, acc. of 
abstractid, fr. abstractus, pp. of abstrahere. See 
abstract, adj., and -ion. 
Derivative: abstraction-al, adj. 
abstruse, adj., difficult, obscure. — L. abstrusus, 
pp. of abstriidere, 'to thrust away, conceal', fr. 
abs-, ab-, 'away from, from' (see ab-), and tru- 
dere, 'to thrust, push, shove', which derives fr. 
I.-E. base *treud-, 'to press, push', whence also 
Goth, us-priutan, 'to vex', OE. preatian, 'to 
press, afflict, threaten'. See threat and cp. in- 
trude and words there referred to. 
Derivatives: abstruse-ly, adv., abstruse-ness, n. 
absurd, adj. — F. absurde, fr. L. absurdus, 'out 
of tune, harsh, rough, incongruous, absurd', 
formed fr. ab- and a derivative of the I.-E. base 

•swer-, *sur-, 'to sound'. See swarm and cp. surd. 
Derivatives: absurdity (q.v.), absurd-ly, adv., 

absurd-ness, n. 
absurdity, n. — F. absurdite, fr. L. absurditatem, 

acc. of absurditds, 'dissonance, incongruity', 

fr. absurdus. See prec. word and -ity. 
abulia, n., loss of will power (psychol.) — Medical 

L., formed fr. priv. pref. a-, the stem of Gk. 

po'iAsa&ai, 'to will', and suff. -ia. See boule, 

'senate', and cp. Gk. a^ouXia, 'ill-advisedness'. 
abuna, n., the patriarch of the Abyssinian 

Church. — Ethiop. abuna, 'our father', fr. ab, 

'father', which is rel. to Heb. dbh, 'father'. See 

Aboth and cp. abbot and words there referred to. 
abundance, also abundancy, n. — ME., fr. OF. 

abundance, abondance (F. abondance), fr. L. 

abundantia, 'abundance, plenty, fullness', fr. 

abunddns, gen. antis. See next word and -ce, 

resp. -cy. 

abundant, adj. — ME. fr. OF. abundant, abondant 
(F. abondant), fr. L. abundantem, acc. of abun- 
ddns, 'abounding', pres. part, of abunddre. See 
abound and -ant. 
Derivative: abundant-ly, adv. 
abuse, tr. v. — F. abuser, fr. L. abusus, pp. of 
abuti, 'to make use of (for any purpose), to mis- 
use, abuse', fr. ab- and uti, 'to use'. See use, v., 
and cp. usurp. 

Derivatives: abuse-ee, n., abus-er, n., abusive 

(q-v.) r 
abuse, n. — F. abus, fr. L. abusus, fr. abusus, pp. 
of abuti. See prec. word. 

abusive, adj. — F. abusif (fern, abusive), fr. L. 
abusivus, fr. abusus, pp. of abuti. See abuse, v., 
and -ive. 

Derivatives: abusive-ly, adv. abusive-ness, n. 
abut, intr. v. — OF. abouter, 'to touch by the 
end', border on' (whence F. abouter, 'to join end 
to end'), formed fr. d, 'to' (fr. L. ad; see ad-), 
and bout, 'end'. See butt, 'the thicker end of 

Derivatives : abut-ment, n., abutt-al, n., abutt-er, 
n., abutt-ing, adj. 

Abutilon, n., a genus of plants of the mallow 
family (bot.) — ModL., fr. Arab, aubutilan, a 
name coined by the Arab philosopher Avicenna 
(= Ibn-Sina). 
abysm, n., poetic for abyss. — OF. abisme (F. 
abime), fr. Eccles. L. *abismus (whence also 
OProvenc. abisme, Sp. and Port, abismo), form- 
ed on analogy of words ending in -ismus (fr. Gk. 
-iaii.6?; see -ism), fr. L. abyssus. See abyss. 
Derivative: abysm-al, adj. 
abyss, n. — L. abyssus, 'bottomless pit', fr. Gk 
SpuoTO? (scil. Xt(ivT]), 'bottomless, unfath- 
omed (pool)', fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) and 
(3uaa6q, 'depth, bottom', which is related to 
fluS-os, of s.m. Cp. abysm. 
Derivative: abyss-al, adj. 

Abyssinia, n. — ModL. Abyssinia, Latinized form 
of Arab. lidbasha h , 'Abyssinia'. Cp. bubshi. 
Derivatives: Abyssini-an, adj. and n. 
ac-, assimilated form of ad- before c and q. 
-ac, suff., corresponding in meaning to suff. -ic. 
— Fr. F. -aque, or directly fr. L. -acus, fr. Gk. 

-axo?. , . ■ u 

acacia, n. — L. acacia, fr. Gk. dxocxia, snittan 
tree', which, like dxaxaXk, 'gall of the Oriental 
tamarisk', is of foreign, prob. Egyptian origin. 
Both dxaxia and dxaxaXts were prob. influenced 
in form by oixavfta, 'thorn, prickle', and other 
Greek derivatives of I.-E. base *ak-, 'sharp', 
academe, n. academy (poetic). — See academy, 
academic, adj. — L. academicus, fr. academia. 
See academy and -ic. 

Derivatives: academic-al, adj., academic-al-ly, 

academician, n., a member of an academy. — F. 
academicien, fr. academic See academy and 

Academus, n., name of a hero from whom the 
academy near Athens derived its name. — L. 
Academus, fr. Gk. 'AxdSr^os, fr. earlier 'Exd- 
8t)u.oc., 'Academus'. Cp. next word, 
academy, n. — F. academic, fr. L. academia, fr. 
Gk. ' AxaSTjusta (or, less correctly, ' AxxSr (t ua), 
fr. earlier 'ExaSruxeia, 'the Academy', a gym- 
nasium near Athens where Plato taught. ' Axa- 

SVeia °"g- meant ' the olive grove ° f Acade " 
mus'. See prec. word. 
Acadian, adj., pertaining to Acadia (Nova Sco- 
tia). _ Formed with suff. -an fr. Acadia, Latin- 
ized form of F. Acadie, former name of Nova 
Scotia; prob. so called fr. Micmac akadie, 'fer- 



tile land', which occurs in many place names. 
Cp. Cajun. 

Acaena, n., a genus of plants of the rose family 
(bot.) — ModL., fr. Gk. dcxouva, 'spike, prick, 
goad', which is rel. to axle, 'point, sting', fr. 
I.-E. base *ak-, 'sharp, pointed'. See acrid and 
cp. words there referred to. 

acajou, n., the cashew tree. — See cashew. 

acalephe, n„ jellyfish. — Gk. dxaX^T) (also 
axaXucp-r)), 'stinging nettle; sea anemone', prob. 
a Semitic loan word. Cp. Aram, hil'phd, 'reed', 
and Heb. hdliphdth or haldphdth, 'the sharp, 
prickly leaves of the spinach', from stem h-l-P, 
'to be sharp, cut through, pierce', See H.Lewy, 
Die semitischen Fremdworter im Griechischen, 
p. 50, and Boisacq, DELG., p. 34- Cp. Acalypha. 
Cp. also alfa. 

acalycine, adj., without a calyx {bot.). — ModL. 
acalycinus, 'having no calyx', formed fr. priv. 
pref. a-, Gk. xdXu£, 'cup, calyx', and L. suff. 
-inus. See calyx and adj. suff. -ine. 

Acalypha, n., a genus of herbs of the spurge 
family (hot.) — ModL. fr. Gk. dxaXucpv), secon- 
dary form of dxaXr]cpr„ 'stinging nettle'. See 

acantha, n., a prickle (bot.) — ModL., fr. Gk. 
#xav#a, 'thorn prickle', which is rel. to Axtj, 
'point', axle, 'point, sting', fr. I.-E. base *ak-, 
'sharp, pointed'. See acrid and cp. acanthus. 

Acanthaceae, n., a family of plants (bot.) — 
ModL., formed with suff. -aceae fr. Gk. axav#a, 
'thorn, prickle'. See prec. word. 

acanthion, n., a point at the base of the anterior 
nasal spine (craniometry). — Gk. dxdvSiov, 
'a small thorn', dimin. of Sxav&a, 'thorn, 
prickle'. See acanthus. 

acantho-, combining form meaning 'prickly, 
spiny, thorny'. — Gk. dxav&o-, fr. axav$a, 
'thorn, prickle'. See acanthus. 

Acanthocephala, n., a class of parasitic worms 
(helminthol.) — ModL., lit., 'spiny-headed', 
compounded of Gk. fixxv&a, 'thorn, prickle, 
spine', and xecpaXr], 'head'. See acanthus and 

Acanthopterygii,, an order of teleost fishes 
(ichthyol.) — ModL., lit., 'spiny-winged'. See 
acantho- and pterygium. 

Acanthus, n., 1) a genus of plants having large 
spiny leaves; (not cap.) any plant of this genus 
(bot ); 2) a form of ornament resembling the 
leaves of this plant. — L., fr. Gk. &xav»o?, 
'bearsfoot, Acanthus mollis', which is rel. to 
&«w!>a. 'thorn, prickle'. See acantha and cp. 
the second element in Diplacanthus, traga- 

•capnia, n., lack of carbon dioxide in the organ- 
ism (med.) — Medical L., formed with suff. -ia 
fr. Gk. Sxittvos, 'smokeless', fr. d- (see priv. 
pref. a-) and xa7rv6i;, 'smoke', which stands for 
*xfa7rv6<; and is cogn. with Lith. kvapas, 
'breath, scent, smell, odor', kvipiu, kvepti, 'to 
pant, breathe, inhale', and pern, also with OI. 

kupyati, 'is agitated', L. cupere, 'to desire'. See 

Acarapis, n., a genus of mites (jooA) — ModL., 
compounded of Acarus and L. apis, 'bee'. See 
Apis, 'bee'. 

acardiac, adj., having no heart. — Fr. Gk. dxdp- 

Sio«, 'wanting the heart', fr. a- (see priv. pref. 

a-) and xapSioc, 'heart'. See cardiac, 
acariasis, n., itch caused by mites. — ModL., 

formed with suff. -iasis fr. Gk. axocpi, 'mite'. 

See acarid. 

acariatre, adj., bad-tempered. — F., 'contrary, 
crabbed, quarrelsome', orig. meaning 'possess- 
ed by a demon', formed with pejorative suff. 
-dtre, from the name of Acharius, bishop of 
Noyon in the 7th cent., renowned for curing 
folly. The suff. -dtre derives fr. OF. -astre, fr. L. 
-aster; see -aster. 

acarid, n., a mite. — Formed with subst. suff. 
-id fr. Gk. axapi, 'mite', which is rel. to dxapT)?, 
'small, tiny', lit. 'too short to be cut', and in 
gradational relationship to xetpeiv (for *xsptew), 
'to cut'. See shear and cp. words there referred 
to. Cp. also Acarina, Acarus, carnal. 

acariform, adj., of the shape of a mite. — A hy- 
brid coined fr. Gk. dcxocpi, 'mite', and L. forma, 
'form, shape'. See^acarjd and form, n. 

Acarina, n. pi., an order of the Arachnida, vul- 
garly called mites. — ModL., formed fr. Aca- 
rus with suff. -ina. 

acaro-, combining form, denoting the mites. — 
ModL., fr. Acarus (q.v.) * 

acarpous, adj., unfruitful (bot.) — Gk. ibtaproic., 
'without fruit, barren', fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) 
and xaprcoi;, 'fruit'. See carpel. For E. -ous, as 
equivalent to Gk. -oq, see -ous. 

Acarus, n., a genus of small mites. — ModL. fr. 
Gk. duiapi, 'mite'. See acarid. 

acatalectic, adj., having the full number of syl- 
lables or feet (pros.) — Late L. acatalecticus, 
fr. Gk. ocxaTaXrjxToq, 'incessant; not catalectic', 
i.e. 'not allowing of the omission of a syllable 
at the end of a line', fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) and 
xotTaX^yeiv, 'to leave off'. See catalectic. 

acatalepsy, n., incomprehensibility (philos.) — 
Gk. dxaxaXr.tJ/ia, 'inability to comprehend', fr. 
d- (see priv. pref. a-) and xaxaXr;t)jta, 'a seizing, 
apprehension' (see catalepsy); first used by 
Pyrrho the Sceptic to express the view that 
the human mind can know nothing with cer- 

acataleptic, adj., incomprehensible. — Formed 
with suff. -ic fr. Gk. dxaTdXv)7iTO<;, 'that can- 
not be reached, incomprehensible', fr. d- (see 
priv. pref. a-) and xocTaXr,7rro<;, verbal adj. of 
xotT<xXa(ipdveiv, 'to seize with the mind, com- 
prehend'. See cataleptic and cp. prec. word. 

acatharsia, n., filth. — Gk. dxa&apaioc, 'unclean- 
ness, foulness, filth', fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-), 
xa&ap6;, 'clean, pure', and suff. -ia. See ca- 
tharsis and -ia. 

acaudal, also acaudate, adj., tailless. — A hybrid 



coined ft. priv. pref. a-, L. cauda, 'tail', and suff. 
-al, resp. -ate. See caudal, 
acaulescent, adj., stemless (bot.) — A hybrid 
coined fr. Gk. &- (see priv. pref. a-) and cau- 

acauline, adj., stemless. — Formed with adj. suff. 
-ine (representing L. -Inus) fr. ModL. acaulis, 
'stemless' (whence also F. acaule, of s.m.), a 
hybrid coined fr. Gk. A- (see priv. pref. a-) and 
L. caulis, 'stem'. See caulescent and cp. prec. 

acaulose, acaulous, adjs., stemless (bot.) — See 
acaulescent and adj. suff. -ose, resp. ous. 

acca, n., medieval fabric of silk mixed with gold 
threads. — ML.,prob.socalledfr. Aiab-'Akka", 
'Akkd, fr. Heb. 'Akkd, 'Acre', in Syria (now in 
Israel). Accordingly acca orig. simply meant 
'material made in Acco'. 

Accadian. — See Akkadian. 

accede, intr. v. — L. accedere, 'to approach, come 
near', fr. ad- and cedere, 'to go, yield'. See cede 
and cp. access. Cp. also antecede, concede, in- 
tercede, precede, proceed, succeed. 
Derivative: acced-er, n. 

accelerando, adv. and adj., gradually faster (mu- 
sical direction). — It., fr. L. accelerando, abl. of 
the gerund of accelerdre, 'to hasten'. See ac- 

accelerant, i) adj., accelerating; 2) n., that which 
accelerates; a catalyst (chem.) — L. accelerdns 
gen. -antis, pres. part, of accelerdre. See next 
word and -ant. 

accelerate, tr. v., to increase the speed of; intr. 
v., to increase in speed. — L. acceleratus, pp. of 
accelerdre, 'to hasten', fr. ad- and celerdre, 'to 
hasten', fr. celer, 'swift'. See celerity and verbal 
suff. -ate and cp. decelerate. 
Derivatives: accelerat-ed, adj., accelerat-ed-ly, 
adv., acceleration (q.v.), accelerat-ive, adj., ac- 
celerator, n., accelerat-ory, adj. 

acceleration, n. — L. accelerdtid, gen. -onis, 'a 
hastening, acceleration', fr. acceleratus, pp. of 
accelerdre. See prec. word and -ion. 

accelerometer, n., an instrument for measuring 
acceleration. — A hybrid coined fr. L. accele- 
rdre, 'to hasten', and Gk. (xirpov, 'measure'. See 
accelerate and meter, 'poetical rhythm'. 

accent, n. — F., fr. L. accentus, fr. ad- and can- 
tus, 'tone, melody'. See cant and cp. enchant, 
incantation. The change of Latin d (in cdntus) 
to e~ (in ac-cintus) is due to the Latin phonetic 
law according to which in the unaccented and 
closed radical syllable of the second element of 
compounds, original a becomes e. Cp. concent, 
precentor, succentor. Cp. also abject, accept, 
adept, ascend, biceps, biennial, centennial, coerce, 
commend, concept, confect, confection, confess, 
congress, conjecture, consecrate, defect, degres- 
sion, deject, descend, discerp, disperse, eject, ex- 
cept, excerpt, execrate, exercise, forceps, im- 
petrate, incendiary, incense, incentive, incept, 
incest, inept, inerm, inert, infect, inject, integer, 

intercept, interject, intersperse, novennial, object, 
obsecrate, octennial, percept, peregrine, peren- 
nial, perpetrate, prefect, prince, profess, progress, 
project, quadrennial, quadriceps, quinquennial, 
refection, regress, septennium, sexennium, solemn, 
subreption, surreptitious, susceptible, traject, 
transcend, transgress, triceps, triennial. — L. ac- 
centus is prop, a loan translation of Gk. 7tpotj<o- 
Sia, fr. TrpoaiSeiv, 'to sing to', fr. 7rp6c, 'to', and 
#8eiv, 'to sing' (see prosody). 
Derivatives: accent, tr. v., Accentor (q.v.), ac- 
centu-able, adj., accentu-al, adj., accentu-al-ly, 

Accentor, n., 1) a genus of small singing birds, 
also called Prunella; 2) (not cap) any bird of 
this genus, esp. the hedge sparrow. — L. accen- 
tor, 'one who sings with another', fr. ad- and 
cantor, 'singer'. See cantor. For the change of 
Latin d (in cdntor) to e~ (in ac-centor) see prec. 

accentuate, tr. v. — ML. accentudtus, pp. of ac- 
centudre, fr. L. accentus. See accent and verbal 
suff. -ate. 

accentuation, n. — ML. accentudtid, gen. -dnis, 
fr. accentudtus, pp. of accentudre. See prec. 
word and -ion. 

accept, tr. v. — ME. accepten, fr. MF. (= F.) 
accepter, fr. L. acceptdre, freq. of accipere (pp. 
acceptus), 'to take, receive', fr. ad- and capere 
(pp. captus), 'to take'. See captive and cp. words 
there referred to. For the change of Latin d 
(in cdptus) to i (in ac-ciptus, ac-ceptdre) see 
accent and cp. words there referred to. 
Derivatives: acceptable, acceptance, acceptant, 
acceptation (qq.v.) accept-ed, adj., accept-ed-ly, 
adv., accept-er, n., acceptor (q.v.) 

acceptability, n. — Late L. acceptdbilitds, fr. L. 
acceptdbilis. See next word and -ity. 

acceptable, adj. — F., fr. L. acceptdbilis, fr. ac- 
ceptdre. See accept and -able. 
Derivatives: acceptable-ness, n., acceptabl-y, 

acceptance, n. — OF. acceptance, fr. accepter. 
See accept and -ance. 

acceptancy, n. — See prec. word and -cy. 

acceptant, adj. — F., prop. pres. part, of accep- 
ter. See accept and -ant. 
Derivative: accept-ant, n. 

acceptation, n., 1) acceptance (archaic); 2) the 
meaning in which a word is usually understood. 
— F., fr. Late L. acceptdtionem, acc. of accep- 
tdtio, 'a taking, receiving', fr. L. acceptdtus, pp. of 
acceptdre. See accept and -arion. 

acceptation, n., formal remission of a debt 
(Roman law); remission of sins (theol.) — L. 
acceptildtid, often written in two words : accept! 
Idtid, 'formal remission of a debt' (from the 
formula acceptum ferd used by the debtor). The 
first word is the gen. of acceptum, 'receipt', prop, 
neut. pp. of accipere, 'to receive', used as a 
noun; see accept. L. Idtid gen. -dnis 'entering 
of money paid', lit. 'a bearing, bringing', is form- 


ed fr. latus (used as pp. oiferre, 'to bear, carry'), 
which stands for *tldtos, fr. //-, zero degree of 
I.-E. base *tel-, *tol-, 'to bear, carry', whence 
L. Where, 'to lift up, raise', tolerdre, 'to bear, 
support'. See tolerate and cp. collate and words 
there referred to. 

acceptor, n. — L„ fr. acceptus, pp. of accipere. 
See accept and agential suff. -or. 

access, n., approach. — OF. acces (F. acces), fr. 
L. accessus, 'an approach', fr. accessus, pp. of 
accedere, 'to come near, approach'. See accede. 
Derivatives: access-ary, adj. and n., access-ari- 
ly, adv., access-ari-ness, n., access-ory, adj. and 
n., access-ori-ly, adv., access-ori-ness, n. 

accessible, adj. — F., fr. Late L. accessibilis, fr. 
L. accessus, pp. of accedere. See prec. word 
and -ible. 

Derivatives: accessibil-ity, n., accessibl-y, adv. 

accession, n. — F., fr. L. accessidnem, acc. of 
accessid, 'a corning near, approach', fr. acces- 
sus, pp. of accedere. See access and -ion. 
Derivatives: accession, tr. v., accession-al, adj., 
accession-er, n. 

accidence, n., that part of grammar which deals 
with inflection. — From misspelling of orig. 
accidents, fr. L. accidentia, neut. pi. of accidens 
(pres. part, of accidere), treated as a sing. fern, 
noun. See accident. 

accident, n. — F., fr. L. accidentem, acc. of acci- 
dens, 'accident', prop. pres. part, of accidere, 'to 
fall upon something, happen', fr. ad- and 
cadere, 'to fall'. See cadence. For the change of 
Latin d (in cddere) to i (in ac-cidere) see abigeat 
and cp. words there referred to. As a term of 
philosophy L. accidens, 'accident', is a loan 
translation of Gk. ou(j.[3e!37)>c6s. 

accidental, adj. — F. accidental (now accidentel), 
fr. ML. accidentdlis, fr. L. accidens, gen. -entis. 
See prec. word and adj. suff. -al. 
Derivatives: accidental, n., accidental-ity, n., 
accidental-ly, adv., accidental-ness, n., accident- 
ia!, adj. 

Accipiter, n., a genus of hawks and falcons (orni- 
thol.) — L. accipiter fr. orig. *acu-peter, 'swift- 
ly-flying', but influenced in form through a con- 
fusion with accipere, 'to take, receive'. The first 
element lit. means 'sharp' (cp. acu-pedius, 'swift- 
footed', lit. 'sharp-footed', and acuere, 'to 
sharpen') ; see acute. The second element is cogn. 
with OI. pdtram, 'wing, feather', Gk. 7rrep6v, 
'wing', OE. feder, 'feather'. See feather. Cp. 
Astur, ostreger. 

Derivatives: accipitr-al, adj., accipitr-ary, n. (fr. 
ML. accipitrarius), accipitr-ine, adj. 

accismus, n., feigned refusal (rhet.) — ModL., 
fr. Gk. dxxio[i6?, rel. to axxi^eaS-at, 'to 
affect indifference', and to 'Axxco, nurse of De- 
meter, duoco>, 'a vain woman', and cogn. with 
OI. akkd, 'mother', L. Acca Ldrentia, name of 
the mother of the 12 Arval brothers. All these 
words are of imitative origin. 

•cdaim, tr. v. — L. acclamdre, 'to cry out at', 

fr. ad- and clamdre, 'to cry out'. See claim and 

cp. declaim, exclaim, proclaim, reclaim, 
acclamation, n. — L. acclamdtid, gen. -onis, fr. 

acclamdt-(um), pp. stem of acclamdre, 'to cry 

out at'. See acclaim and -ation. 
acclimate, tr. and intr. v. — F. acclimater, fr. d 

(fr. L. ad), 'to', and climat, 'climate'. See a and 


Derivatives: acclimate-ment, n., acclimat-ion, n. 
acclimatize, tr. and intr. v., to acclimate. — See 
acclimate and -ize. 

Derivatives: acclimatiz-ation, n., acclimatiz-ed, 
adj., acclimatiz-er, n., acclimatiz-ing, n. 

acclivity, n., a slope. — L. acclivitds, 'an ascend- 
ing direction, acclivity', fr. acclivis, 'mounting 
upward, ascending', fr. ad- and clivus, 'slope, 
hill'. See clivus and -ity. 

accolade, n., an embrace, formerly used in con- 
ferring knighthood; now, a touch of the shoul- 
der with the flat blade of the sword in conferring 
knighthood. — F., refashioned, on analogy of 
words ending in -ade, fr. OF. acolee, prop, 
subst. use of the fem. pp. of acoler, 'to embrace 
round the neck', fr. VL. *accolldre, fr. ad- and 
L. coltum, 'neck'. Cp. It. accollata and see collar 
and -ade. Cp. also next word. 
Derivative: accolad-ed, adj. 

accolle, adj., collared, intertwined (her.) — F. 
accole, pp. of accoler, 'to embrace', fr. OF. 
acoler. See prec. word. 

accommodate, tr. v. — h.accommodatus, pp. of ac- 
commoddre, 'to make fit, adapt', fr. ad- and com- 
modore, 'to make fit', fr. commodus, 'fit, suit- 
able', which is formed fr. com-, con-, 'with', and 
modus, 'measure'. See com- and mode and cp. 
commode, commodity. For the ending see verbal 
suff. -ate. 

Derivatives : accommodat-ing,,accommodat- 
ing-ly, adv., accommodation (q.v.), accommodat- 
ive, adj., accommodat-or, n. 

accommodation, n. — F., fr. L. accommoddtid- 
nem, acc. of accommoddtid, fr. accommoddtus, 
pp. of accommoddre. See prec. word and -ion. 
Derivative: accommodation-al, adj. 

accompaniment, n. — F. accompagnement, fr. 
accompagner. See next word and -ment. 
Derivative: accompaniment-al, adj. 

accompany, tr. v. — F. accompagner, fr. a (fr. L. 
ad), 'to', and compagne, 'companion'. See ad- 
and companion. 

Derivative: accompan-ist, accompany-ist, n. 
accomplice, n. — F., fr. a (fr. L. ad), 'to', and com- 
plice, fr. L. complicem, acc. of complex, 'closely 
connected with somebody, confederate', which 
is formed fr. com-, con-, 'with', and the stem of 
plectere, 'to braid, plait, intertwine', plicdre, 'to 
fold'. See ad- and comply, 'to bend', and cp. 

accomplish, tr. v. — ME. acomplissen, fr. OF. 
acompliss-, pres. part, stemof acomplir(f. accom- 
plir), 'to fill up, complete', fr. a (fr. L. ad), 'to', and 
complere, 'to fill up, achieve, perform*. Cp. It. 



compiere, accompiere, OProvenc. complir, ac- 

complir, and see ad-, complete and verbal suff. 

-ish. For the change of L. compiere, a verb of 

the 2nd conjugation, to OF. acomplir, F. ac- 

complir, a verb of the 4th conjugation, cp. F. 

tenir, 'to hold', fr. L. tenere (see tenable). 

Derivatives: accomplish-ed, adj., accomplish-er, 

n., accomplishment (q.v.) 
accomplishment, n. — F. accomplissement, fr. ac- 

complir. See accomplish and -ment. 
accord, intr. v., to agree; tr. v., to grant. — ME. 

accorden, 'to agree, admit', fr. OF. acorder (F. 

accorder), fr. VL. accorddre, 'to agree', fr. ad- 

and L. cor, gen. cordis, 'heart'. See heart and cp. 

cordate. Cp. also accordion, acuerdo. Cp. also 

chord, 'combination of notes'. 

Derivatives: accord-er, n., accord-ing, adj. and 

adv., accord-ing-ly, adv. 
accord, n., 1) agreement; 2) harmony. — ME. 

accord, acord, fr. OF. acord (F. accord), back 

formation fr. acorder. See accord, v., and cp. 

concord, discord, 
accordance, n., 1) agreement; 2) harmony. — OF. 

acordance, fr. acorder, See accord, v., and -ance. 
accordant, adj., agreeing; corresponding. — ME. 

acordant, fr. OF. acordant (F. accordant), pres. 

part, of acorder (F. accorder). See accord v., 

and -ant. 

accordion, n., a musical instrument. — Formed 
from the noun accord in the sense of 'harmony', 
with suff. -ion, on analogy of clarion. 

accost, tr. v., to address. — F. accoster, fr. VL. 
accostdre, lit. 'to come up to a person's side', 
fr. ad- and L. costa, 'a rib'. See costal. 

accouchement, n., delivery in childbed. — F., 
prop, 'going to childbed', fr. accoucher, 'to go 
to childbed, be delivered', which is formed fr. a, 
'to', and coucher, 'to lie', fr. L. collocdre, 'to lay'. 
See a, collocate, and -ment, and cp. couch. 

accoucheur, n., a man who acts as midwife. — 
F., fr. accoucher, 'to go to childbed'; first used 
by Jules Clement in the second half of the 17th 
cent. See prec. word. 

accoucheuse, n., a midwife. — F., fern, of accou- 
cheur. See prec. word. 

account, tr. and intr. v. — ME. acounten, fr. OF. 
aconler (F. confer), fr. a, 'to' (see a), and conter, 
'to count, tell', fr. L. computdre. (ModF. diffe- 
rentiates between compter, 'to count', and conter, 
'to tell'.) See compute. 

Derivatives: account-abil-ity, n., account-able, 

adj., account-able-ness, n., account-abl-y, adv., 

account-ing, n. 
account, n. — ME., fr. OF. aconte, acont, back 

formation fr. aconler. See account, v. 
accountancy, n. — Formed fr. next word with 

suff. -cy. 

accountant, n. — OF. acontant (whence, with 
'etymologizing' spelling, F. accomptant), pres. 
part, of aconter. See account, v., and -ant. 

accouter, accoutre, tr. v., to dress, fit out (esp. for 
military service). — F. accoutrer, 'to rig (some- 

body) out', fr. VL. *ac-cd(n)-s(u)turdre, 'to sew 
together', fr. ad- and * co(n)sutura, 'a sewing to- 
gether', fr. L. consutus, pp. of cdnsuere, 'to sew 
together', fr. con- and suere, 'to sew'. See suture. 

accouterment, accoutrement, n., dress; personal 
outfit (esp. mil.) — F. accoutrement, 'dress, 
garb', fr. accoutrer. See prec. word and -ment. 

accredit, tr. v. — F. accrediter, fr. a, 'to', and 
crediter, 'to credit (somebody with a sum)', fr. 
credit, 'credit'. See a and credit. 
Derivatives: accredit-ation, n., accredit-ed, adj. 

accrescent, adj., growing. — L. accrescens, gen. 
-entis, pres. part, of accrescere, 'to increase'. See 
next word and -ent. 

accretion, n., growth in size. — L. accretid, gen. 
accretidnis, 'an increasing', fr. accretus, pp. of 
accrescere, 'to increase', fr. ad- and crescere, 
'to grow'. See crescent and -ion and cp. accres- 
cent, accrue. For the ending see suff. -ion. 
Derivative: accretion-ary, adj. 

accroach, tr. v., to usurp. — ME. acrochen, fr. 
OF. acrochier, acrocher (F. accrocher), lit. 'to 
hook, catch', fr. a, 'to', and crochier, 'to seize 
with a hook, to hook', fr. croc, 'a hook'. The 
orig. meaning of the verb accroach was 'to take 
to oneself. See a and crochet and cp. encroach. 

accrue, intr. v., to be added to. — F. accrue, 'in- 
crease', prop. fem. pp. of accroitre, 'to increase', 
fr. L. accrescere, 'to increase'. See accretion and 
cp. crew. Derivative: accru-al, n. 

accubation, n., the act of reclining. — L. accu- 
bdtid, gen. -dnis, 'a reclining', fr. accubdt-{um), 
pp. stem of accubdre, 'to lie near',freq. olaccum- 
bere. See next word and -ation. 

accumbent, adj., reclining. — L. accumbens, gen. 
-entis, pres. part, of accumbere, 'to lie near', 
fr. ad- and -cumbere (found only in compounds), 
fr. *qumb-, nasalized form of base *qub-, 'to lie, 
recline', whence cubdre, 'to lie down, recline'. 
See cubicle and -ent and cp. decumbent, incum- 
bent, procumbent, recumbent, succumb, 
accumulable, adj. — See accumulate and -able, 
accumulate, tr. v., to heap up; intr. v., to increase 
in quantity. — L. accumuldtus, pp. of accumu- 
lare, 'to heap up', fr. ad- and cumulus, 'heap'. 
See cumulus and verbal suff. -ate. 
Derivatives: accumulat-ed, adj., accumulation 
(q.v.), accumulat-ive, adj., accumulat-ive-ly, adv., 
accumulat-ive-ness, n. 

accumulate, adj., accumulated. — L. accumuld- 
tus, pp. of accumuldre. See prec. word. 

accumulation, n. — L. accumuldtid, gen. -dnis, 'a 
heaping up', fr. accumuldtus, pp. of accumuldre. 
See accumulate, v., and -ion. 

accumulator, n. — L., 'one who, or that which, 
accumulates', fr. accumuldtus, pp. of accumu- 
ldre. See accumulate, v., and agential suff. -or. 

accuracy, n. — Formed fr. next word with suff. 

accurate, adj., 1) exact; 2) precise. — L. accura- 
tus, 'prepared with care', pp. of accurdre, 'to 
take care of, prepare with care', fr. ad- and 



curare, 'to take care of. See cure, v., and adj. 
suff. -ate. 

Derivatives: accurate-ly, adv., accurate-ness, n. 
accursed, accurst, adj., cursed. — Prop. pp. of 
obsol. accurse, fr. ME. acursien, which is form- 
ed fr. intensive pref. a- and cursien, fr. OE. cur- 
sian, 'to curse'. See curse, v., and -ed, resp. pp. 
suff. -t. 

Derivatives: accursed-ly, adv., accursed-ness, n. 
accusation, n. — F., fr. L. accusdtidnem, acc. of 
accusdtid, fr. acciisdtus, pp. of accusdre. See 
accuse and -ation. 

accusative, adj. and n. — L. (casus) acciisdtivus, 
fr. Gk. aiTiaTiK-f) (7rt-u<Ti,c.), 'accusative (case)', 
lit. '(case) expressing cause', fr. alua, 'cause'. 
Since akia means not only 'cause', but also 
'accusation', aE-nornx-i] JCTfoat? was misinter- 
preted as 'case expressing accusation', and was 
rendered accordingly in Latin by (casus) accii- 
sativus, fr. acciisdtivus, 'pertaining to an accusa- 
tion', fr. acciisdtus, pp. of accusdre, 'to call to 
account, accuse'. See next word and -ative. The 
correct Latin translation would have been casus 
causdtivus. For a mistranslation of another 
Greek case name cp. genitive. 
Derivatives : accusativ-al, adj., accusative-ly, adv. 

accuse, tr. v. — ME. acusen, fr. OF. acuser (F. 
accuser), fr. L. accusdre, 'to accuse', fr. ad- and 
causa, 'cause, lawsuit', which stands for *caud- 
td-, and is rel. to ciidere, 'to strike, beat'. See 
cause and cp. excuse, recusant, recuse. The 
change of Latin au (in causa) to it (in ac-cusdre) 
is due to the Latin phonetic law, according to 
which in the unaccented radical syllable of the 
second element of compounds, au becomes u. 
Cp. conclude, exclude, occlude. 
Derivatives: accus-ed, adj. and n., accus-er, n., 
accus-ing-ly , adv. 

accustom, tr. v. — OF. acostumer (F. accoutu- 
mer), fr. a, 'to', and costume (F. coutume). See a 
and custom. 

Derivatives: accustom-ed, adj., accustom-ed-ly, 
adv., accustom-ed-ness, n. 
ace, n., the one in dice, cards, etc. — F. as, 'ace 
at cards or dice', fr. L. as, gen. assis, 'unity, 
unit'. See as, 'Roman coin', and cp. the second 
element in ambsace. 

-acea, suffix denoting orders and classes in zool- 
ogy. — L. -dcea, neut. pi. of -dceus, 'belonging 
to, of the nature of ; see -aceous. The neut. pi. 
form of suff. -dceus is used because it refers to 
L. animdlia ('animals'), pi. of the neuter noun 
animal. Cp. -aceae. 

"•"ae, suffix denoting orders and families in 
botany. — l. -aceae, fem. pi. of -dceus, 'belong- 
ln 8 to, of the nature of; see -aceous. The fem. 
PL form of suff. -dceus is used because it refers 
*° L. plantae ('plants'), pi. of the feminine noun 
"""a. Cp. -acea. 

-Mean, adj. suff. used in the sense of -aceous. — 
I~ -dcednus, compounded of the suffixes -dceus 
"td -anus. See -acea and -an. 

-acean, subst. suff. used to denote members of 
orders of the animal kingdom. — See -acean, 
adj. suff. 

acedia, n., sloth, lethargy. — Late L., fr. Gk. 
dbojSsta, 'carelessness', which is formed fr. a- 
(see priv. pref. a-) and xtjSo? (Dor. xSSo?), 
'care', rel. to xY]8et5ei.v, 'to take charge of, tend', 
x7)Sictto? (superl. formed fr. x?j8oc.), 'most 
worthy of one's care, most cared for', fr. I.-E. 
base *kdd-, 'ill-humor, hatred', whence also OE. 
hete, 'hate', hatian, 'to hate'. See hate and cp. 

aceituna, n., a West Indian tree. — Sp., fr. Arab. 
az-zaytuna h , 'the olive (tree)', fr. az-, assimilated 
form of al-, 'the', and zaytuna h , 'olive tree, 
olive', nomen unitatis fr. zaytun, 'olive trees, 
olives', fr. zayt, 'olive oil', a word borrowed fr. 
Aram, zaythd, zethd, 'olive tree, olive', which is 
rel. to Heb. zdyith, 'olive tree, olives'. 

Aceldama, n., the potter's field near Jerusalem; 
a place of bloodshed. — Gk. 'AxeXSa^a, fr. Syr. 
hdqdtd e md, 'the field of blood'. 

acemila, n., a pack mule. — Sp., 'pack mule', fr. 
Arab, az-zdmila", fr. az-, assimilated form of 
al-, 'the', and zdmila n , 'beast of burden'. 

aceology, n., therapeutics. — Lit. 'the science of 
curing', fr. Gk. icxo;, gen. axeo?, 'remedy', and 
-Xoyia, fr. -Xoyo?, 'one who speaks (in a cer- 
tain manner); one who deals (with a certain 
topic)'. Gk. c£xoc. prob. stands for *yakos and 
is cogn. with Olr. Afcc, 'cure, payment', icaim, 
'I heal, cure'. For the second element see -logy. 
Cp. acology and the second element in An- 

-aceous, suff. meaning 'belonging to, of the na- 
ture of. — L. -dceus, enlarged fr. adj. suff. -ax, 
gen. -dcis. This suff. corresponds either to L. 
-dcea (neut. pi. of -dceus), in which case it means 
'pertaining to such and such an order of ani- 
mals', or to L. -aceae (fem. pi. of -dceus), in 
which case its meaning is 'pertaining to such 
and such a family of plants'. See -ous and cp. 
-acea, -aceae. 

acephalous, adj., headless. — L. acephalus, fr. Gk. 
axe9aXo<;, 'headless', fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) 
and xe<paX7), 'head'. See cephalic. For E. -ous, as 
equivalent to Gk. -oc,, L. -us, see -ous. 

Acer, n., the maple tree. — L., cogn. with Gk. 
icxaaxoi; (for "axapaxoi;), 'maple tree', OHG., 
MHG. dhorn, G. Ahorn, of s.m. 

Aceraceae or Acerinae, n. pi., a family of plants 
(order Sapindales). — ModL., formed fr. Acer 
with suff. -aceae, resp. -inae. 

Acerates, n., a genus of plants of the milkweed 
family (bot.) — ModL. lit. 'hornless', fr. priv. 
pref. a- and Gk. xepa;, gen. xEpa-ro?, 'horn' 
(see cerate-); so called because its hoods have 
no crest or horn. 

Aceratherium, n., lit. 'hornless animal', a name 
given by Kaup to some mammiferous fossils 
resembling the rhinoceros, but differing from it 
in being hornless. — ModL., formed fr. priv. 



pref. a-, Gk. x£poc<;, gen. xlpaxoz, 'horn', and 
■9-y)ptov, 'animal'. See cerato- and therio- and 
cp. prec. word. 

acerb, adj., sour, sharp, bitter. — L. acerbus, 
'harsh to the taste, sharp, bitter, sour', fr. deer, 
'sharp' ; see acrid. For the formation cp. super- 
bus, 'haughty, proud, excellent' , fr. super, 'above, 
over' (see superb). 

Derivatives: acerbate (q.v.), acerb-ic, adj., acer- 
bity (q.v.) 

acerbate, tr. v., to sour, embitter; to aggravate; 
to irritate; adj., sour, embittered. — L. acer- 
batus, pp. of acerbare, 'to make bitter; to ag- 
gravate', fr. acerbus. See acerb and verbal suff. 
-ate and cp. exacerbate. 

acerbity, n. — F. acerbite, fr. L. acerbitdtem, acc. 
of acerbitas, 'harshness, sharpness', fr. acerbus, 
'harsh, sharp', See acerb and -ity. 

acerdol, n., calcium permanganate, Ca(MnO„) 2 
(chem.) — Formed with suff. -ol fr. acerdese, 
former name of manganite, fr. Gk. axepSvi?, 
'bringing no gain, having no value', fr. a- (see 
priv. pref. a-), and x£p8o<;, 'gain', which is prob. 
cogn. with Olr. cerd, 'art, trade, handicraft'. 

aceric, adj., pertaining to the maple. — ModL. 
acericus, fr. L. acer, 'maple'. See Acer and -ic. 

acerose, adj., chaffy. — L. acerdsus, 'full of chaff, 
chaffy', fr. acus, gen. aceris, 'chaff'. See awn and 
adj. suff. -ose. 

acervate, adj., heaped up. — L. acervatus, pp. of 
acervdre, 'to heap up', fr. acervus, 'heap, pile', 
which is of uncertain origin. For the ending see 
adj. suff. -ate. 

acescence, n. — Formed fr. next word with suff. 

acescent, adj., turning sour. — L. acescens, gen. 
-centis, pres. part, of acescere, 'to turn sour' 
inchoative of acere, 'to be sour'. See acid and 

acetabulum, n. i) a cup for vinegar {Roman an- 
tiq.); 2) the cup-shaped socket of the hip bone 
(ana't.); 3) a sucker of an octopus, a leech, etc. 
(zool.) — L. acetabulum, lit. 'a vessel for vinegar', 
formed fr. acetum, 'vinegar', with -abulum, a 
suffix used to form names of tools and vessels. 
See acetum. For the suff. cp. tintinnabulum. 
Derivatives: acetabul-ar, acetabuli-ferous, aceta- 
buli-form, adjs. 

acetanilide, also acetanilid, n., a crystalline sub- 
stance, C,HON (chem.). — A hybrid coined fr. 
L. acetum, 'vinegar' (see acetum), and anilid(e). 
acetarious, adj., used in salad. — Formed with 
suff. -ous fr. L. acetdria (pi.), 'vegetables pre- 
pared with vinegar, salad', fr. acetum, 'vinegar'. 
See acetum and -ous. 

acetate, n., salt of acetic acid (chem.) — Formed 
with chem. suff. -ate fr. L. acetum, 'vinegar'. See 

acetic, adj. pertaining to vinegar. — Formed 
with suff. -Ic fr. L. acetum, 'vinegar'. See 

>wh» tr v to turn into vineear : intr. v., to 

become sour. — Compounded of L. acetum, 
'vinegar' (see acetum), and -fy. 
acetone, n., a colorless volatile liquid, CH 3 COCH, 
(chem.) — A hybrid coined fr. L. acetum, 
'vinegar', and the Greek suff. See acetic 

and -one and cp. ketone, 
acetous, adj., pertaining to, or like, vinegar; 
sour . — Formed with suff. -ous fr. L. acetum, 
'vinegar*. See next word, 
acetum, n., vinegar. — L. acetum, 'vinegar', prop. 
vinum (acetum), 'wine turned sour, neut. pp. of 
acescere, 'to turn sour', fr. acere, 'to be sour', 
which is rel. to deer, 'sharp'. See acrid and cp. 
acescent, acetic. For sense development cp. Gk. 
8!;o<;, 'wine vinegar', which is rel. to 6^?, 'sharp'. 
Cp. also eisel and the first element in ester, 
acetyl, n., the radical of acetic acid, CH 3 CO 
(chem.) — A hybrid coined by the German 
chemist Justus von Liebig (1803-73) in 1839 fr. 
L. acetum, 'vinegar' (see prec. word) and -yl, 
a suff. of Greek origin. 

acetylene, n., a colorless hydrocarbon (chem.) — 
Coined by the French chemist Marcelin-Pierre- 
Eugene Berthelot (1823-1907) fr. acetyl and 
suff. -ene. 

achaetous, adj., having no bristles or setae. — 
A hybrid coined fr. priv. pref. a-, Gk. x<n-rr), 
'long flowing hair, mane', and -ous, a suff. of 
Latin origin. See chaeto-. 
achar, n., pickles (Anglo-Ind.) — Pers. achdr, 

acharne, adj., bloodthirsty, furious. — F., pp. of 
acharner, 'to madden, embitter, venom', lit. 'to 
flesh', fr. a, 'to', and chair 'flesh, meat*, fr. L. 
card, gen. carnis, 'flesh'. See a and carnal, 
achamement, n., fury. — F., fr. acharner. See 
prec. word and -ment. 

Achates, n., in Virgils Aeneid, the armor-bearer 
and faithful friend of Aeneas; hence, a faithful 
friend. — L. Achates, fr. Gk. ax^nr)?, 'agate'. 
See agate, n. 
ache, intr. v., to be in pain. — ME. aken, fr. OE. 
acan, 'to ache', of uncertain origin. The spelling 
ache'is, due to a confusion of this word with Gk. 
£x°?> 'P am > distress', 
ache, n., pain. — ME. ache, fr. OE. *ce, 'pain*, 
fr. acan, 'to ache'. See ache, v. 
Derivatives: ach-ing, adj., ach-ing-ly, adv. 
acbe, n., parsley (obsol.) — F., fr. L. apium, of 
s.m., prop, 'the plant preferred by bees', fr. apis, 
'bee'. See Apis, 'a genus of bees', andep. Apium. 
ache, n., name of the letter h. — See aitch. 
achene, n., a dry carpel containing only one seed 
(bot.) — Formed fr. priv. pref. a- and the stem 
of Gk. xatvetv, 'to gape', which is cogn. with 
L. hidre, 'to yawn, gape*, OE. ganian, ginian, 'to 
yawn'. See yawn and cp. hiatus. Cp. also the 
first element in Cbaenactis. 
Acheron, n., one of the rivers of Hades (Greek 
mythology). — L-, fr. Gk. 'A x £p«v. The name 
prob. means 'marshlike water' and is rel. to 
Avepououx, 'marshlike water', and cogn. with 



OSlav. jezero, 'lake*. The derivation of Gk. 
'Ax^peov fr. &x ^ 'woe', is folk etymology. 
Acheulean, Acheulian, adj., pertaining to the 
paleolithic period preceded by the Chellean and 
succeeded by the Mousterian (geology). — F. 
Acheulien, from the name of the village St. 
Acheul, near Amiens, in France; so called in 
allusion to the remains there discovered, 
achieve, tr. v. — ME. acheven, fr. OF. (= F.) 
achever, 'to accomplish, complete', fr. VL. *ac- 

capdre, 'to come to an end', fr. L. ad, 'to', and 

*capdre, a verb formed from the stem of L. 

caput, 'head'. Cp. OProven?. Sp., Port, acabar, 

of s.m., and see a and chief. 

Derivatives: achievement (q.v.), achiev-er, n. 
achievement, n. — F. achdvement, 'completion, 

conclusion', fr. achever. See achieve and -ment 

and cp. hatchment. 

achill, adv., in a state of chill. — Coined by 
William Morris (1834-96) fr. pref. a-, 'on', and 

Achillea, n., a genus of plants of the thistle family 
(bot.) — ModL., prop, 'the herb of Achilles', 
fr. L. achilleos (scil. herba), fr. Gk. ' Ax&Xeio?, 'of 
Achilles'; so called because its medicinal pro- 
perties are said to have been discovered by 
Achilles. See Achilles. 

Achilles, n., son of Thetis and Peleus, the bravest 
hero in the Trojan war. — L. Achilles, fr. Gk. 
'AxtXXsu?, a name of prob. pre-Greek origin. 

Achilles' tendon. — So called from the myth of 
Achilles being held by the heel when his mother 
Thetis dipped him into the river Styx to render 
him invulnerable; first used by the Dutch ana- 
tomist Verheyden in 1693 when dissecting his 
own amputated leg. See Achilles and tendon. 

achlamydate, adj., having no mantle (zool.) — 
Lit. 'not chlamydate', fr. priv. pref. a- and 

achlamydeous, adj., having no perianth (bot.) — 
Lit. 'not chlamydeous', fr. priv. pref. a- and 

Achras, n., a genus of trees of the sapodilla family 
(bot.) — L., fr. Gk. dtxpa?, gen. ^paSo?, 'wild 
pear tree', which is prob. rel. to Gk. SxepSo?, 
'wild pear tree', and cogn. with Alb. darde, 
'pear tree'. 

achromat, n., an achromatic lens. — See achro- 

achromat-, form of achromato- before a vowel, 
achromatic, adj., colorless; transmitting light 

without decomposing it into its component 

colors. — Formed with suff. -ic fr. Gk. axpeo- 
'colorless', fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and 

XP&iix, gen. xp"(J-aTo?» 'color'. See chromatic. 
■Aromaticity, n. — See achromatic and -ity. 
■*hromatism, n., state of being achromatic. — 

See achromatic and -ism. 

•Aromatize, tr. v., to deprive of color. — Form- 
*d with suff. -ize fr. Gk. &xpto|iaTo<;, 'colorless'. 
See achromatic 

derivative: achrontatiz-ation, n. 

achromato-, before a vowel achromat-, combining 
form meaning 'achromatic'. — Gk. &xpa>[i^o-, 
dxpcofiocT-, fr. dcxpd>tiocTO(;, 'colorless'. See achro- 

achromatopsia, achromatopsy, n., color-blindness 
(med.) — Lit. 'sight without color', compounded 
of achromat- and Gk. -0(|a5, fr. oijji?, 'sight'. 
See -opsia. 

achromatous, adj. having no color. — Gk. &XP&>- 
u.a-ro<;, 'colorless'. See achromatic. For E. -ous, 
as equivalent to Gk. -oc,, see -ous. 

achroous, adj., colorless. — Gk. #xpoo<;, 'color- 
less', formed fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and %p6v., 
Xpotd (for *xpo)F-ia), 'skin, color of the skin, 
color', which is rel. to xp&pux, 'color'. See chrome. 
For E. -ous, as equivalent to Gk. -oc,, see -ous. 

acicula, n., a spine, prickle. — L., 'a small pin', 
dimin. of acus, 'needle, pin', which is rel. to 
acuere, 'to sharpen', deer, 'sharp, bitter'. See 

acicular, adj., needle-shaped. — Formed with 
suff. -ar fr. L. acicula. See prec. word. 
Derivative: acicular-ly, adv. 

aciculate, adj., needle-shaped. — Formed with 
adj. suff. -ate fr. L. acicula. See acicula. 

acid, adj., sour, sharp to the taste. — Either fr. 
F. acide or directly fr. L. acidus, 'sour', fr. acere, 
'to be sour', whence also acetum, 'vinegar' (see 
acetum); introduced into English by Francis 
Bacon (1561-1626) in 1626. 
Derivatives: acid, n., acid-ic, adj. 

Acidaspis, n., a genus of Trilobites. — ModL., 
compounded of Gk. dcxt?, gen. axtSo?, 'pointed 
object, point, needle' (fr. axr), 'point'), and 
&amq, 'shield'. See acid and aspidistra. 

acidify, tr. v., to make sour; intr. v., to become 
sour. — See acid and -fy and cp. F. acidifier. 
Derivatives: acidif-ic, adj., acidif-ic-ation, n., 
acidifi-er, n. 

acidimeter, n., an instrument for measuring the 
strength of acids. — A hybrid coined fr. L. 
acidus, 'sour' and Gk. uixpov, 'measure'. See 
acid and meter, 'poetical rhythm', 
acidimetry, n., the measurement of the strength 
of acids. — See prec. word and -metry. 
acidity, n., the quality of being acid ; sourness. — 

F. acidite, fr. L. aciditdtem, acc. of aciditds, 

'sourness, acidity', fr. acidus. See acid and -ity. 
acidoid, adj., resembling acid. — A hybrid coined 

fr. L. acidus, 'sour', and Gk. -oelSyi?, 'like', fr. 

sISoq, 'form, shape'. See acid and -oid. 
acidophilic, adj., staining easily with acid. — A 

hybrid coined fr. L. acidus, 'sour', Gk. 91X01;, 

'loving', and suff. -ic. See acid and -phile. 
acidophilus milk, milk that has been fermented 

by acidophilic bacteria. — See prec. word, 
acidosis, n., a morbid condition, caused by an 

accumulation of acids (med.). — A Medical L. 

hybrid coined by Bernhard Naunyn of Stras- 

burg in 1906 fr. L. acidus, 'sour' (see acid), and 

-osis, a suff. of Greek origin, 
acidulate, tr. v., to make slightly sour. — Formed 



with verbal suff. -ate fr. L. acidulus, dimin. of 
acidus. See acidulous. 

Derivatives: acidulat-ed, adj., acidulat-ion, n. 
acidulous, adj., slightly sour. — Formed with 
suff. -ous fr. L. acidulus, 'slightly sour', dimin. 
of acidus, 'sour'. See acid. For E. -ous, as equi- 
valent to L. -us, see -ous. 

acierate, tr. v., to convert into steel. — A hybrid 
coined fr. F. acier, 'steel', and verbal suff. -ate 
(fr. L. -dtus). F. acier derives fr. Late L. acid- 
rium, fr. L. acies, 'sharp edge, point', acies 
ferri, 'steel' (lit. 'point of iron'). Cp. It. acciaio, 
Sp. acero, 'steel', which also derive fr. Late L. 
aciarium, and see next word, 
acies, n., battle array (Roman antiq.) — L. acies, 
'sharp edge, point, the front of an army line 
of battle, battle array', rel. to deer, 'sharp, 
pointed'. See acrid and cp. prec. word, 
aciform, adj., needle-shaped. — Compounded of 
L. acus, 'needle' and forma, 'form, shape'. See 
acus and -form. 

Acineta, n., a genus of Infusoria (zool) — 
ModL., fr. Gk. ixfvjj-roc,, 'immovable', fr. d- 
(see priv. pref. a-) and xlvrjTo?, 'moved', verbal 
adj. of xivetv, 'to move'. See kinesis. 

aciniform, adj., clustered (bot.) — Lit. 'having 
the form of an acinus', fr. L. acinus, 'berry', and 
forma, 'form, shape'. See acinus and form, n. 

acinus, n., drupelet; berry (bot.) — L., 'berry, 
stone of a berry', of uncertain origin. 

-acious, suff. meaning 'inclined to, abounding 
in', as in audacious, tenacious. — Compounded 
of L. suff. -ax, gen. -acts (whence also F. -ace) 
and -ous. 

-acity, suff. denoting quality, as in audacity, tena- 
city. F. -acite, fr. L. -acitatem, acc. of -dcitds, 

compounded of adjectival suff. -ax, gen. -dcis, 
and subst. suff. -itds. Accordingly this suff .forms 
nouns corresponding to adjectives in -acious. 
See -acious and -ity and cp. -icity. 
Acipenser, n., a genus of fishes comprising the 
sturgeons. — L. acipenser, name of a fish, prob. 
'stuigeon'. The first element of this compound 
is prob. rel. to L. deer, 'sharp, pointed' (see 
acrid). The second element in aci-penser is of 
uncertain origin, 
acknowledge, tr. v. — Fr. earlier aknowledge, a 
blend of the ME. hybrid aknowen and ME. 
knowlechen. See a-, 'to', and knowledge. 
Derivatives: acknowledg-ed, adj., acknowledg- 
ed-ly, adv., acknowledgement, n. 
aclastic, adj., not refracting. — Formed with suff. 
-ic fr. Gk. oxXaoToc., 'unbroken', fr. d- (see 
priv. pref. a-) and xXohjtAc., verbal adj. of xXov, 
'to break'. See clastic, 
aclinic, adj., not dipping (said of a magnetic 
needle). — Formed with suff. -ic fr. Gk. dxXivfc, 
'bending to neither side', fr. a- (see priv. pref. 
-a) and xXfcveiv, 'to incline'. See clinic, 
acme, n., the highest point. — Gk. &x|at), 'point, 
edge; the highest point of anything, the flower, 
prime of man's age', rel. to ixif), 'point', and 

cogn. with L. acies, 'point, edge; battle array', 
fr. I.-E. base *ak-, 'sharp, pointed'. See acrid 
and words there referred to, and cp. paracme. 
Cp. also acne, 
acmite, n., a sodium ferrum silicate (mineral) — 
Formed with subst. suff. -ite fr. Gk. dxu.:?], 
'point, edge' (see prec. word) ; so called in allu- 
sion to the crystal form. 

acne, n., a skin disease caused by the inflamma- 
tion of the sebaceous glands (med) — This word 
owes its existence to a clerical error, Gk. dx(AT], 
'point' (see acme), having been miswritten as 

Acnida, n., a genus of plants of the amaranth 
family. — ModL., lit. 'without nettles', fr. priv. 
pref. a- and Gk. >cvi8r), 'nettle', which is rel. to 
xvi^siv, 'to scratch'. See cnida. 

acnode, n., point of a curve, not connected with 
real points of the curve (math.) — A hybrid 
coined fr. L. acus, 'needle' (see acus), and E. node. 

Acocanthera, n., a genus of African plants (bot.) 
— ModL., compounded of Gk. dxcox-fj, 'point, 
sting', and dv»v)p6i;, 'flowery'. The first element 
is rel. to dxrj, 'point', fr. I.-E. base *ak-, 'sharp, 
pointed' ; see acrid. For the second element see 

Acoemeti, n., pi., name of an order of Eastern 
monks. — Eccles. L., fr. Gk. dxot|j.7)Tot, 'the 
sleepless ones', from d- (see priv. pref. a-) and 
xoijiav, 'to lull to sleep'. See home and cp. 

acology, n., the study of remedies. — Compound- 
ed of Gk. fixo;, 'remedy', and -Xoyia, fr. -XoyoQ, 
'one who speaks (in a certain manner) ; one who 
deals (with a certain topic)'. See aceology. 
acolyte, n., i) an attendant, follower; 2) an altar 
attendant. — ML. acolitus, acoluthus, fr. Gk. 
dx6Xou»o<;, 'follower', lit. 'having one way', fr. 
copul. pref. a-, 'together with' and x£Xeu$o;, 
'way, road, path, track'. Copul. pref. a- stands 
for I.-E. *sm-, a weak gradational form of I.-E. 
base *sem-, 'one, together'; see same. Gk. 
xfeXcu^o? is cogn. with Lith. kelias, 'way', 
keiiduju, 'I journey', fr. I.-E. base "qeleu-, en- 
largement of *qel-, 'to drive', whence L. celer, 
'swift'. See celerity and cp. anacoluthon. 
acomia, n., baldness. — ModL. formed with suff. 
-ia fr. Gk. axo^o?, 'hairless', fr. a- (see priv. 
pref. a-) and x6u.Tj. 'hair', whence xou.TjT»)q, 
'comet'. See coma, 'tuft of hairs' and cp. comet 
aconite, n., the monkshood. — L. aconitum,U. 
Gk. axovtTov, which prob. derives fr. dxovi-rt, 
'without dust' (scil. of the arena), hence 'with- 
out struggle, unconquerable', formed fr. <i- (see 
priv. pref. a-) and xovlelv, 'to cover with dust', 
fr. xovi?, 'dust', which is cogn. with L. cinis, 
'ashes'; see cinerary. The plant was called 'un- 
conquerable' in allusion to its deadly poison. 
Acontias, n., a genus of lizards (zool.) — ModL., 
fr. Gk. dxovria?, 'a quick-darting serpent', fr. 
dx6vriov, dimin. of 4x<ov, 'dart, javelin'. See next 
word. . .. . __ 


acontium, n., javelin. — ModL. fr. Gk. dxovuov, 
dimin. of Sxwv, 'dart, javelin', fr. I.-E. base *ak-, 
'sharp, pointed', whence also Gk. ix7),'point',L. 
deer, 'sharp, bitter'. See acrid and words there 
referred to and cp. esp. prec. word. 

acopic, adj., removing weariness (med) — Form- 
ed with suff. -ic fr. Gk. ocxotto?, 'unwearied', fr. 
d- (see priv. pref. a-), and xora.?, 'striking, beat- 
ing, fatigue, weariness', whence xo7tTei.v, 'to cut, 
beat, strike', x6|A[Mi, 'something cut or struck'. 
See comma and cp. words there referred to. 

acor, n., acidity (med.) — L. acor, 'a sour taste, 
sourness', fr. acere, 'to be sour'. See acid. 

acorn, n. — ME. akern, fr. OE. mcern, 'acorn', 
rel. to ON. akarn, 'acorn', Du. aker, LG. ecker 
(whence G. Ecker), 'acorn', Goth, akran, 
'fruit'. As proved by Goth, akran, the orig. 
meaning was 'fruit', esp. 'fruit of the field'. Ac- 
cordingly it is very probable that the above 
words are rel. to Goth, akrs, etc., 'field'. See 
acre. E. acorn was influenced in form by an 
association with corn. 

Acorus, n„ a genus of plants of the arum family 
_ l., an aromatic plant, prob. 'the sweet 
flag', fr. Gk. iexopo?, which is of uncertain 

acosmism, n., the denial of the independent real- 
ity of the world as distinct from God. — Coined 
by Fichte and Hegel fr. Gk. priv. pref. a-, 
xoofios, 'the world' (see cosmos), and suff. -ism. 

acosmist, n., one who believes in acosmism. — 
See prec. word and -ist. 
Derivative: acosmist-ical, adj. 

acoryledon, n., a plant without cotyledons (bot.) 
— See priv. pref. a- and cotyledon. 

acotyledonous, adj., having no cotyledons. — 
Formed fr. acoryledon with suff. -ous. 

acouchy, n., a species of agouti. — F. acouchi, 
of Tupi origin. 

acoumeter, n., an instrument for measuring the 
sense of hearing — Compounded of the stem 
of Gk. dxouetv, 'to hear', and uixpov, 'meas- 
ure'. See acoustic and meter, 'poetical rhythm', 
-acousia, -acousis, combining forms meaning 
'hearing'. — Fr. Gk. Sxoum?, 'hearing', fr. 
dxousiv, 'to hear'. See acoustic, 
acoustic, adj. — F. acoustique, fr. Gk. dxouo-ixoq, 
'pertaining to hearing', fr. &xou<jt6<;, 'heard, 
audible', verbal adj. of dxoueiv, 'to hear', which 
stands for *dxoum.Eiv, and is prob. formed fr. 
copul. pref. d-(see acolyte) and I.-E. base *(s)qeu-, 
*(s)qeu-, 'to look at, observe, perceive', whence 
also xoetv, 'to mark, perceive, hear', Goth. 
hausjan, OE. hyran, 'to hear'. See hear and cp. 
*ow. Some scholars explain Gk. dxoueiv as 
standing for *ax-oua-teiv, 'to have a sharp 
Wr', fr. I.-E. base *ak-, 'sharp' and *ous, 'ear' ; 
** acrid and ear. See Frisk, GEW., I, 57-58. 
^derivatives : acoustic-al, adj., acoustic-al-ly, 
•dv., acoust-ics, a. 

■Quaint, tr. v. — ME. acointen, fr. OF. acoin- 
for, acointer, ft. Late L. accognitare, 'to make 

known, to acquaint'.fr. L. accognit unacquainted 
with', fr. ad- and cognitus, pp. of cognoscere, 

'to know'. See cognition and cp. quaint. 

Derivatives: acquaintance (q.v.), acquaint-ed, 

adj., acquaint-ed-ness, n. 
acquaintance, n. — OF. acointance, fr. acointier. 

See prec. word and -ance. 
acquiesce, intr. v. — F. acquiescer, fr. L. acqui- 

escere, 'to become quiet, to rest', fr. ad- and 

quiescere, 'to rest'. See quiesce. 
acquiescence, n. — F., fr. acquiescent. See next 

word and -ce. 
acquiescent, adj. — F., fr. L. acquiescentem, acc. 

of acquiescens, pres. part, of acquiescere. See 

acquiesce and -ent. 

Derivative: acquiescent-ly, adv. 
acquire, tr. v. — L. acquirere, 'to seek in addition 

to, acquire', fr. ad- and quaerere, 'to seek, 

search'. See quaere and cp. acquisition, conquer, 

conquest, inquire, require, request. The change 

of Latin ae (in quaerere) to i (in ac-quirere) is 

due to the Latin phonetic law according to which 

in the unaccented and open radical syllable of 

the second part of compounds, ae becomes i. Cp. 

-cide, circumcise, collide, concise, conquistador, 

decide, elide, excide, excise, 'to cut out', incise, 

iniquity, perquisite, precise, succise. 

Derivatives: acquir-ed, adj., acquire-ment, n., 

acquir-er, n. 

acquisition, n. — F., fr. L. acquisitidnem, acc. of 
acqutsitid, fr. acquisitus, pp. of acquirere, 'to 
acquire'. See prec. word and -ion and cp. dis- 
quisition, inquisition, requisition. 

acquisitive, adj. — Formed with suff. -ive fr. L. 
acquisitus, pp. of acquirere. See acquisition. 
Derivatives: acquisitive-ly, adv., acquisitive- 
ness, n. 

acquit, tr. v. — OF. aquiter (F. acquitter), fr. VL. 
*acquitdre, fr. ad- and L. quietare, 'to appease, " 
settle', fr. quies, gen. quietis, 'rest'. See quiet, n., 
and cp. quit. 

.Derivatives: acquitment (q.v.), acquitt-al, n., 
acquittance (q.v.), acquitt-er, n. 

acquitment, n. — OF. aquitement, fr. aquiter. See 
prec. word and -ment. 

acquittance, n. — OF. aquitance, fr. aquiter. See 
acquit and -ance. 

acr-, combining form. — See aero-. 

Acraeinae, n. pi., a subfamily of butterflies of the 
family Nymphalidae (entomology). — ModL., 
formed with suff. -inae fr. Acraeus, Acraea, fr. 
Gk.'Axpaio?,'Axpaia, 'dwelling on the heights', 
epithet of Jupiter resp. Juno, fr. dxpa, 'the end, 
point, the highest point, peak, headland', prop, 
fern, of dxpo;, 'outermost', used as a noun. See 
aero- and cp. acropolis. 

acrasia, n., intemperance (med) — Medical L., 
prop, a confusion of Gk. dxpa<ri<x, 'bad mix- 
ture' (fr. axpaTOQ, 'unmixed', fr. pref. a- and 
the stem of xepawuvai, 'to mix') and dxpaata 
(= dxp&Teia), 'want of power, debility'. See 
priv. pref. a- and crater, resp. acratia. 



Acraspeda, n. pi., a group of jellyfishes (ichthyol.) 
— ModL., fr. Gk. axpactTrESo;, 'without frin- 
ges', fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and xpaarcsSov, 
'edge, border, fringe'. See craspedon. The group 
is so called in allusion to the lack of a velum. 

acratia. n., weakness (med.) — Medical L., fr. 
Gk. dxpdxsia, 'want of power', fr. a- (see 
priv. pref. a-) and xpdxo;, 'strength, power, 
rule', which is cogn. with Goth, hardus, OE. 
heard, 'hard'. See hard and cp. -cracy, -crat. For 
the ending see suff. -ia. 

acre, n. — ME. aker, fr. OE. secer, rel. to OS. 
akkar, ON. akr, Swed. dker, Norw. aaker, Dan. 
ager, MLG., MDu. acker, Du. akker, OHG. 
achar, MHG., G. acker, OFris. ekker, Goth. 
akrs, and cogn. with OI. djrah, Arm. art, Gk. 
dyp6<;, L- ager, 'field, land', which stand for 
I.-E. *ag-ro-s and orig. meant 'pasture', i.e. 'a 
place where the cattle are driven', fr. I.-E. base 
*ag-, 'to drive, lead', whence OI. djati, 'drives', 
Arm. acem, 'I lead, bring', Gk. ayw, 'I lead, 
guide', L. ago, 'I drive, lead'. See agent and cp. 
agrarian. Cp. also acorn. For sense development 
cp. Heb. mighrdsh, 'common, open land', prop, 
'pasture land', i.e. 'a place where the cattle are 
driven', fr. gdrash, 'he drove out'; cp. also G. 
Trift, 'pasture, common', which is rel. to trei- 
ben, 'to drive'. 
Derivative: acre-age, n. 

acrid, adj. — A blend of L. deer (fern, dcris, neut. 
acre), 'sharp, bitter', and acidus, 'sour', which 
are both related to L. acus, 'needle', acies, 'sharp 
edge, point, the front of an army, line of battle, 
battle array', acuere, 'to sharpen', fr. I.-E. base 
*ak-, *aq-, 'sharp, pointed', whence also Oscan 
acrid ( = L. dcriler), 'sharply', Umbr. per-acri, 
'fruitful, fertile', Gk.axpog, 'at the farthest point, 
highest; pointed', dbd), 'a point, edge', dxu;, 'a 
point', axavft-a, 'thorn, prickle', <5tx<ov, 'a jave- 
lin', aV.jxcov, 'an anvil', OI. asrih, 'edge', dsman-, 
'stone, rock, sky', Avestic, asman-, of s.m. Lith. 
akmud, 'stone', asmud ,'sharpness', OSlav. kamy 
(a metathesized form), 'stone', Olr. er (for 
*akros), 'high', Arm. as-ein, 'stone' (the force 
of the suff. -eln is yet unknown), ON. hamarr, 
OE. hamor, hamer, etc., 'hammer'. Cp. Gk. 
<xxpooto[xai, 'I hear, listen', prop, 'have a sharp 
hearing', in which the first element is rel. to 
Sxpo?, 'pointed, sharp'. — Cp. the gradational 
variant base *oq-, whence Gk. btfrc,, 'sharp', 
oxpii;, 'peak, hilltop', OL. ocris, 'a rugged, stony 
mountain', L. mediocris, 'middling, moderate, 
indifferent, tolerable' (orig. 'being half-way up 
the height of a mountain'), occa, 'a harrow', 
OSlav. ostru, Lith. aitrus (for *okro, with in- 
serted r), 'sharp', Mir. ochar, W. ochr, ochyr, 
'edge, corner, border'. Cp. awn, eager, ear of 
corn, edge, egg, 'to urge', hammer. Cp. also 
Acaena, acantha, acanthion, acantho-, Accipi- 
ter, acerb, acescent, acetum, acid, Acipenser, 
acme, acne, Acocanthera, acor, Acreinae, acri- 
mony, aero-, acroama, acrobat, acropolis, Ac- 

ta ea, Actaeon, aculeate, aculeus, acumen, acus, 
acute, aglet, agrito, ague, cute, exacerbate, eglan- 
tine, griotte, paragon, tetrakis, Thrinax, triakis, 
vinegar. Cp. also mediocre, ocrea, Ocimum, Oxa- 
lis, oxy-, oxygen. 

Derivatives: acrid-ity, n., acrid-ly, adv., acrid- 
ness, n. 

acrimonious, adj., harsh, bitter. — F. acrimonieux, 
fr. ML. dcrimdnidsus, fr. L. dcrimdnia. See acri- 
mony and -ous. 

Derivatives: acrimonious-ly, adv., acrimonious- 
ness, n. 

acrimony, n., harsness, bitterness; asperity. — L. 
dcrimdnia, 'sharpness, pungency', formed fr. L. 
deer (fern, dcris, neut. acre), 'sharp', with suff. 
-mania. See acrid and -mony and cp. words there 
referred to. 

acrisia, n., condition of disease with no symp- 
toms to establish the diagnosis. — Gk. dxpiaia, 
'want of judgment', fr. axpixo;, 'not judged', 
fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) and xpixog, 'separated, 
chosen, decided, judged', verbal adj. of xpfveiv, 
'to separate, choose, decide, judge'. Sec critic. 

acritical, adj. — Formed with adj. suff. -al fr. 
Gk. SxpiToi;, 'not judged'. See prec. word. 

aero-, acr-, combining form meaning 'pertaining 
to the end, extreme'. — Gk. dxpo-, fr. axpo?, 
'at the end, at the top, outermost', fr. dxvj, 
'edge'; cogn. with L. deer, 'sharp', OSlav. ostru, 
Lith. aUtrus, of s.m., Olr. er, 'high'. See acrid 
and cp. words there referred to. 

acroama, n., oral teaching; esoteric teaching. — 
L., fr. Gk. axpoajxa, lit. 'that which is heard 
(with pleasure)', fr. dxpodo(iai, 'I hear', orig. 
'I have a sharp hearing', fr. *dxp-ouaa, 'a sharp 
hearing', compounded of axpoq, 'pointed, 
sharp', and Ion., Att. ouq, gen. oOa-roc., cor- 
responding to Gk. o3?, gen. <ixo<;, 'ear'. For 
the first element see acrid and cp. acropolis. For 
the second element see ear, 'the organ of hear- 
ing', and cp. oto-. For the ending see suff. -ma. 

acroamatic, adj., oral; esoteric. — Gk. dxpoa- 
[ia.Tiy.6q, 'pertaining to hearing', fr. dxpoapia, 
'that which is heard'. See prec. word and -atic. 
Derivative: acroamatic-s, n. 

acrobat, n. — F. acrobate, fr. Gk. dxpofJaxoi;, 
'walking on tiptoe', fr. Sxpo?, 'at the end, outer- 
most, highest', and (3ax-, 'going', from the stem 
of flatvEiv, 'to go, walk'. (Cp. |3ax6s, 'passable', 
verbal adj. of pWveiv.) For the first element 
see aero-, for the second see base, n., and cp. 
the second element in aerobatics. 
Derivatives: acrobat-ic, adj., acrobat-ic-al-ly , 
adv., acrobat-ics, n., acrobat-ism, n. 

acrocarpous, adj., bearing fruit at the end of the 
stalk (bot.) — Gk. dxp6xap7ro<;, 'bearing fruit 
at the top', compounded of Sxpo?, 'at the end, 
outermost, highest', and xapirAr;, 'fruit'. See 
aero- and carpel. For E. -ous, as equivalent to 
Gk. -oq, see -ous. 

acrocephalic, acrocephalous, adj., having a point- 
ed skull. — Compounded of aero- and cephalic. 



acrochordon, n., a kind of wart (med.) — L., fr. 
Gk. dxpoxopStiv, which is compounded of 
axpoq, 'at the end, outermost, highest' and 
XopS^, 'chord, string'. See aero- and chord. 

acrodynia, n., disease characterized by pain in 
the hands and feet (med.) — Medical L., coined 
by Chardon in 1828, and lit. meaning 'pain in 
the extremities', fr. aero- and Gk. oSuvtj, 'pain'. 
See -odynia. 

acrogen, n., a plant growing at the apex, as ferns, 
mosses, etc. (bot.) — Lit. 'growing at the top'. 
See aero- and -gen. 
Derivative: acrogen-ous, adj. 

acrolein, n., a colorless aldehyde, C 3 H 4 (chem.) 

— Compounded of L. deer (fern, dcris, neut. 
acre), 'sharp', and olere, 'to smell'. See acrid 
olfactory, and chem. suff. -in. 

acrolith, n., a statue having the extremities of 
stone and the trunk of wood. — L. acrolithus, 
fr. Gk. dxpoXi&o.;, 'with ends made of stone', 
which is compounded of axpos, 'at the end, 
outermost, highest', and XU*o?, 'stone'. See 
aero- and -lith. 

acromegaly, acromegalia, n., a disease character- 
ized by an enlargement of the head, thorax and 
extremities (med.) — Medical L. acromegalia, 
compounded of aero- and Gk. \ih{rx.q, fern. 
txcyaXr), 'great'. See mega- and the suff. -y, 
resp. -ia, which both represent Gk. -ia. 

acromial, adj., pertaining to the acromion. — See 
next word and adj. suff. -al. 

acromion, n., the outer end of the shoulderblade 
(anat.) — Medical L., fr. Gk. dxpcou-tS, 'point 
of the shoulder', which is compounded of axpo?, 
'at the end, outermost, highest' and &\loq, 
'shoulder'. See aero- and omo-, 'shoulder'. 

acron, n., the foremost segment of the body of an 
insect. — Gk. axpov, 'tip', prop. neut. of the 
adjective axpo?, 'at the end, outermost, high- 
est'. See aero-. 

■cronychal, acronycal, adj., happening or oc- 
curring at nightfall (astron.) — Formed with 
adj. suff. -al fr. Gk. dxp6vuxo<;, ' at nightfall', 
fr. Sxpoz, 'at the end, outermost, highest', and 
vOxo? = v\i£, 'night'. See aero- and nycti-. 
Derivative: acronychal-ly, adv. 

■crooym, n., a word formed from the first letters 
of a series of words, as UNO, from United 
Nations Organization. — Coined fr. acr- and 
Gk. 8vu|xa, dial, form of 6vou,a, 'name'. See 
mme and cp. onomato-. 

■erophobia, n., morbid fear of high places (med.) 

— Medical Latin, fr. aero- and Gk. -<po$ia, fr. 
?A0oc, fear'. See -phobia. 

* fro P Bon y, n., the use of the pictorial represen- 
tation of an object as the phonetic sign of the 
initial sound or syllable with which the name of 
that object begins. — Compounded of aero-, 
*nd Gk. -qxdvta, fr. <pcovr), 'sound, voice*. See 

•cropolfa, n., the fortified upper part of an ancient 
Gredr city; esp. that of Athens. — Gk. dbcpoTO- 

Xi?, fr. fixpos 'at the end, outermost, highest', 
and 7coXi<;, 'city' (see aero- and policy, 'method 
of government'). This compound developed 
from the older form axpa toJXi?, 'the upper or 
higher city'. (Homer still prefers axpa tc6Xi<; to 
the compound, which he uses only twice, 
Odyssey VIII, 494 and 504 ) See Albert 
Debrunner, Griechische Wortbildungslehre, 
Heidelberg, 19 17, p. 91. 

acrorhagus, n., one of the marginal tubercles of 
actinians (zool.) — ModL., compounded of 
aero- and Gk. pa?;, gen. payo?, 'berry', which 
is cogn. with L. racemus, 'the stalk of a cluster 
of grapes'. See raceme. 

across, adv. and prep. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', 
and cross. 

acrostic, n., a poem in which the initial letters of 
the lines form a word or words. — L. acrostichis, 
fr. Gk. axpooxixk, 'acrostic', which is com- 
pounded of axpos, 'at the end, outermost', and 
oxtxo?, 'row, line, rank, verse', which is rel. 
to CTxetx elv > ' to 8°; t0 rnarch in order'. See 
aero- and sty, 'to ascend', and cp. hemistich, 
monostich, distich, tetrastich, pentastich, hexa- 
stich, heptastich, octastich, decasrich, stichich, 
ortbostichy, stoichiometry, cadastre. 

Acrostichum, n., a genus of ferns of the polypody 
family (bot.) — ModL., formed fr. L. acrosti- 
chis, 'acrostic' (see prec. word); so called from 
the position of the sori. 

acroterium, acroterion, n., pedestal for a statue 
or other ornament, placed at the apex or one of 
the corners of a pediment (archil.) — L. acro- 
terium, fr. Gk. dxpcoxrjptov, 'extremity, sum- 
mit, top', fr. Sxpo?, 'at the end, outermost'. 
See aero-. 

acrotomous, adj., having a cleavage parallel with 
the base (mineral.) — Gk. dxp6xopto<;, 'cut off, 
sharp, abrupt', compounded of fixpoq, 'at the 
end, outermost', and -xou.0?, which is rel. to 
x6^ioi;, 'a cut, piece cut off, section', xou,6<;, 
'cutting'. See tome and cp. words there refer- 
red to. For E. -ous, as equivalent to Gk. -o?, 
see -ous. 

act, n. — F. acte, 'action', partly fr. L. actus, 'a 
doing, an action' (fr. actus, pp. of agere, 'to set 
in motion, drive; to do, act'), partly fr. actum, 
'something done' (which is prop. neut. of actus, 
pp. of agere). See agent and words there re- 
ferred to and cp. esp. entr'acte, interact. 
Derivatives: act, tr. and tr. v., act-ing, n., and 
adj., active (q.v.) 

Actaea, n., a genus of plants, the baneberry 
(bot.) — L., 'herb Christopher', fr. Gk. dxxea, 
'the elder tree', prob. meaning lit. 'the tree with 
pointed leaves', fr. I.-E. base *ak-, 'sharp, 
pointed'. See acrid and cp. words there re- 
ferred to. 

Actaeon, n., the hunter who, having seen Artemis 
bathing, was changed by her into a stag and torn 
to pieces by his own dogs (Greek mythol.) — 
L. Actaedn, fr. Gk. 'AxtwIcov, a word of un- 



certain etymology. It denoted perh. orig. a 
water god and derives fr. olxxt), 'promontory; 
beach seashore' (whence also axxcao;, 'on the 
shore'), which is of uncertain origin. It possibly 
derives fr. I.-E. base *ak-, 'sharp, pointed'. See 
acrid and cp. prec. word. 

actin-, form of actino- before a vowel. 

actinic, adj., pertaining to actinism. — See next 
word and -ic. 

actinism, n., property of ultraviolet rays of caus- 
ing chemical change. — Formed with suff. 
-ism fr. Gk. ocxxf?, gen. axxivoc, 'ray, ra- 
diance'. See actino-. 

Actinistia, n., an order of crossopterygian fishes 
(paleontol.) — ModL., compounded of actin- 
and Gk. Eaxtov, 'web, sail', dimin. of iaroc,, 
'web, tissue; ship's mast', from the stem of 
icttt)|xi, 'I make to stand'. See histo- and cp. 
anhistous. For the ending see suff. -ia. 

actinium, n., a radioactive element (chem.) — 
ModL., coined by its discoverer, the French 
chemist Andre-Louis Debierne(b. 1874) in 1899 
fr. Gk. axxt?, gen. axxTvoc, 'ray'. See actinic 
and -ium. 

actino-, before a vowel actin-, pertaining to rays; 
pertaining to actinism. — Fr. Gk. axxfq gen. 
axxivoc;, 'ray, radiance', which is cogn. with 
OI. aktiih, 'light, ray, night', Goth, iihtwd (for 
*nyj' r o), dawn, daybreak', OHG. uhta, of s.m., 
Lith. anksti, OPruss. angstainai, 'early', Cp. the 
second element in Chaenactis, diactinic, tetract. 

actinogram, n., record made by an actinograph. 
— Compounded of actino- and Gk. ypx^a, 
'something written'. See -gram. 

actinograph, n., an instrument for recording the 
actinic power of the sunrays. — Compounded 
of actino- and Gk. -ypattpo?, fr. Ypacpav, 'to 
write'. See -graph. 

Derivatives: actinograph-ic, adj., actinograph-y, 

actinology, n., the study of the rays of light. — 
Compounded of actino- and Gk. -Xoyia, fr. 
-X6yo?, 'one who speaks (in a certain manner); 
one who deals (with a certain topic)'. See -logy. 

actinometer, n., an instrument for measuring the 
actinic effect of the sun's rays. — Compounded 
of actino- and Gk. uixpov, 'measure'. See meter, 
'poetical rhythm'. 

Derivatives: actinometr-y, n., actinometr-ic, ac- 
tinometr-ical, adjs. 
Actinomyces, n., a genus of parasitic bacteria 
(bacleriol). — ModL., compounded of actino- 
and Gk. fAuxr,?, 'fungus'. See myco-. 
actinomycete, n., any of a group of parasitic 
bacteria. — Formed fr. actino- and -mycete. 
actinomycosis, n., an inflammatory disease caus- 
ed by the actinomycetes (med.) — Coined by 
the German pathologist Otto Bollinger (1843- 
1909) in 1877 fr. Actinomyces and suff. -osis. 
actinon, n., a radioactive gaseous element of the 
argon family (chem.) — ModL., formi- 1 fr. Gk. 
dbcrts, gen. ixTtvos, 'ray', and -on, Greek 

suff. forming neut. nouns and adjectives. See 
actino- and cp. actinium, 
actinotherapy, n., the use of actinic rays in the 
treatment of disease. — Compounded of actino- 
and therapy. 

Acrinozoa, a class of marine coelenterate animals 
(zool.) — Compounded of actino- and Gk. £coa, 
pi. of £c«>ov, 'animal'. See -zoa. 
action, n. — OF. (= F.), fr. L. actionem, acc. of 
actio, 'action', fr. actus, pp. of agere, 'to do, act'. 
See act, n., and -ion and cp. interaction. 
Derivative: action-able, adj. 
activate, tr. v. — See active and verbal suff. -ate. 
active, adj. — F. actif (fem. active), fr. L. activus, 
fr. actus, pp. of agere, 'to act'. See act 
Derivatives: active-ly, adv., active-ness, n. 
activity, n. — F. activite, fr. Late L. dctivitdtem, 
acc. of dctivitds, fr. L. activus. See active and 

acton, n., a quilted garment worn under the mail. 
— ME., fr. OF. auqueton (F. hoqueton), fr. Sp. 
alcoton, algodon, fr. Arab, al-qutun, 'the cotton'. 
See cotton. 

actor, n. — L. actor, 'doer, actor', fr. actus, pp. of 
agere, 'to do, act'. See act and agential suff. -or. 
actress, n. — See prec. word and -ess. 
actual, adj. — ME. actuel, fr. F. actuel, fr. Late 
L. dctualis, fr. L. actus, pp. of agere, 'to do, act'. 
See act and adj. suff. -al. 
Derivatives: actual, n., actuality (q.v.), actualize 
(q.v.), actual-ly, adv., actual-ness, n. 
actuality, n. — ML. dctudlitds, fr. Late L. dctu- 
alis (see actual and -ity); prop, a loan trans- 
lation of Gk. evepyeta (see energy). 
actualization, n. — See next word and -ion. 
actualize, tr. v. — Coined by Coleridge fr. actual 
and suff. -ize. 

Derivative: actualiz-ation, n. 
actuary, n., one whose profession is to calculate 
insurance rates. — L. actudrius, 'copist, clerk, 
registrar', fr. acta, 'events, records', prop. pi. 
neut. pp. of agere, used as a noun. See act and 
subst. suff. -ary. 
Derivative: actuari-al, adj. 
actuate, tr. v., to put into action. — ML. dctu- 
dtus, pp. of dctudre, fr. L. actus, 'action'. See 
act and verbal suff. -ate. 
Derivatives: actuat-ion, n., actuat-or, n. 
acuerdo, n., resolution of a tribunal; the mem- 
bers of a tribunal (Sp. Amer) — Sp., lit. 'reso- 
lution', fr. acordar, 'to agree to resolve by com- 
mon consent', fr. VL. accorddre, 'to agree'. See 
accord, v. 

acuity, n., sharpness. — F. acuite, fr. L. acuitdtem, 
acc. of acuitds, fr. acuere, 'to sharpen', which 
is rel. to acus, 'needle'. See acrid and -ity and 
cp. acute. 

aculeate, adj., 1) having a sting; 2) furnished with 
prickles; 3) pointed. — L. aculedtus, 'furnished 
with prickles', fr. aculeus, 'prickle'. See aculeus 
and adj. suff. -ate. 
Derivative: aculeat-ed, adj. 



aculeiform, adj., shaped like a prickle. — Com- 
pounded of aculeus, and L. forma, 'form, shape'. 
See form, n. 

aculeolate, adj., furnished with very small prick- 
les, _ Formed with adj. suff. -ate fr. L. aculeolus, 
double dim. of acus, 'needle'. See next word. 

aculeus, n., a prickle (bot.); a sting (zool.) — L., 
'spine, prickle', dim. of acus, 'needle', fr. I.-E. 
base *ak- 'sharp, pointed'. See acrid and cp. 
words there referred to. 

acumen, n., mental sharpness. — L. acumen, 
'sharpness, mental sharpness, keenness of in- 
telligence', fr. acuere, 'to sharpen'. See acute 
and -men. 

acuminate, adj., tapering to a point. — L. acumi- 
ndtus, pp. of acumindre, 'to sharpen', fr. acumen, 
gen. acuminis, 'sharpness. See acumen and adj. 
suff. -ate. 

acupressure, n., the checking of bleeding by the 
pressure of a needle on the bleeding vessel 
(surg.) — Compounded of L. acus, 'needle' and 
pressura 'pressure'. See acus and pressure, 
acupuncture, n., puncture of the ailing part with 
a needle to relieve pain. — Compounded of L. 
acus, 'needle', and punctura, 'a pricking'. See 
acus and puncture, 
acus, needle, pin (Rom. antiq.) — L., fr. I.-E. 
base *ak-, 'sharp pointed', whence also deer, 
'sharp'. See acrid and cp. the first element in 
aciform. Cp. also eglantine, 
acushla, n., darling (h.) — Ir. a cuisle, 'O pulse' 
(in a cuisle mo croidhe, 'O pulse of my heart'), 
acute, adj. — L. aciitus, 'sharp', lit. 'sharpened', 
pp. of acuere, 'to sharpen', which is rel. to acus, 
'needle'. See acrid and cp. cute and ague. 
Derivatives: dcute-ly, adv., acute-ness, n. 
-acy, suff. denoting quality, state or dignity. — 
1) F. -atie, fr. L. -dcia, fr. adjectives in -ax, gen. 
-dcis (cp. fallacy); 2) F. -atie, fr. L. -dtia (whence 
ML. -dcia), fr. L. -as gen. -dtis (cp. abbacy); 
3) ML. -dtia, fr. L. nouns ending in -dtus (cp. 
magistracy); 4) ML. -dtia, fr. Gk. -dexeta (cp. 
piracy); 5) from English nouns and adjectives 
in -ate (cp. privacy). Cp. the suffixes -cy and 
-cracy. Cp. also -acious and subst. suff. -ate. 
acyclic, adj., not cyclic. — See priv. pref. a- and 

acyrology, n., incorrect diction. — L. acyrologia, 
fr. Gk. ax'jpoXoyia, 'incorrect phraseology', fr. 
AxOpoXoyeu, 'I speak incorrectly', which is 
compounded of axOpo?, 'without authority', 
and -Xoyii, fr. -Xoyo;, 'one who speaks (in a 
certain manner) ; one who deals (with a certain 
topic)'. The first element is formed fr. a- (see 
priv. pref. a-) and xopio;, adj., 'having power 
or authority over' (whence xupioq, n., 'lord, 
master'), fr. xupo?, 'authority'. See church and 
cp. words there referred to. For the second ele- 
ment see -logy. 

•d-, pref. of Latin origin expressing direction to- 
ward or addition to. — Ad- appears in this form 
before a vowel and before the consonants d, h. 

j, m, v. It is simplified to a- before sc, sp, st. 
Before c, f, g, I, n, p, q, r, s and t ad- is assimil- 
ated to ac-, resp. af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, ac-, ar-, 
as-, at-. — L. ad-, etc., fr. ad, 'to, toward', rel. 
to Umbr. af-, ars-, Oscan ad-, az (for *ad-s), 
'to, toward', and cogn. with Goth, at, OE. set, 
'at'. See at and cp. a, pref. a- (corresponding to 
L. ad), and a- in abandon. 
-ad, suff. used to denote collective numerals, fe- 
minine patronymics, families of plant names or 
names of poems. — Gk. -as, gen. -a8oq, a suff. 
forming femin. nouns. 

Ada, fem. PN. (Bible) — Heb. 'Adhd", lit. 'orna- 
ment', rel. to 'ddhd n , 'he adorned, ornamented', 
whence '&dhf, 'ornament'. 

adactylous, adj., without fingers or toes (zool.) — 
Formed with suff. -ous fr. priv. pref. a- and Gk. 
SaxxuXoi;, 'finger'. See dactyl. 

adage, n., proverb. — F., fr. L. adagium, 'adage, 
proverb', fr. ad- and the stem of L. aid (for 
*agyd), 'I say', which is rel. to prddigium (for 
"prdd-agiom), 'sign, omen, portent,prodi gy', 
and cogn. with Gk. rjai (for "tjy^O. 'I speak', 
perf. av-toya, 'I command', lit. 'I say loudly' (for 
this sense of the pref. ava- cp. avaxaXexo, 'I 
call loudly'), Arm. asem, 'I say', af-ac, 'prov- 
erb'. Cp. prodigy. 

adagio, adv., slowly, leisurely; n., a slow move- 
ment (music). — It., formed fr. ad- and agio, 
'leisure', fr. OProvenc. aize, 'ease, convenience, 
leisure', fr. VL. adjacens, pres. part, of adjacere, 
'to lie at, to lie near', whence also F. aise, 'ease, 
convenience, comfort, leisure'. See adjacent and 
cp. ease. 

adalid, n., leader, guide. — Sp., fr. Arab. ad-dalflYn. 
'the leader', fr. ad-, assimilated form of al-, 'the', 
and dalil, 'leader', fr. ddlla, 'he showed the way, 
he lead'. 

Adam, n., name of the first mas\(B\ble); in a figur- 
ative sense it is used to denote 'human nature, 
frailty'. — Heb. Addm, lit. 'man', usually with 
the def. art., hd-dddm, 'the man', prop, 'the one 
formed from dddrnd" (i.e. the ground)'. See Gen. 
2:7, 'The Lord God formed man of dust from 
the ground'. For the connection between Heb. 
dddmd", 'ground, earth', and addm, 'man', cp. 
L. homo, 'man', humdnus, 'human', which are 
rel. to humus, 'earth, ground, soil', and Gk. 
emx&ovtoi., 'earthly ones, men', fr. x$tl>v, 'earth'. 
Derivatives: Adam-ic, Adam-ic-al, adjs., Adam- 
ic-al-ly, adv., Adam-ite, n., Adam-it-ism, n., 
Adam-it-ic, Adam-it-ic-al, adjs. 
adamant, n., a very hard stone; adj., very hard, 
unyielding. — ME., 'diamond, magnet', fr. OF. 
adamant, oblique case, fr. L. adamantem, acc. of 
adamds (whence the OF. nom. adamas), fr. Gk. 
<x8a(xa;, 'adamant, the hardest metal, diamond', 
lit. 'unconquerable', fr. i- (see priv. pref. a-) and 
the verb Sajxav, 'to tame'. See tame and cp. dia- 
mond ; cp. also the second element in Hippodamia. 
The sense of 'load stone, magnet', arose from a 
confusion with L. adamdre, 'to love passionately' . 



adamantean, adj., hard as adamant. — Formed 
with suff. -an fr. L. adamanteus, fr. adamds. See 
prec. word. 

adamantine, adj., 1) made of adamant; 2) like 
adamant; very hard. — L. adamant inus, fr. Gk: 
dSajjiavTivo?, fr. aSafiSi;. See adamant and adj. 
suff. -ine. 

adamite, n., a hydrous zinc arsenate {mineral.) — 
Named after the mineralogist M. Adam. For 
the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

Adam's apple, the thyroid cartilage. — A name 
due to the inexact translation of Heb. tapp&ah 
hddddm, lit. 'man's projection (in the neck)', fr. 
tappaah, 'anything swollen or protruding; 
apple', from the base of taphdh, 'it swelled'. The 
rendering of this Hebrew term by 'Adam's 
apple' is due to two popular beliefs: 1) that the 
forbidden fruit eaten by Adam was an apple; 
2) that a piece of this apple stuck in Adam's 

adangle, adj., dangling. — Coined by Robert 
Browning (1812-89) fr- pref. a-, 'on', and 

adapt, tr. v. — F. adapter, fr. L. adaptdre, 'to fit, 

adjust, adapt', fr. ad- and apt are, 'to fit', fr. 

apt us, 'fit'. See apt and cp. adept. 

Derivatives: adapt-able, adj., adapt-abU-ity, n., 

adaptation (q.v.), adapt-ed, adj., adapt-ed-ness, 

n., adapt-er, adapt-or, n. 
adaptation, n. — F., fr. ML. adaptdtidnem, acc. 

of adapt at id, fr. L. adapt at us, pp. of adaptdre. 

See adapt and -ation. 

Derivatives: adaptation-al, adj., adaptation-al- 
ly, adv. 

Adar, n., name of the twelfth Jewish month. — 
Heb. Adhir, fr. Akkad. Addaru, Adaru, lit. 'the 
dark or clouded month', fr. Akkad. adaru. 'to 
be dark'; see Frd. Delitzsch, Prolegomena, 
p. 138. According to Haupt in ZDMG., 64, 705, 
Addaru is rel. to Akkad. iddar, 'threshing floor', 
and prop, means 'month of the threshing floor'. 
Cp. Veadar. 

adati, n., a kind of fine cloth exported from Ben- 
gal. — Prob. fr. Hind, ddhd, 'half', and lit. 
meaning 'of half width'. See Yule-Burnell, 
Hobson-Jobson, p. 4. 

add, tr. and intr. v. — L. adder e, 'to put to, lay 
on, give in addition to, add', fr. ad- and -dere, 
fr. dare, 'to give'. See date, 'point of time', and 
cp. addendum, additament, addition. 
Derivatives: add-ed, adj., adder (q.v.), add- 
ible, adj. 

addax, n., a North African and Arabian antelope 
with long spiral horns. — L., according to 
Pliny 11, 124, a word of African origin. 

addendum, n., something added. — L. neut. of 
addendus, 'that which is to be added', gerundive 
of addere, 'to add'. See add and cp. reddendum. 
For other Latin gerundives used in English cp. 
agenda and words there referred to. 

adder, n., one who or that which adds. — Formed 
with agential suff. -er fx. add (q.v.) 

adder, n., a snake. — ME. naddre, addre, fr. OE. 
nxdre, 'adder, snake', rel. to OS. nddra, ON. 
nddra, MDu. nddre, Du. adder, OHG. ndtara, 
MHG. ndter, G. Natter, Goth, nadrs, and cogn. 
with L. natrix, 'water snake' Olr. nathir, W. 
neidr, OCo. nader, 'adder'. All these words prob. 
derive fr. I.-E. base *(s)ne-, 'to wind, twist', 
whence also Gk. vijv, L. nere, 'to spin'. See 
needle and cp. natrix. The loss of the initial n in 

E. adder is due to a misdivision of ME. a naddre 
into an addre. For similar misdivisions cp. aitch- 
bone, apron, auger, ekename, eyas, ouch, umble 
pie, umpire. 

addict, tr. v. — L. addictus, pp. of addicere, 'to 
award, assign, devote', fr. ad- and dicere, 'to 
say'. See diction. 

Derivatives: addict, n., addict-ed, adj., addict- 
ed-ness, n. 

addiction, n. — L. addictio, gen. -dnis, 'an award- 
ing, devoting', fr. addictus, pp. of addicere. See 
addict and -ion. 

Addison's disease. — So called by its discoverer 
Thomas Addison of Guy's Hospital in 1 855. 

additament, n., addition. — L. additdmentum, 
'addition, increase', fr. *additdre, freq. of ad- 
dere (pp. additus), 'to add'. See add and -ment. 
Derivative: additament-ary, adj. 

addition, n. — OF (= F.), fr. L. additidnem, acc. 
of additid, 'an adding to, addition', fr. additus, 
pp. of addere. See add and -ion. 
Derivatives: addition, tr. v., addition-al, adj., 
addition-al-ly, adv., addition-ary, adj. 

additicious, adj., increasing. — L. additicius, 
'added, additional', fr. additus, pp. of addere. See 
add. For E. -ous, as equivalent to L. -us, see -ous. 

additive, adj. — L. additivus, 'added, anexed', 
fr. additus, pp. of addere. See add and -ive. 
Derivatives: additive-ly, adv., additiv-ity, n. 

addle, n., urine, filth. — OE. adela, rel. to OSwed. 
adel, 'urine', MLG. adel, Du. aal, 'puddle'. Cp. 
addle, adj. 

addle, adj., putrid (said of an egg); confused, 
muddled. — From addle, n., 'urine, filth', 
whence addle egg, used in the sense of 'an egg 
that does not hatch, rotten egg', but lit. meaning 
'urine egg' ; a term due to the literal rendering 
of L. ovum urinum, 'urine egg', which arose from 
the erroneous translation of Gk. ouptov <J>ov, 
'putrid egg', prop, 'wind egg', fr. oupto?, 'of 
the wind' (fr. o5po?, 'wind'), confused with 
oftpio?, 'of urine', fr. oupov, 'urine'. 

address, tr. v. — ME. adressen, 'to raise, adorn', 

F. adresser, fr. OF. adrecier, fr. a. 'to' (see a), 
and drecier (F. dresser), 'to direct'. See ad- 
and dress and cp. direct. 

Derivatives: address, n. (q.v.), address-ee, n., ad- 
dress-er, n., address-fid, adj., address-or, n. 
address, n. — A blend of address, v., and F. 
adresse, 'address'. 

adduce, tr. v., to bring forward; to cite. — L. ad- 
dicere, 'to lead to', fr. ad- and ducere (pp. 
ductus), 'to lead*. See dake. 



Derivatives: adduc-er, n., adduc-ible, adj. 

adducent, adj., drawing together (said of mus- 
cles) ; the opposite of abducent (anat.) — L. ad- 
ducens, gen. -entis, pres. part, of addiicere. See 
prec. word and -ent. 

adduct, tr. v., to draw together (said of the 
muscles). — L. adductus, pp. of addiicere, 'to 
lead to'. See adduce. 

adduction, n., the act of adducing. — L. adductid, 
gen. -dnis, fr. adductus, pp. of addiicere. See prec. 
word and -ion. 

adductor, n., an adducent muscle (anat.) — L., 
lit. 'a drawer to', from adductus pp. of addiicere. 
See adduce and agential suff. -or. 

-ade, suff. denoting 1) an action as in cannonade; 
2) the result or product of an action as in le- 
monade, pomade. — F. -ade, fr. Sp. -ada or 
OProvenf. or It. -ata, fr. Late L. -dta, prop, 
fem. pp. suff. of Latin verbs of the 1st conjuga- 
tion; see adj. suff. -ate. The native French form 
is -ee (cp. -ee). 

-ade, suff. denoting the person or group partici- 
pating in an action as in comrade, brigade. — 
F. -ade, fr. Sp. or Port, -ado, which is rel. to It. 
-ato, fr. L. -at us, pp. suff. of verbs of the 1st 
conjugation. Cp. prec. suff. and the suff. -ado. 

-ade, suff. denoting a number or a group. — F. 
-ade, fr. Gk. -d8a, acc. of -Aq. Cp. decade. This 
suff. is identical with, though graphically dif- 
ferentiated from, suff. -ad (q.v.) 

adeem, tr. v., to revoke (a legacy) (law). — L. 
adimere, 'to take away', fr. ad- and emere, 'to 
take'. See exempt and cp. words there referred 

Adela, fem. PN. — Lit. 'noble'. See next word. 

Adelaide, fem. PN. — F. Adelaide, fr. G. Adel- 
heid, fr. OHG. Adalhaid, lit. 'of a noble mind', 
fr. OHG. adal, 'noble family' (whence G. Adel, 
'nobility'), and heit, 'state, rank', which is rel. 
to OE. had, 'person, sex, degree, state, nature'. 
For the first element cp. Adela, Adeline, Adolph, 
Aline, Athelstan, and allerion, for the second 
see -hood, -head. Cp. also Alice. 

Adelia, n., a genus of American plants of the 
olive family (bot.) — ModL., fr. Gk. a8r,Xo<;, 
unseen, invisible' (see adelo- and -ia); so called 
because of its minute flowers. 

Adeline, fem. PN. — F., a word of Teut. origin, 
introduced into England through the medium 
of the Normans. The name lit. means 'noble'. 
See Adelaid and cp. Aline. 

•delite, n., a calcium and magnesium arsenate 
(mineral.) — Formed with subst. suff. -ite fr. 
Gk. SSnjXoc, 'unseen, obscure' (see adelo-); so 

J^jled in allusion to the lack of transparency, 
combining form, meaning 'not seen, con- 
°^kd'. — Gk. o8t)Xo-, fr. SStjXoi;, 'unseen, in- 
*»ible', fr. dc- (see priv. pref. a-) and SrjXo? 
(Homeric 8£eXoi;), 'visible, clear', which is con- 
tacted fr. 'Uyzkoc., and is rel. to 8&xto, 'seemed', 
mA cogn. with OI. dtdeti, 'shines'. See deity and 
cp. Adelia. 

adelpho-, combining form meaning 'brother'. — 
Gk. aSeXtpo-, fr. aSzkyoq, 'brother', lit. 'from 
the same womb', fr. copul. pref. <&-, 'together 
with', and SeXiput;, 'womb'. Copul. pref. d- 
stands for I.-E. *sm-, a weak gradational form 
of I.-E. base *sem-, 'one together'; see same. 
For the etymology of SeXcpoc see calf and cp. 
dolphin. Cp. also the second element in Dia- 
delphia, Didelphia, monadelphous, Philadelphus. 
For the sense development of Gk. d8sX<p6i; cp. 
Gk. aYotoxcop, 'from the same womb', fr. copul. 
pref. a- and ycx.artjp, 'belly, womb'. 

adempted, adj., taken away (law). — Fr. obsol. 
adempt, fr. L. ademptus, pp. of adimere, 'to take 
away;. See next word and -ed. 

ademption, n., the act of taking away. — L. 
ademptid, gen. -dnis, 'a taking away, seizure', fr. 
ademptus, pp. of adimere. See adeem and -ion. 

aden-, form of adeno- before a vowel. 

adenine, n., also adenin, a crystalline base (bio- 
chem.) — Coined by the German physiological 
chemist Albrecht Kossel (1853-1927) fr. Gk. 
aS-rjv. 'gland' (see adeno-), and chem. suff. -ine, 
-in; so called by him because it is derived from 

adenitis, n., inflammation of a gland or glands 
(med.) — Medical L., formed with suff. -itis fr. 
Gk. ol8t]v, gen. dcSevoc, 'gland'. See adeno-. 

adeno-, before a vowel aden-, combining form 
denoting 'pertaining to glands, glandular' 
(med.) — Gk. dSevo-, aSev-, fr. aSr.v, gen. 
d8£vo<;, 'gland', fr. I.-E. *-ng w en, whence also 
L. inguen, 'groin, abdomen'. See inguen and cp. 
the second element in Dipladenia. 

adenoid, adj., gland-like, glandular. — Medical 
L. adenoideus, fr. Gk. dSevoeiSr);, 'gland-like', 
fr. 4Sr]v, gen. dSevo;, 'gland', and -oeiSr^q, 
'like', fr. cISo?, 'form, shape' . See adeno- and -oid. 
Derivatives: adenoids, n. pi., adenoid-al, adj., 
adenoid-ism, n. 

adenoma, a benign glandular tumor (med.) — 
Medical L., formed with suff. -oma fr. Gk. dSrjv, 
'gland'. See adeno-. 
Derivative: adenomat-ous, adj. 

Adeona, also Abeona, n., the goddess watching 
over the first departure of children. — See 
Abeona and cp. adit. 

Adephaga, n. pi., an order of beetles (zool.) — 
ModL., fr. Gk. dS^d-ftx, 'voracious (scil. £o>oc, 
animals)', neut. pi. of aSr^dyoi;, which is com- 
pounded of aSrjv, 'to one's fill', and -(payo;, fr. 
<pa-|-Eiv, 'to eat'. Gk. &8r,\i, more correctly <x8r,v 
(fr. *saden) is rel. to oelv (for *saein), 'to sa- 
tiate', and cogn. with OE. sasd, 'sated, satisfied' 
(whence ME. sad, 'sated, full, satisfied, tired'). 
See sad and words there referred to and cp. esp. 
hadro-. For the second element see -phagous. 

adephagous, adj., 1) voracious; 2) pertaining 
to the Adephaga. — See prec. word and 

adept, adj., skilled, proficient; n., an expert. — 
L. adeptus, 'reached, attained', pp. of adipisci. 



'to arrive at, reach, attain', fr. ad- and apisci 
(pp. aptus), 'to reach, come up with', which is 
rel. to OL. *apid, apere, 'to bind, attach', pp. 
aptus, 'attached to'. See apt and cp. adapt. For 
the change of Latin d (in aptus) to e (in ad- 
eptus) see accent and cp. words there referred to. 
Derivative: adept-ness, n. 
adequacy, n. — Formed fr. next word with 
stiff, -cy. 

adequate, adj. — L. adaequatus, pp. oladaequdre, 
'to make equal to', fr. ad- and aequdre, 'to make 
equal', fr. aequus, 'equal'. See equal and adj. 
suff. -ate. 

Derivatives: adequate-ly, adv., adequate-ness, n. 
adermia, n., absence of the skin (med.) — Medical 

L., formed fr. priv. pref. a-, Gk. Sepjxa, 'skin' 

(see derma), and suff. -ia. 
adevism, n., the denial of gods. — A hybrid coin- 
ed by Max Miiller on analogy of atheism, fr. 

priv. pref. a-, OI. devdh, 'god', and -ism, a suff. 

of Greek origin. See deity, 
adharma, n., unrighteousness (Hinduism). — OI. 

d-dharmah, formed fr. priv. pref. a- and dhdrmah, 

'law, right, justice'. See an- and dharma. 
adhere, v. — F. adherer, fr. L. adhaerere, 'to stick 

to, cling to', fr. ad- and haerere, 'to stick, cling'. 

See hesitate and cp. adhesion. Cp. also cohere, 


adherence, n. — F. adherence, fr. ML. adhaeren- 
tia, fr. L. adhaerens, gen. -entis. See next word 
and -ce. 

adherent, adj. and n. — F. adherent, fr. L. ad- 
haerentem, acc. of adhaerens, pres. part, of ad- 
haerere. See adhere and -ent. 

adhesion, n. — F. adhesion, fr. L. adhaesidnem, 
acc. of adhaesio, 'a sticking to, adhesion', fr. 
adhaesus, pp. of adhaerere. See adhere and -ion. 
Derivative: adhesion-al, adj. 

adhesive, adj. — F. adhesif (fern, adhesive), fr. L. 
adhaesus, pp. of adhaerere. See adhere and -ive. 
Derivatives: adhesive-ly, adv., adhesive-ness, n. 

adhibit, tr. v., to attach, affix. — L. adhibitus, pp. 
of adhibere, 'to hold to, apply to', fr. ad- and 
habere, 'to have, hold' (see habit). For the 
change of Latin a (in hdbere) to I (in ad-hibere) 
see abigeat and cp. words there referred to. 

adhibition, n. — L. adhibitid, gen. -onis, fr. ad- 
hibitus, pp. of adhibere. See prec. word and 

adiabatic, adj., impassable. — Formed with suff. 
ic- fr. Gk. iSiaPaTO?, 'not to be passed', fr. 
i- (see priv. pref. a-) and SiafSaToi;, 'to be 
passed', verbal adj. of Snx^orivetv, 'to step 
across, step over', fr. Sii (see dia-) and 
P<xwsiv : 'to go, to pass'. See base, n., and cp. 

Adiantum, n., a genus of plants, the maidenhair 
fern (bot.) — L., fr. Gk. dSiavrov, 'maiden- 
hair', lit. 'unwetted*, fr. dc- (see priv. pref. a-) 
and Suxiveiv (for *8ifav£eiv), 'to wet, mois- 
ten', which is prob. rel. to Seueiv, 'to wet, 

adiaphoretic, adj., preventing perspiration (med.) 
— Gk. dSiatpopYjToco?, 'not promoting perspi- 
ration'. See priv. pref. a- and diaphoretic. 
Derivative: adiaphoretic, n., an adiaphoretic 

adiaphoresis, n., absence of perspiration (med.) — 

Medical L. See priv. pref. a- and diaphoresis, 
adiaphoron, n. (pi. adiaphora), a thing indifferent 

from the ecclesiastical point of view. — Gk. 

dSuxtpopov, neut. of a8idc<popo<;, 'indifferent'. See 

next word. 

adiaphorous, adj., indifferent. — Gk. aSiowpopos, 
'not different, indifferent', fr. a- (see priv. pref. 
a-) and Sidtpopo?, 'different', fr. Stdc (see dia-) 
and tpepav, 'to bear, carry'. See bear, 'to car- 
ry', and cp. diaphoresis. For E. -ous, as equi- 
valent to Gk. -oc., see -ous. 

adieu, interj. and n. — F. d Dieu, which is short 
of je vous recommande a Dieu, 'I commend you 
to God', fr. L. ad Deum, 'to God'. See ad- and 

adipo- before a vowel adip-, combining form 
meaning 'fat, fatty'. — From the stem of L. 
adeps, gen. adipis, 'fat'. See adipose, 
adipocere, n., a waxy substance into which animal 
matter is converted under certain circumstan- 
ces. — Coined by the French chemist Count 
Antoine-Francois de Fourcroy (1755-1809) fr. 
L. adeps, gen. adipis, 'fat', and cera, 'wax'. See 
adipose and cere, 
adipose, adj., fatty. — ModL. adipdsus (= L. adi- 
pdtus), 'filled with fat, fatty', fr. L. adeps, gen. 
adipis, 'fat of animals', fr. Gk. aXs^a, 'un- 
guent, oil, fat', fr. aXetcpsiv, 'to anoint'. The 
change of / to d is prob. due to Umbrian in- 
fluence. Gk. aAeLtpei-v is rel. to Gk. Xinoq, 
'grease, fat', XiTcapo?, 'fat, oily', and is cogn. 
with L. lippus, 'blear-eyed', OE. be-lifan, 'to re- 
main'. See leave v., and cp. words there referred 
to. Cp. also synaloepha, aliphatic. For the ending 
see adj. suff. -ose. Derivative: adipos-ity, n. 
adiposis, n., fatness (med.) — A Medical L. hy- 
brid coined fr. L. adeps, gen. adipis, 'fat' (see 
adipose), and -osis, a suff. of Greek origin, 
adipsia, n., the absence of thirst (med.) — Medical 
L., fr. Gk. aSt^o;, 'not suffering from thirst', 
fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and 8i-ya, 'thirst', which 
is of unknown origin. Cp. dipsomania, Dipso- 
saurus, dipsosis. For the ending see suff. -ia. 
adit, n., entrance. — L. aditus, 'approach, en- 
trance', fr. adit-(um), pp. stem of adire, 'to ap- 
proach', which is formed fr. ad- and ire, 'to go', 
fr. I.-E. base *ei-, */'-, 'to go', whence also L. 
iter, 'a journey.' See itinerate and cp. aditus. 
Aditi, n., the endless heaven, mother of the Adi- 
tyas (Vedic mythol.) — OI. dditih, 'boundless- 
ness, infinity'. See Aditya and cp. dairya. 
aditus, n., an entrance (zool., anal., etc.) — L. 
aditus. See adit. 
Aditya, n., one of the sons of Aditi (Vedic my- 
thol.) — OI. Aditya-, lit. 'the not bound ones', 
formed fr. priv. pref. a- (see an-) and dydti, 



'binds', fr. I.-E. base "de-, *d*-, 'to bind', whence 
also Gk. Seeiv, 'to bind'. See desmo- and cp. 
prec. word. 

adjacency, n. — ML. adjacentia, fr. L. adjacens, 
gen. -entis. See next word and -cy. 

adjacent, adj. — L. adjacens, gen. -entis, 'lying 
at', pres. part, of adjacere, 'to lie at', fr. ad- and 
jacere, 'to lie', which orig. meant 'to cast one- 
self down', fr. jacid, jacere, 'to throw, cast, 
hurl'. See jet, 'to spirt forth', and -ent and cp. 
circumjacent, interjacent, subjacent, superjacent. 
Derivative: adjacent-ly, adv. 

adjective, adj. — L. adjectivum (for adjectivum 
nomen), neut. oiadjectivus, 'that is added (to the 
noun), 'adjective', fr. adjectus, pp. of adicere 
(less correctly adjicere), 'to throw or place a 
thing near', fr., ad- and jacere (pp. jactus), 'to 
throw'. See jet, 'to spirt forth', and -ive and cp. 
adjacent. For the change of Latin d (in jactus) 
to e in ad-jectus see accent and cp. words there 
referred to. L. adjectivum is prop, a loan trans- 
lation of Gk. sm&E-rov, lit. 'something added 
to', fr. eTUTi9-evat, 'to add to'. 
Derivatives: adjectiv-al, adj., adjectival-ly, adv., 
adjective-ly, adv. 

adjoin, tr. and intr. v. — ME. ajoinen fr. OF. 
ajoindre fr. L. adjungere, 'to join, add, annex', 
fr. ad- and jungere, 'to join, unite'. See join and 
cp. adjunct. The insertion of the letter d in 
ModF. adjoindre and in E. adjoin is due to the 
influence of L. adjungere. 
Derivative: adjoin-ing, adj. 

adjourn, tr. v., to put off to another day; intr. v., 
to suspend a session. — OF. ajorner (whence 
F. ajourner), fr. VL. adjurndre, lit., 'to set a day', 
fr. ad- and L. diurnus, 'daily', fr. dies, 'day'. See 
diurnal and cp. journal, sojourn. The insertion 
of the letter d in E. adjourn is due to the in- 
fluence of VL. adjurndre. 
Derivatives: adjourn-al, adj., adjourn-ment, n. 

adjudge, tr. v. — ME. ajugen, fr. OF. ajugier, 
ajuger, fr. L. adjudicdre. See next word and cp. 
judge. The insertion of the letter d in ModF. 
adjuger, and in E. adjudge is due to the influence 
of L. adjudicdre. 

Derivatives: adjudg-er, n., adjudge-ment, n. 
adjudicate, tr. v. — L. adjudicdtus, pp. of adjudi- 
cdre, 'to adjudge, decide, ascribe', fr. ad- and 
judicdre, 'to judge'. See judge and cp. judicial, 
judicious. Cp. also adjudge. For the ending see 
verbal suff. -ate. 

Derivatives: adjudication (q.v.), adjudicat-ive, 
adj., adjudicat-or, n., adjudicat-ure, n. 
adjudication, n. - L. adjudicdtid, gen. -onis, fr. 
adjudicdtus, pp. of adjudicdre. See prec. word 
and -ion. 

adjunct, adj., added, joined. — L. adjunctus, pp. 
of adjungere, 'to join'. See adjoin and cp. 

Derivatives: adjunct, n., adjunction (q.v.), ad- 
junct-ive, adj., adjunct-ive-ly, adv. 
adjunction, n. — - L. adjunct id, gen. -onis, 'a join- 

ing to, an addition', fr. adjunctus, pp. of ad- 
jungere. See prec. word and -ion. 

adjuration, n. — F., fr. L. adjurdtidnem, acc. of 
adjurdtid, 'a swearing to, adjuration', fr. ad- 
juratus, pp. of adjurdre. See next word and -ion. 

adjure, tr. v., to charge or command solemnly. — 
L. adjurdre, 'to swear to, to confirm by an oath' 
(whence also F. adjurer), fr. ad- and jurdre, 'to 
swear', fr. jus, gen. juris, 'law'. See jury, jus. 
Derivatives: adjuration (q.v.), adjur-atory, adj., 
adjur-er, n., adjur-or, n. 

adjust, tr. v., 1) to settle, arrange; 2) to fit exact- 
ly. — Fr. earlier F. adjuster (corresponding to F. 
ajuster), fr. ML. adjustdre, fr. Late L. adjuxtdre, 
'to bring near', fr. ad- and L. juxtd, 'near'. See 
joust, v., and cp. juxta-. 

Derivatives: adjust-able, adj., adjust-er, n., ad- 
just-ive, adj., adjust-ment, n. 
adjutancy, n. — Formed fr. next word with 
suff. -cy. 

adjutant, n., 1) an officer appointed to assist a 
commanding officer; 2) a large stork found in 
East India. — L. adjutdns, gen. -antis, pres. part, 
of adjutdre, 'to help, assist', freq. of adjuvdre 
(pp. adjutus). See next word and -ant. 

adjutory, adj. and n., helpful. — L. adjutdrius, 
'helping, helpful', fr. adjutus, pp. of adjuvdre, 
'to help, assist'. See aid and -ory and cp. 

adjuvant.adj., helping;n., 1) an assistant; 2) (med:) 
a remedial substance. — F., fr. L. adjuvantem, 
acc. of adjuvdns, pres. part, of adjuvdre. See 
prec. word and cp. adjutant. 

Adlumia, n., a genus of plants, the climbing fumi- 
tory (bot.) — ModL., named after the American 
gardener Major J. Adlum (1759- 1836). For the 
ending see suff. -ia. 

admeasure, tr. v. — OF. amesurer, fr. L. admen- 
surare, fr. ad- and mensurdre, 'to measure', fr. 
mensura, 'measure'. See measure. The insertion 
of the letter d in E. admeasure is due to the in- 
fluence of L. admensurdre. 
Derivatives : admeasur-er, n., admeasure-ment,n. 

adminicle, n., 1) a help; 2) corroborative evidence 
(law). — L. adminiculum, 'prop, stay, support', 
which prob. derives fr. *adminire, 'to stand out 
toward something', fr. ad- and -minire, 'to 
stand out'. Cp. e-minere, 'to stand out, project', 
and see mount, 'hill, mountain', and -cle. 

adminicular, adj., 1) helping; 2) corroborative. — 
Formed with suff. -ar fr. L. adminiculum. See 
prec. word. 

adminiculate, tr. v. — L. adminiculate, pp. of ad- 
minicular, 'to prop', fr. adminiculum. See ad- 
minicle and verbal suff. -ate. 

adminiculum, n., help, support. — L. See ad- 

Derivatives: adminicular (q.v.), adminicul-ary, 
adj., adminiculate (q.v.) 
administer, tr. v. — OF. aministrer, fr. L. admi- 
nistrdre, 'to manage, carry out, attend, serve', 
fr. ad- and ministrdre, 'to serve'. See minister, v. 



The insertion of the letter d in F. administrer 
and in E. administer is due to the influence of 
L. administrdre. 
Derivative: administer-ial, adj. 
administrant, adj. and n. — F., pres. part, of ad- 
ministrer, fr. L. administrdre. See prec. word 
and -ant 

administrate, tr. v., to administer. — L. admini- 
stratis, pp. of administrdre. See administer and 
verbal suff. -ate. 

Derivatives: administration (q.v.), administra- 
tion-al, adj., administrative (q.v.), administra- 
tor (q.v.) 

administration, n. — L. administ ratio, gen. -dnis, 
fr. administratis, pp. of administrdre. See prec. 
word and -ion. 

Derivative: administration-al, adj. 
administrative, adj. — L. administrative, fr. ad- 
ministratis, pp. of administrdre. See admini- 
strate and -ive. 

Derivative: administrative-ly, adv. 
administrator, n. — L., fr. administratis, pp. of 
administrdre. See administrate and agential suff. 

administratrix, n., a female administrator. — 
ModL., fr. L. administrator. See prec. word 
and -trix. 

admirable, adj. — F., fr. L. admirdbilis, fr. ad- 
mirdri, 'to admire'. See admire and -able and 
cp. Mirabel. 

Derivatives: admirable, n., admirabl-y, adv. 

admiral, n. — OF. amiral, amiralt (F. amiral), 
prob. shortened fr. Arab, amtr-ar-rahl, 'com- 
mander of transport, officer commanding a 
(transport) fleet', whence also Port, amiralhs, 
amirat, It. ammiraglio (It. almiraglio and It., Sp. 
and Port, almirante arose from a confusion of 
am-, the beginning of the word amir, with the 
Arab. art. al-; It., Sp. and Port, almirante were 
transformed after the pres. part. suff. -ante, 
fr. L. -antem; see -ant); influenced in form by 
L. admirdri, 'to admire'. See ameer, amir. 

admiralty, n. — ME., fr. OF. admiralte (whence 
MF. amiralte, F. amiraute). See admiral and 


admiration, n. — F., fr. L. admirdtidnem, acc. of 
admirdtid, 'a wondering at, admiration', fr. ad- 
mirdtus, pp. of admirdri. See admire and -ation. 

admirative, adj. — F. admiratif (fem. admirative), 
fr. Late L. admirdtivis, fr. admirdtus, pp. of ad- 
mirdri. See next word and -ative. 

admire, tr. and intr. v. — F. admirer, fr. L. ad- 
mirdri, 'to wonder at', fr. ad- and mirdri, 'to 
wonder', fr. mirus, 'marvellous', whence also 
mirdculum, 'a wonderful thing, marvel'. See 
miracle and cp. marvel. 

Derivatives: admir-ed, adj., admir-ed-ly, adv., 
admir-er, n., admir-ing, adj., admir-ing-ly, adv. 
admissible, adj. — F., fr. Late L. admissibilis, fr. 
L. admissus, pp. of admit t ere. See admit and -ible. 
Derivatives: admissibil-ity, n., admissible-ness, 
a., admissibl-y, adv. 

admission, n. — L. admissid, gen. -dnis, 'a letting 
in', fr. admissus, pp. of admittere. See admit 
and -ion. 

admissive. — Formed with suff. -ive fr. L. admis- 
sus, pp. of admittere. See next word. 

admit, tr. v. — L. admittere, 'to allow to enter, 
let in', fr. ad- and mittere, 'to send'. See mis- 
sion and cp. commit, intermit, omit, permit, 
submit, transmit. 

Derivatives: admitt-able, adj., admitt-ance, n., 
admitt-ed, adj., admitt-ed-ly, adv., admitt-ee, n. 

admix, tr. v. — Back formation fr. earlier ad- 
mixt, which derives fr. L. admixtus, 'mixed 
with', but was mistaken for the pp. of an Eng- 
lish verb (i.e. admixt was supposed to have been 
formed from the verb admix and the pp. suff. 
-0. L. admixtus is pp. of admiscere, 'to add to 
by mingling, mix with', and is formed fr. ad- 
and miscere, 'to mix'. See mixed and cp. com- 
mix, intermix. 

admixtion, n. — L. admixtid, gen. -dnis, 'a min- 
gling', fr. admixtus, pp. of admiscere. See prec. 
word and -ion. 

admixture, n. — Formed with suff. -lire, fr. L. 
admixtus, pp. of admiscere. See admix. 

admonish, tr. v. — ME. amonesten, fr. OF. amo- 
nester, fr. VL. admonestdre, fr. L. admonere, 'to 
remind, suggest, advise, admonish', fr. ad- and 
monere, 'to warn'. See monition and cp. next 
word. The insertion of the letter d in OF. ad- 
monester and E. admonish is due to the influence 
of L. admonere. The use of the suff. -ish is due 
to the influence of the numerous English verbs 
ending in -ish, in which this suffix corresponds 
to OF. and F. -iss and goes back to the Latin 
inchoative suff. -iscere. Cp. astonish, distinguish, 

Derivatives: admonish-er, m., admonish-ment,n. 
admonition, n. — F., fr. L. admonitidnem, acc. of 

admonitid, fr. admonitus, pp. of admonere. See 

admonish and -ion. 

Derivatives: admonition-er, n. 
admonitor, n. — L., fr. admonitus, pp. of admo- 
nere. See admonish and agential suff. -or. 
admonitory, adj. — Late L. admonitdrius, fr. L. 

admonitus, pp. of admonere. See admonish and 

adj. suff. -ory. 

adnate, adj., attached congenitally (bot.) — L. 
adndtus, 'born to', pp. of adndsci, 'to be born 
in addition to', fr. ad- and ndsci, 'to be born'. 
See nascent 

ado, inf. and n. — ME. at do, 'to do', from a 
Northern E. dialect, of Scand. origin. In ON. 
the prep, at was used before infinitives (cp. the 
same function of the prep, to in English). See 
at and do. For sense development cp. to-do and 
F. affaire (see affair). 
-ado, suff. occurring in words of Spanish or Por- 
tuguese origin. — Sp. or Port, -ado, fr. L. -atus, 
hence related to the suff. -ade (in comrade, 
brigade, etc.), which is nothing but a Frenchified 
form of Sp.-Port. -ado. 



adobe, n., brick. — Sp., fr. VArab. af-tiba, 'the 
brick', fr. Arab, at-, assimilated form of al-, 
'the', and VArab. tSba, corresponding to classi- 
cal Arab. taba h , 'a (single) brick', which is a 
nomenunitatis fr. tub, 'bricks' (collectively). See 
Lokotsch, EW., No. 2083. 

adolescence, n. — F., fr. L. adolescentia, fr. ado- 
lescens, gen. -entis. See adolescent and -ce. 

adolescency, n. — L. adolescentia. See prec. word 
and -cy. 

adolescent, n., an adolescent person. — F., fr. L. 
adolescentem, acc. of adolescens. See adolescent, 

adolescent, adj., growing up. — L. adolescens, 
gen. -entis, pres. part, of adolescere, 'to grow 
up', which stands for *ad-alescere, fr. ad- and 
alescere, 'to grow up', inchoative of alere, 'to 
nourish'. See aliment and words there referred 
to and cp. esp. adult, soboles. For the ending 
see suff. -ent. 

Adolph, Adolphus, masc. PN. — L. Adolphus, of 
Teut. origin. The name lit means 'noble wolf' ; 
cp. OHG. Athalwolf, Athaulf, Adulf, Adolf (G. 
Adolf), fr. athal, 'noble', and wolf, 'wolf. For 
the first element see Adelaide and cp. words there 
referred to. For the second element see wolf. 

Adonai, n., a Hebrew name of God. — Heb. 
Adhdndy, lit. 'my Lord', the plural of majesty 
of Adhdn, 'Lord', with the suff. of the 1st person. 
Adhdn prob. meant orig. 'Ruler', and derives 
from the base a-d-n = d-w-n, 'to rule, judge'. 

Adonic, adj., 1) pertaining to Adonis; 2) per- 
taining to a verse called Adonic. — F. adonique, 
fr. ML. Addnicus, fr. L. Adonis. See Adonis and 
cp. next word. 

Adonic, n., a verse consisting of a dactyl and a 
spondee or trochee; so called because it was 
especially used at the festival of Adonis. — See 
prec. word. 

Adonis, name of a youth in Greek mythology, 
renowned for his beauty and loved by Aphro- 
dite. — L. Adonis, fr. Gk. "AStovi?, fr. Heb.- 
Phoen. adhdn, 'lord'. See Adonai. 

Adonis, n., name of a genus of plants of the but- 
tercup family (bot.) — ModL., fr. L. Adonis (see 
prec. word), who, after his death was changed 
by Aphrodite into a plant. 

adopt, tr. v. — F. adopter, fr. L. adoptdre, 'to 
choose, select, adopt as a child', fr. ad- and op- 
tdre, 'to wish, desire'. See option. 
Derivatives: adoptable (q.v.), adopt-ed, adj., 
adopt-ee, n., adopt-er, n., adoption (q.v.), adop- 
tive (q.v.) 

•doptaWe, adj. — Formed fr. adopt with suff. 

-aWe; first used by Carlyle. Cp. affordable, dis- 

Ukable, forgettable. 
adoption, n. — F., fr. L. adoptidnem, acc. of 

adoptid. See ad- and option, 
adoptive, adj. — F. adoptif (fem. adoptive), fr. L. 

adoptivus, 'pertaining to adoption', from the 

stem of adoptdre. See adopt and -ive. 

Derivative: adopt ive-ly, adv. 

adorable, adj. — L. addrdbilis, 'worthy of adora- 
tion', fr. addrdre. See adore and -able. 
Derivatives: adorable-ness, n., adorabl-y, adv. 

adoration, n. — F., fr. L. addrdtidnem, acc. of 
addrdtid, 'worship, adoration', lit., 'a praying 
to', fr. addrdtus, pp. of addrdre. See next word 
and -ion. 

adore, tr. v. — F. adorer, 'to adore, worship', fr. 
L. addrdre, 'to speak to, entreat, ask in prayer, 
worship', fr. ad- and drdre, 'to speak, pray'. 
See oration. 

Derivatives: adorable (q.v.), ador-er, n., ador- 
ing, adj., ador-ing-ly, adv. 

adorn, tr. v. — ME. adornen, fr. OF. adorner, fr. 
L. addrndre, 'to furnish, provide, decorate, 
adorn, embellish', fr. ad- and drndre, 'to deck, 
embellish, beautify'. See ornament. 
Derivatives: adorn-er, n., adornment (q.v.), 
adorn-ing-ly, adv. 

adornment, n. — OF., fr. adorner. See prec. word 
and -ment. 

adown, adv., downward. — ME. adoune, adoun, 
fr. OE. of-dune, 'from (the) hill', fr. of, 'off', 
and dun, 'hill'. See of and down, adv. 

Adoxa, n. a genus of plants, the moschatel (bot.) 
— ModL., fr. Gk. &Soi,oq, 'inglorious, obscure, 
insignificant', fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and 86£a, 
'glory', which is rel. to Soxsiv, 'to think, be- 
lieve', 86y|xa, 'opinion', and cogn. with L. do- 
cere, 'to teach', decus, 'honor, ornament'. See 
decent and cp. dogma, doxology. 

Adrastea, Adrastia, n., Nemesis. — L. Adrdstea, 
Adrdstia, fr. Gk. 'ASpatTTSioc, lit. 'she from 
whom there is no escape', fr. SSpaa-ro?, 'not 
running away, not inclined to run away', fr. a- 
(see priv. pref. a-) and the stem of 8potafj.6i;, 'a 
running away', and of -StSpiaxeiv (used only 
in compounds, esp. in aTro-SiSp&axeiv, 'to 
run away'), fr. l.-E. base *drd-, 'to move quick- 
ly', whence also OI. drdti, 'he runs'. From 
*drem-, a collateral form of base *drd-, derive 
Gk. Spa(j.etv, 'to run', Sp6^oz, 'course'. See 

adrenal, adj., near the kidneys ; n., one of the two 
ductless glands above the kidneys (anat.) — 
Formed fr. ad- and L. rendlis, 'pertaining to the 
kidneys', fr. ren, 'kidney'. See renal. 

adrenaline, adrenalin, n., a substance secreted by 
the suprarenal glands (chem.) — Coined by the 
Japanese chemist Jokichi Takamine (1854-1922) 
in 1 90 1 fr. ad-, L. rendlis, and chem. suff. -ine, 
-in. See prec. word. 

Adrian, adj., Adriatic. — See Adriatic and -an. 

Adrian, masc. PN. — ■ L. Adridnus, Hadridnus, 
lit. 'of the Adriatic'. See next word. 

Adriatic, adj. — L. Adridticus, Hadriaticus, fr. 
Atria, also called Adria, Hadria (now Atri), 
a town in Picenum, fr. dter, fem. dtra, neut. 
dtrum, 'black', hence lit. 'the black city' (see 
atrabilious and -atic); the town was so called 
because it was built on black mud. See Momm- 
sen, Inhabitants of Italy, p. 76. 



adrift, adj. and adv., drifting; floating about aim- 
lessly. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and drift. 

adroit, adj., dexterous, skillful. — F., 'dexterous', 
orig. 'rightly', fr. d, 'to' (see a), and droit, fr. L. 
directus, 'right'. See direct, v., and cp. maladroit. 
Derivatives: adroit-ly, adv. adroit-ness, n. 

adscititious, adj., supplementary, additional. — 
Formed fr. L. adscitus, pp. of adsciscere, 'to 
take with knowledge, to approve', fr. ad- and 
sciscere, 'to seek to know', an inchoative verb 
formed fr. scire, 'to know'. See science and-ious. 
Derivative: adscititious-ly, adv. 

adscript, adj., attached to the soil (said of serfs). 
— L. adscriptus, ascriptus, 'enrolled', lit. 'writ- 
ten after', pp. of adscribere, ascrlbere, 'to add 
to a writing, attribute, designate, apply'. See 
ascribe and cp. script. 

aduana, n., customhouse. — Arab, ad-diwdn, fr. 

ad-, assimilated form of al-, 'the', and diw&n, 
fr. Pers. dlwdn, 'register, office, council, custom- 
house'. See divan and cp. douane. 

adsorption, n., condensation of gases on the sur- 
faces of solid bodies. — Formed fr. ad- and L. 
sorptid, gen. -dnis, 'a sucking in'. See sorption. 

adularia, n., a translucent variety of orthoclase 
(mineral) — Named after the Adula mountains 
in Switzerland. 

adulate, tr. v., to flatter in a servile manner. — 
L. adulatus, pp. of adulari, 'to fawn like a dog', 
prop, 'to wag the tail', prob. fr. ad- and I.-E. 
base *«/-, 'the tail', whence also OI. valah, vdrafi, 
'tail', Lith. valai, 'horsehair of the tail'. For 
sense development cp. Gk. aatvetv, TCpoaaaiveiv, 
'to wag the tail; to flatter', and E. wheedle, 
which derives fr. G. wedeln, 'to wag the tail'. 
For the ending see verbal suff. -ate. 
Derivatives: adulation (q.v.), adulator (q.v.), 
adulat-ory, adj., adulat-ress, n. 

adulation, n. — OF. adulacion, fr. L. aduldtionem, 
acc. of aduldtid, 'a fawning like that of a dog', 
fr. adulatus, pp. of adulari. See prec. word and 

adulator, n. — L. adulator, 'a low flatterer', fr. 
adulatus, pp. of adulari. See adulate and agential 
suff. -or. 

Adullamite, n. name given to the seceders from 
the Liberal party in 1 866. — Formed with subst. 
suff. -ite fr. Heb. 'Adulldm, name of a cave (see 
1 Sam., 22: J-2). The name was orig. given 
by John Bright to Horsman who 'had retired 
into what may be called his political cave of 

adult, adj., and n. — L. adultus, 'grown up', pp. 

of adnlescere. 'to grow up'. See adolescent 
adulterant, adj., adulterating; n., an adulter- 
ating substance — L. adulterans, gen. -antis, 
present part, of adulterdre, 'to defile, corrupt'. 
See adulterate and -ant. 
adulterate, tr. v., to make impure by admixture; 
to corrupt. — L. adulterdtus, pp. of adulterdre, 
'to falsify, corrupt; to corrupt a woman; to 
commit adultery', dissimilated fr. *ad-alterdre. 

lit. 'to change, alter', fr. ad- and alterdre, 'to 
change, alter'. See alter, v., and verbal suff. -ate. 
Derivatives: adulteration (q.v.), adulterat-or, n. 
adulterate, adj., guilty of adultery. — L. adul- 
terdtus, pp. of adulterdre. See adulterate, v. 
adulteration, n. — L. adulterdtid, gen. -dnis, fr. 
adulterdtus, pp. of adulterdre. See adulterate, v., 
and -ion. 

adulterer, n. — Formed with agential suff. -er 
from the obsol. verb, adulter, which displaced 
ME. avouterer, avoutrer, avowterer, from the 
verb avouteren, etc., fr. OF. avoltrer, fr. VL. 
•abulterdre, a verb formed— with change of 
pref— fr. L. adulterdre, 'to commit adultery'. 
See adulterate, v. 

adulteress, n. — See prec. word and -ess. 
adulterine, adj., 1) of adultery; 2) spurious. — L. 
adulterlnus, 'bastard, not genuine'. See adulter- 
er and adj. suff. -ine. 

adulterous, adj. 1) guilty of adultery; 2) relating 
to adultery. — See adulterer and -ous. 
adultery, n. — L. adulterium, displacing ME. 
avoutrie, avouterie, avowtrie, fr. OF. avoutre, 
fr. avoutre, 'adulterer', fr. VL. *abultrum, acc. 
of *abulter, a word formed— with change of 
pref .— fr. L. adulter, 'adulterer', which is a back 
formation fr. adulterdre. See adulterate and -y 
(representing L. -iurri). 

adumbrate, tr. v., to outline, sketch out. — L. 
adumbrdtus, pp. of adumbrdre, 'to cast a 
shadow, overshadow, to represent a thing in 
outline', fr. ad- and umbrdre, 'to shade, sha- 
dow', fr. umbra, 'shade, shadow'. See umbra 
and verbal suff. -ate. 

Derivatives: adumbration (q.v.), adumbrat-ive, 

adj. t 
adumbration, n. — L. adumbrdtid, gen. -dnis, a 
sketch in shadow, sketch, outline', fr. adum- 
brdtus, pp. of adumbrdre. See prec. word and 

aduncous, adj., hooked. — L. aduncus, 'hooked , 
fr. ad- and uncus, 'hook'. See uncus. For E. -ous, 
as equivalent to L. -us, see -ous. 
adust, adj., burned, parched. — L. adustus,^ pp. 
of adurere, 'to set in a flame, burn, singe', fr. 
ad- and urere, 'to burn'. See combust and cp. 
words there referred to. 
advance, tr. and intr. v. — ME. avancen, fr. OF. 
avancier, avancer (F. avancer), fr. VL. *aban- 
tidre (whence also It. avanzare, Sp. avanzar), 
fr. Imperial L. abante, 'from before' (prep.); 
'before' (adv.), which is compounded of L. ab, 
'from' and ante, 'before'; see ab- and ante-. The 
d in advance was inserted about the end of the 
16th cent., the initial a in avancen having been 
mistaken for F. a, 'to' (see d). See avaunt, interj., 
and cp. advantage. Cp. also avant^ourier, van- 
guard and its shortened form van. Cp. also 

Derivatives: advance, n. and adj., advanc-ed 
adj., advancement (q.v.), advanc-er, n., ad- 
vanc-ive, adj. 



advancement, n. — OF. (= F.) avancement, fr. 

avancer. See advance and -ment. 
advantage, n. — ME. avantage, fr. OF (= F.) 

avantage, fr. avant, 'before', fr. Imperial L. 

abante. See advance and -age and cp. vantage, 
advantage, tr. v. — F. avantager, fr. avantage. 

See prec. word, 
advantageous, adj. — F. avantageux (fern, avan- 

tageuse), fr. avantage. See advantage, n. and -ous. 

Derivatives: advantageous-ly, adv., advanta- 

geous-ness, n. 

advene, intr. v. to come to. — L. advenire, 'to 
arrive' fr. ad- and venire, 'to come'. See come 
and cp. venue 'arrival'. Cp. also advent, avenue, 

advent, n. — L. adventus, 'arrival', fr. advent- 

(urri), pp. stem of advenire. See prec. word, 
adventitious, adj., casual. — L. adventicius, 

'coming from abroad, extraneous, foreign', fr. 

advent-iiim), pp. stem of advenire. See advent 

and -itious. 

Derivatives: adventitious-ly, adv., adventitious- 
ness, n. 

adventure, n. — ME. aventure, fr. OF. (= F.) 
aventure, fr. VL. *adventura, 'a happening', fr. 
L. aventurus, 'that which is going to happen', 
fut. part, of advenire, 'to arrive, happen'. The 
English word was refashioned after L. advenire, 
adventurus. See advent and cp. venture. Cp. also 

Derivatives: adventure, v. (q.v.), adventurous 
(q.v.), adventure-some, n., adventure-some-ly, 
adv., adventure-some-ness, n. 

adventure, tr. and intr. v. — ME. aventuren, fr. 
OF. aventurer, fr. aventure. See adventure, n. 
Derivatives: adventur-er, n., adventur-ess, n. 

adventurous, adj. — ME. aventurous, fr. OF. aven- 
turos (F. aventureux), fr. aventure. See adven- 
ture, n., and -ous. 

Derivatives: adventurous-ly, adv., adventur-ous- 
ness, n. 

adverb, n. — F. adverbe, fr. Late L. adverbium, 
adverb', lit. 'that which is added to the verb', 
coined by the grammarian Flavius Sosipater 
Charisius fr. ad, 'to', and verbum, 'word; verb' 
(see ad- and verb), as a loan translation of Gk. 
£-'lppr,!j.a, 'adverb', lit. 'that which is said after- 
ward' (see epi- and rhetor). 

adverbial, adj. — Late L. adverbidlis, 'pertaining 
to an adverb', fr. adverbium. See prec. word 
and -ial. 

derivative: adverbial-ly, adv. 
•dversaria, n. pi., miscellaneous notes. — L. ad- 
versaria (scil. scripta), lit. 'writings turned to- 
ward one', neut. pi. of adversdrius. See ad- 

*^*ersary, n. — OF. aversier, adversier, fr. L. 
"dversdrius, 'opponent, adversary, rival', lit. 
* tur ned toward one'. See adverse and subst. 
tttS - -ary. The insertion of the letter d in F. ad- 
Vrsaire, and E. adversary is due to the influence 
°f L. adversdrius. 

adversative, adj., expressing opposition or anti- 
thesis. — L. adversdtivus, fr. adversatus, pp. of 
adversdri, 'to stand opposite to one', fr. adver- 
sus. See next word and -ative. 
Derivative: adversative-ly, adv. 
adverse, adj., opposed; unfavorable. — ME. fr. 
OF. avers, later (= F.) adverse, fr. L. adversus, 
'turned toward', opposite to; opposed to', pp. 
of advertere. See advert. 
Derivatives: adverse-ly, adv., adverse-ness, n. 
adversity, n., misfortune. — OF. aver site, later 
adversite (F. adversite). See prec. word and -ity. 
advert, intr. v., to refer to. — F. avertir, fr. L. ad- 
vertere, 'to turn toward', fr. ad- and vertere, 'to 
turn'. In English, the word has been refashion- 
ed after L. advertere. See version and cp. adver- 
tise and the second element in animadvert. Cp. 
also avert, controvert, convert, covert, culvert, 
divert, extrovert, introvert, overt, pervert, subvert, 
advertence, n., attention. — OF. avertence, later 
(= F.) advertence, fr. Late L. advertent ia. See 
advertent and -ce. 
advertence, n., advertence. — Late L. advertentia. 
See prec. word and -cy. 
advertent, adj., attentive. — L. advertens, gen. 
-entis, pres. part, of advertere. See advert and 
-ent and cp. inadvertent. 
Derivative: advertent-ly, adv. 
advertise, tr. and intr. v. — MF. advertiss-, pres. 
part, stem of advertir, which corresponds to OF. 
avertir, 'to warn, give notice to', fr. VL. *ad- 
vertire, formed with change of conjugation, fr. 
L. advertere. Cp. It. avvertire, OProvenc. aver- 
tir, Sp., Port, advertir, and see advert. 
Derivatives: advertisement (q.v.), advertis-er, n., 
advertis-ing, n. 
advertisement, n. — MF. advertissement, cor- 
responding to OF. and F. avert issement, fr. ad- 
vertir, resp. avertir. See advert and -ment. 
advice, n. — ME. avis, 'opinion', fr. OF. ( ^ F.) 
avis, formed from a misreading of the OF. term. 
ce m'est a vis into ce m'est avis. The former term 
itself is an alteration of ce m'est vis, lit. 'this 
seems to me', fr. VL. ecce hoc mihi est visum, 
which corresponds to L. hoc mihi videtur, 'this 
seems (right) to me'. L. visum is neut. pp. of 
videre 'to see'. See ad- and vision and cp. de- 
vice. Cp. also next word arid avizandum, 
advise, tr. and intr. v. — ME. avisen, fr. OF. 
(= F.) aviser, fr. avis. See prec. word and cp. 

Derivatives: advis-abil-ity, n., advis-able, adj., 
advisable-ness, n., advisabl-y, adv., advis-ed, adj., 
advis-ed-ly, adv., advis-ed-ness, n., advisement 
(q.v.), advis-er, advis-or, n., advis-ory, adj.. 
advis-ori-ly, adv. 

advisement, n. — OF. avisement, fr. aviser. See 

prec. word and -ment. 
advocacy, n. — OF. advocacie, fr. ML. advocdtia, 

fr. L. advocdtus. See advocate and -cy. 
advocate, n. — ME. avocat, fr. OF. avocat, fr. L. 

advocdtus, 'one called to aid (esp. as a witness 



or counsel)', pp. of advocdre, 'to call to (esp. 'to 
call to a place for counsel')', fr. ad- and vocdre, 
'to call', fr. vox, gen. vdcis, 'voice'. See voice 
and verbal suff. -ate and cp. vocation, avouch, 

Derivative: advocate, tr. v. 

advocation, n. — L. advocdtid, gen. -onis, 'a cal- 
ling to', fr. advocdtus, pp. of advocdre. See ad- 
vocate and -ion and cp. advowson, which is a 
doublet of advocation. 

advowson, n., the right of presenting a nominee 
to a church benefice. — ME. avoweisoun, fr. 
OF. avoeson, fr. L. advocdtidnem, acc. of advo- 
catid. See advocation. 

adynamia, n., lack of vital force (med.) — Gk. 
a8uv<x(iia, 'want of strength, debility', fr. <x- 
(see priv. pref. a-) and 8uvau.i<;, 'power, strength'. 
See dynamic and -ia. 

adynamic, adj., weak. — Formed fr. prec. word 
with suff. -ic. 

adytum, n., i) the innermost part of a temple; 
2) a sanctum. — L., fr. Gk. icSo-rov, 'innermost 
sanctuary', lit. 'a place not to be entered', subst. 
use of the neut. of the adj. aSo-ros, 'not to be 
entered', fr. &- (see priv. pref. a-) and Sueiv, 
'to sink into, plunge into, penetrate into, dive, 
enter'; 'to put on' (lit. 'enter into') clothes; 'to 
set' (prop, 'to dive into the sea'; said of the sun 
and stars), which is cogn. with OI. upd-du, 'to 
put on (clothes)', and perh. also with OI. dosd, 
'vespertine, western'. Cp the second element in 
Anadyomene, Aptenodytes, ecdysis, Endymion, 
endysis, ependyma. 

adz, adze, n., an axlike tool. — OE. adesa, 'ax', 
fr. OF. aze, a secondary form of aisse, 'ax' fr. 
L. ascia, 'ax, adz', which is metathesized fr. 
*acsia and cogn. with Gk. aSjsrr], 'battle ax, ax', 
Goth, aqizi, OE. eax, sex, 'ax'. See ax. 
Derivative: adz-er, n. 

Aeacus, n., one of the three judges in Hades, 
famous for his piety and prayers (Greek mythol.) 

— L., fr. Gk. A'axA?, a word of uncertain 
origin. It is possibly rel. to cx'a^eiv, 'to wail, 
lament', which derives from the interj. al, 'ah'. 

Aechmophorus, n., a genus of large grebes (zool.) 

— ModL., fr. Gk. alxno9opo<;, 'spear bearer', 
fr. at/ir?], 'spear', and -<?6poq, 'bearer'. The 
first element stands for •aiksmd and is cogn. 
with L. icere, 'to strike'; see ictus. For the 
second element see -phore. 

aecidium, n., the cup-shaped fruit in certain 
parasitic fungi (bot.) — ModL. dimin. formed 
fr. Gk. aixia, 'injury', which is rel. to aeixir]i;, 
poetic a'txYjc, Att. alxyjc;, 'unseemly, shame- 
ful', eixwv, 'likeness, image, statue'. IxeXo?, 
'like'. See icon. 

Aedes, n., a genus of mosquitoes (zool.) — 
ModL., fr. Gk. <xt)8t]<;, 'unpleasant, distasteful, 
fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and rjSii? (for *swadu) 
'sweet', which is cogn. with OE. swete, etc., 
'sweet' . See sweet and cp. words there referred to. 
aedile, n., an official in charge of buildings {Ro- 

man antiquity). — L. aedilis, fr. aedes, 'a build- 
ing, sanctuary, temple', orig. 'a place with a 
hearth', fr. I.-E. base *aidh-, 'to burn', whence 
also Gk. at&eiv, 'to burn', at&pa, 'the clear 
sky, fair weather', al&rjp, 'the upper purer air, 
ether'. See edify and cp. ether, 
aegagrus, n., the wild goat. — ModL. fr. Gk. 
afyaypo?, 'wild goat', which is compounded 
of nXi, gen. atyoc, 'goat', and aypioq, 'wild'. 
See aego- and agrio-. 

Aegeus, n., the father of Theseus who, believing 

his son to be dead, threw himself into the Aege- 
an sea (said to have been named Aegean after 
him) (Greek mythol.)—!.. Aegeus, fr. Gk. AEyeu?, 
which prob. derives fr. alyss, 'waves', a word 
of uncertain origin; it is possibly a figurative 
use of the pi. of <xt£, 'goat' (see aegis). Cp. 
alyiaXoq, 'seashore', and see Frisk, GEW., I, 
p. 42 s.v. at? and p. 31 s.v. aiyiaX6?. 

aegicrania, n., representation of goats' heads 
(Greek and Roman antiq.) — ModL., fr. Gk. 
oti£, gen. aly6<;, 'goat', and xpavtoc, pi. of 
xpavtov, 'skull'. For the first element see aego-, 
for the second see cerebrum. 

aegirite, n., a variety of acmite (mineral.) — 
Formed with subst. suff. -ite from Aegir, name 
of the Icelandic sea-god; so called because it 
occurs in Scandinavia. 

aegis, egis, n., 1) shield used by Zeus, later by 
Pallas Athene (Greek mythol.); 2) used figura- 
tively in the sense of protection. — L. aegis, fr. 
Gk. aiyk, 'goatskin; the skin shield of Zeus', 
fr. <xt£, gen. aiyo;, 'goat'; see aego-. For this 
etymology, suggested already by Herodotus, see 
Frisk, GEW., I, p. 32 s.v. atyt?. Cp. Aegeus. 
Cp. also Giles. 

Aegisthus, n., the lover of Clytemnestra, with 
whom he killed her husband Agamemnon 
(Greek mythol.) — L., fr. Gk. A?yia»o?, a word 
of uncertain origin. 

Aegle, n., 1) one of the Hesperides; 2) the mother 
of the Graces; 3) the fairest of the Naiads 
(Greek mythol.) — L., fr. Gk. AtyXr), lit. 'ra- 
diance, gleam'. The orig. meaning of Gk. alyXr) 
was 'quickly moving light'. It is cogn. with OI. 
ijati, 'moves about, trembles'. 

Aegle, n., a genus of trees of the rue family (bot.) 
— Named after the Naiad Aegle. See prec. 

aego-, combining form meaning 'goat'. — Gk. 
a'yo-, fr. al£, gen. atyoc, 'goat', which is cogn. 
with OI. ajdh, 'he-goat*, ajinam, 'skin', Avestic 
tzaen'm, 'pertaining to skin', Arm. aic, 'goat', 
Lith. ozys, 'he-goat'. Cp. the first element in 

Aegopodium, n., a genus of herbs of the carrot 
family (bot.) — ModL., fr. Gk. aiyon6Srfi, 
'goatfooted', fr. al!;, gen. aty6<;, 'goat', and 
Ttoii?, gen. tto86s, 'foot'. See aego- and podo-; 
prob. so called from the shape of its small leaves. 

aegrotat, n., a certificate that a student is ill. — 
L., 'he is sick', 3 pers. sing, of aegrdtdre, 'to be 



sick', fr. aeger, 'sick', which is prob. cogn. with 
Toch. B aik(a)re, A ekro, 'sick'. 
Aello, n., a harpy (Greek mythol.) — L., fr. Gk. 
'AeXXco, lit. 'Stormswift', rel. to &zXKa, 'tempest, 
whirlwind', which stands for *afe-X-ia, fr. 
*afe-X-oi;, 'blowing', and is rel. to af)[ii (for 
*af7][ii), 'I blow'. Cp. W. awel, 'wind' and see 

aeluro-, before a vowel aelur-, combining form 
meaning 'cat'. — ModL., fr. Gk. caXoupo;, 'cat'. 
See Ailurus. 

Aeneas, n., the son of Anchises and Aphrodite, 
a Trojan hero and mythical ancestor of the 
Romans; the hero of Virgil's Aeneid. — L. 
Aeneas, fr. Gk. Alvetae., a name of uncertain 
origin. It is possibly rel. to aEvo?, 'horrible, 

aeneous, adj., bronze-colored. — L. aeneus, 'bra- 
zen', fr. aes, gen. aeris, 'brass', which is cogn. 
with OI. ayah, Goth, aiz, OE. dr, xr, 'brass', 
dra, 'metal'. See ore and cp. words there referred 
to. For E. -ous, as equivalent to L. -us, see -ous. 

Aeolian, adj., pertaining to Aeolus, god of the 
winds; pertaining to the wind. — See Aeolus 
and -ian. 

Aeolian, n., one of a branch of the Greek people 
named fr. Aeolus — Formed with suff. -an fr. L. 
Aeolius, fr. Gk. A'ioXioq, 'Aeolian', fr. AfoXo?, 
'Aeolus', after whom the ancient district AEoXt; 
(Aeolis) in Asia Minor is said to have been 

Aeolis, n., a genus of mollusks (zool.) — ModL., 
fr. Gk. aEAXo^, 'quick, quick-moving'. See aeon 
and cp. Aeolus. 

aeolo-, combining form used to denote musical 
wind instruments. — Fr. L. Aeolus, name of the 
god of winds. See Aeolian, 'pertaining to 

Aeolus, n., the god of the winds in Greek mythol. 
— l. fr. Gk. AloXo;;, lit. 'Rapid', fr. odoXo?, 
'quick, rapid', which is of uncertain origin. It 
possibly stands for *alfo-Xoi;, and is rel. to 
a!cov, 'age, eternity'. See next word and cp. 

aeon, eon, n., a long and indefinite period of 
tinv. — L. aeon, fr. Gk. aiuv, 'age, eternity', 
which stands for *aifcov and is rei. to Gk. aid 
(fo r *alFecrL), 'always, ever', and cogn. with 
OI. dyu, 'life', Avestic dyu, 'age', L. aevum, 
'space of time, eternity', Goth, aiws, 'age, eter- 
nity', aiw, adv., 'ever', ON. xvi, 'lifetime', OHG. 
ewa, 'eternity', Du. eeuw, 'age, century', eeuwig, 
OF-is. iwich, OS., OHG. ewig, MHG. ewic, 
G. '-wig, 'everlasting', OE. a, 'always, ever'. See 
aye, 'ever', and cp. wo r ds there referred to. See 
also age and cp. words there referred to. Cp. 
also prec. word. 

Aepyornis, n., a gigantic, extinct bird of Mada- 
gascar. — ModL., lit., 'the tall bird', com- 
pounded of Gk. atmV;, 'tall, very high', a 
word of uncertain origin, and of 8pvt<;, 'bird', 
for which see ornitho-. 

aequor, n., even surface; the sea. — L., 'an even 
surface, the even surface of the sea', fr. aequus, 
'even, level, flat' ; see equal. L. aequor is a loan 
translation of Gk. niXayoQ, 'the open sea, the 
unbroken surface of the sea', which is cogn. 
with L. plaga, 'hunting net, curtain', and planus, 
'level, flat' (see pelagian). 

aerarian, adj., fiscal. — Formed with suff. -an fr. 
L. aerdrius, 'pertaining to copper, pertaining to 
money' fr. aes, gen. aeris, 'copper, bronze, 
money', which is cogn. with OE. dr, xr, 'brass'. 
See ore and cp. aes. 

aerarium, n., the public treasury kept in the tem- 
ple of Saturn in Rome. — L., prop. neut. of the 
adjective aerdrius, 'pertaining to money', used 
as a noun. See prec. word. 

aerate, tr. v., to expose to air. — Formed with 
verbal suff. -ate fr. L. der, gen. aeris, 'air', fr. 
Gk. arjp. See air and cp. the second element in 

Derivatives: aerat-ed, adj., aerat-ion, n., aerat- 
or, n. 

aerial, adj. — Formed with adj. suff. -al fr. L. 
derius, fr. Gk. aipwc,, 'of air, pertaining to 
air', fr. &T}p, 'air'; first used by Shakespeare. 
See air. 

Derivatives: aerial, n., aerial-ly, adv., aerial- 
ness, n. 

aerie, aery, n., 1) the nest of an eagle or another 
bird of prey; 2) the brood of an eagle or an- 
other bird of prey. — ME. aire, fr. OF. (= F.) 
aire, fr. Late L. area, nest of a bird of prey'. 
(Ducange in Glossarium mediae et infimae 
Latinitatis, s.v. area quotes a passage where 
area has this meaning; see Skeat s.v.) It is 
doubtful whether area in this sense is identical 
with L. area, 'vacant piece of ground, open 
space' (see area). Cp. eyrie. 

aerification, n., the act of aerifying, aeration. — 
Compounded of L. der, gen. din's, 'air' (see 
air), and -fication. 

aeriform, adj. — Compounded of L. der, gen. 
dfris, 'air', and forma, 'form, shape'. See air 
and form, n. 

aerify, tr. v. — Compounded of L. der, gen. aeris, 
'air' (see air), and -fy. 

aero-, before a vowel aer-, combining form de- 
noting the air. — Gk. aepo-, fr. a7)p gen. 
dtepoi;, 'air'. See air. 

aerobatics, n., acrobatic tricks performed with 
aircraft. — Coined on analogy of acrobatics fr. 
aero- and the stem of platveiv, 'to go'. See acro- 
bat and cp. words there referred to. For the end- 
ing see suff. -ics. 

aerobic, adj. (biol.), 1) living only in the presence 
of oxygen (said of bacteria); 2) produced by ae- 
robic bacteria (biol.). — Coined by the French 
chemist Louis Pasteur (1822-95) in [863 fr. Gk. 
ar]p, 'air', and ptog, 'life'. See aero-, bio- and 
-ic and cp. anaerobic. Cp. also the second ele- 
ment in microbic. 
Derivative: aerobic-al-ly, adv. 



aerodone, n., a gliding machine. - See next word. 

aerodonetics, n., the science of gliding flight (aero- 
nautics). — Compounded of Gk. <*r) P , 'air , the 
stem of Sovelv, 'to shake, drive about', and 
suff -ics. For the first element see air. Gk. 
Soveiv is rel. to 86vo£, Dor. SoWai 'reed', and 
prob. cogn. with Lett, duonis, 'reed, rush'. The 
orig. meaning of these nouns prob. was 'some- 
thing shaken (by the wind)'. 

aerodrome, n., airport. - Coined on analogy of 
hippodrome fr. aero- and Gk. Sp6ixo;, 'course . 
See dromedary, 
aerodromics, n., the art of flying. — See prec. 
word and -ics. 

aerodynamics, n., that branch of dynamics which 
deals with the air and other gases. — Compound- 
ed of aero- and dynamics. 

aerography, n., description of the air. — Com- 
pounded of aero- and Gk. -Ypa<pte> fr. ypa-pciv, 
'to write'. See graphy. 

Derivatives: aerograph-ic, aerograph-ic-al, adjs. 
aerolite, n., a stony meteorite. - Compounded 

of aero- and -lite, 
aerometer, n., an instrument for measuring the 

weight of air and other gases. - Compounded 

of aero- and Gk. uirpov, 'measure'. See meter, 

'poetical rhythm'. 

aerometry, n., the science of measuring the air, 
pneumatics. - Compounded of aero- and Gk. 
-(xcxpla, 'a measuring of, fr. uirpov, 'measure . 
Sec -mctry. 

aeronaut, n. - Compounded of aero- and Gk. 
vaurrj?, 'sailor'. See nautical. 
Derivatives: aeronaut-ic, aeronaut-ic-al, adjs., 
aeronaut-ic-al-ly, adv., aeronaut-ics, n. 
aerophagia, aerophagy, n., air swallowing (med.) 
— Medical L., compounded of aero- and -cpayia, 
fr -maYo?. 'eating'. See -phagy. 
aerophore, n., an apparatus carrying air for 
breathing as used for miners. — Compounded 
of aero- and Gk. -<p6 P os, 'bearing'. See -phore 
aerophyte, n., an air plant. - Compounded of 
aero- and qwov, 'plant'. See -phyte. 
aeroplane, n„ an airplane. - F. aeroplane com- 
pounded of L. der, 'air', and F. planer, 'to hover, 
soar' fr. L. planus, 'level, flat; plain'. See aero- 
and plane, 'a flat surface', and cp. airplane, 
aerostat, n. - F. aerostat, compounded of Gk. 
*rp 'air' and awi;, 'placed; standing. See 
aero- and static and cp. gyrostat, heliostat, hy- 
drostat, pyrostat, rheostat, thermostat, 
aerostatic, adj. — F. aerostatique, compounded 
of Gk. ai,p, 'air*, and cTa-woc, 'causing to 
stand'. See aero- and static, 
aerostatics, n., that science which deals with the 
equilibrium of gaseous fluids. - See prec. word 
and -ics. . 
aerostation, n., the science of operating flying 
machines lighter than the air; opposed to avia- 
tion. — F. aerostation. See aerostat and -ion. 
aeruginous, also aeruginose, adj., pertaining to, or 
like, copper rust. — L. aeruginosa, 'full of rust , 

fr. aerugo, gen. -ginis, 'rust of copper , fr. aes, 
gen aeris, 'copper'. See ore and -ous and cp. the 
first element in esteem. For the formation of L. 
aerugo cp. ferrugd, 'iron rust', fr. ferrum, 'iron', 
rubigd 'rust of metals, fr. ruber, 'red', albugo, 
'a white spot', fr. albus, 'white' {set ferruginous, 
rubiginous, albugo). 
aery, adj., aerial. — See aerial. 
aer y ; n , — The same as aerie, 
aes n brass, copper (Roman antiq.) — L. aes, 
ge'n. aeris, 'brass'. See ore and cp. aerarium, 

Aeschynomene, n., a genus of plants, the sensitive 
joint vetch (fort.) — ModL., fr.Gk. aiaxuvojisvr), 
'sensitive plant', fem. of aUjxuv6u.evo ? , 'being 
ashamed', pass. pres. part, of oua/uvav, to dis- 
honor put to shame', fr. atoxW shame ' tr ' 
aZovo?, 'shame', which stands for *aig»h-s-kos 
and is cogn. with Goth, aiwiski, 'shame, con- 
fusion', MHG. eisch, 'ugly'. For the suff. -[icvo? 
see alumnus and cp. words there referred to. The 
plant was called atayuvo^v?), 'the ashamed 
one', in allusion to the sensitiveness of its 

Aesculaceae, n. pi. a family of trees, the horse- 
chestnut (bot.) - Formed with suff. -aceae fr. 
L. aesculus, 'the Italian oak'. See Aesculus. 
Aesculapian, adj., i) pertaining to Aesculapius; 
2) medical. — Formed with suff. -an fr. Aescula- 
pius, Latinized from Asclepius, fr. Gk. 'AaxXr)- 
m6c 'the god of medicine'. See Asclepius. 
Aesculus, n., a genus of trees, the horse-chestnut 
(bot ) — L aesculus, 'the Italian oak'. See oak. 
Aesir, n. pi., the chief gods of Scandinavian my- 
thology. — ON., pi. of ass, 'god', rel. to OE. os, 
OS as-, os-, OHG. ans- (in PN.s), Goth, ans, 
'god'; possibly of the same origin as ON. ass, 
Goth, ans, 'beam'. 

Aesopian, adj., pertaining to, or resembling Ae- 
sop - Formed with suff. -an fr. L. Aesopius, 
'Aesopian', fr. Aesdpus, fr. Gk. Atatono?, the 
Greek fable writer. 

Aestas, n., the goddess of summer in Roman 
mythology. — L. aestas, 'summer'. See eshval. 
aesthete, n. — See esthete, 
aesthetic, adj. — See esthetic, 
aestival, adj. — See estival. 
aestivate, intr. v. — See estivate. 
aestivation, n. — See estivation, 
aether, n. — See ether. 

aethogen, n., boric nitrite (chem.) — Lit. produ- 
cing heat', fr. Gk. alftoq, 'burning, heat, fire , 
and -vevr,?, 'produced by' (but used m the mod- 
ern sense 'producing'). For the first element 
see ether and cp. next word. For the second 
element see -gen. 

Aethousa, n., a genus of plants of the carrot family 
(bot ) - ModL., fr. Gk. ortSo'joa, burning, 
fiery', fem. pres. part, of at»eiv, 'to light up, 
kindle, burn', whence alOo;, 'burning heat, 
fire', ottdrip, 'the upper purer air, ether'; see 
ether. This genus of plants was prob. called 

Aethousa ('the burning or fiery one') in allusion 
to the bright leaves. 

aetio-. — See etio-. 

aetiology, n. — See etiology. 

aeto- combining form meaning 'eagle', as in 
Aetosaurus. — Gk. Aeto-, fr. ocieto?, Astoq, 
'eagle', which stands for *<xf texo?, lit. 'a large 
bird', and is cogn. with L. avis, 'bird' ; see aviary. 
The suff. -eto-s in *afte-roi; prob. has augmen- 
tative force. 

Aetosaurus, n., a genus of reptiles of the Triassic 
period (paleontol.) — ModL., compounded of 
aeto- and Gk. axupo?, 'lizard'. See sauro-. 

af-, assimilated form of ad- before/. 

afar, adv. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and far. 

afeard, afeared, adj., afraid (archaic). — ME. 
afered, fr. OE. dfxred, pp. of dfxran, 'to frighten, 
terrify', formed from intensive pref. a- andfzran, 
'to terrify'. See fear, v. and n. 

affability, n. — F. affabilite, fr. L. affdbilitatem, 
acc. of affdbilitds, 'courtesy, kindness, affability', 
fr. affdbilis. See affable and -ity. 

affable, adj., easy to speak to; courteous. — F., 
fr. L. affdbilis, 'kind, friendly, affable', lit. 'he 
who can be (easily) spoken to', fr. affdri, 'to 
speak to', fr. ad- and fdri, 'to speak'. See fable 
and cp. esp. ineffable. 
Derivatives: affable-ness, n., affabl-y, adv. 

affair, n. — ME., fr. OF. afaire (F. affaire), 
from the phrase a faire, 'to do', fr. L. ad, 'to', 
and facere, 'to do'. See ad- and fact and cp. ado 
and to-do. 

affect, tr. v., to act upon. — L. affectus, pp. of af- 
ficere, 'to do something to', fr. ad- and facere 
(pp. factus), 'to make, do'. See fact and cp. 
affettuoso. For the change of Latin a (in factus) 
to e (in af-fectus) see accent and cp. words there 
referred to. 

Derivatives: affect-ed, adj., affect-ing, adj., af- 
fect-ing-ly, adv., affection (q.v.) 

affect, tr. v., to make a pretence of; to feign. — 
F. affecter, fr. L. affectdre, 'to strive after, aim 
at', freq. of afficere (pp. affectus), 'to do some- 
thing to'. See prec. word. 
Derivatives: affection (q.v.), affect-ed, adj., af- 
fect-ed-ly, adv., affect-er, n., affection (q.v.), 
affect-ive, adj. (cp. F. affectif fem. affective), 
affect-ive-ly, adv., affect-iv-ity, n. 

affectation, n. — L. affectdtid, gen. -dnis, 'a striv- 
ing after', fr. affectdtus, pp. of affectdre. See 
prec. word and -ation. 

affection, n., feeling. — F., fr. L. affectidnem, acc. 
of affectid, 'a permanent state of feeling', fr. 
affectus, pp. of afficere, 'to do something to'. 
See affect, 'to act upon', and affect, 'to make a 
pretence of. 

Derivatives: affection-al, adj., affection-al-ly, 
adv., affect-ion-ate, adj., affect-ion-ate-ly, adv. 

affection, n., an acting upon. — F., fr. L. affec- 
tidnem, acc. of affectid. See affection, 'feeling'. 

afleer, tr. v., to confirm (Old English law). — AF. 
aferer, corresponding to OF. affewer, afeurer, 

'to tax', fr. VL. *afforare, fr. ad- and L. forum, 
'public place, market', in VL. also 'market price, 
tariff (whence OF. fuer, 'price, tariff, tax). See 

afferent, adj., bringing inward (physiol.) — L. 
afferens, gen. -entis, pres. part, of afferre, 'to 
bring or carry to', fr. ad- and ferre, 'to bear, 
carry'. See bear, 'to carry', and -ent and cp. 

affettuoso, adj. and adv., with feeling (mus.) — 
It., adj., fr. L. affectudsus, 'full of affection or 
love', fr. affectus, 'love, goodwill', fr. afficere 
(pp. affectus), 'to do something to, to affect a 
person with something'. See affect, 'to act upon'. 

affiance, n., trust, faith; promise of marriage. — 
OF. afiance 'confidence, trust', fr. after, 'to 
trust', fr. ML. affiddre, 'to pledge one's faith', 
fr. ad- and L. fiddre, 'to trust', fr. fides, 'faith', 
whence fidelis, 'true, faithful', fidelitds, 'faith- 
fulness, fidelity'. See fidelity and -ance and cp. 
faith, affidavit. Cp. also fiance. 

affiance, tr. v., to promise in marriage. — OF. 
afiancier, fr. afiance. See affiance, n. 
Derivative: affianc-er, n. 

affiche, n., poster. — F., formed fr. a, 'to' (see a), 
and ficher, 'to drive in (a stake or a nail), to 
stick, fix, fasten', fr. VL. *figicdre (contracted 
into *ficcdre), freq. of L.figere, 'to fix, attach'. 
Cp. It. ficcare, OProvenc. ficar, Sp. hincar, 'to 
thrust, drive in', and see fix. Cp. also affix. 

affidavit, n., a sworn statement. — ML. affidavit, 
'he has pledged his faith', perf. tense of affiddre; 
so called from the first word of a sworn state- 
ment. See affiance, n. 

affiliable, adj. — Formed fr. next word with suff. 

affiliate, tr. v. — L. affilidtus, pp. of affilidre, 'to 
adopt as a son', fr. ad- and filius, 'son'. See 

Derivatives: affiliat-ed, adj., affiliation (q.v.) 
affiliation, n. — F., fr. ML. affilidtidnem, acc. of 
affilidtid, fr. L. affilidtus, pp. of affilidre. See af- 
filiate and -ion. 

affine, n., a relative by marriage (obsol.) — OF. 
affin, fr. L. affinis, 'neighboring, related by mar- 
riage', lit. 'bordering on', fr. ad- and /mis, 'bor- 
der, end'. See fine 'end', and cp. the second 
element in chromaffin, paraffin. 
Derivative: affine-ly, adv. 

affined, adj. — F. affine, fr. OF. affin, fr. L. af- 
finis. See prec. word and -ed. 

affinity, n., i) relationship by marriage; 2) close 
relationship; 3) similarity: 4) mutual attraction; 
5) (chem.) the tendency of atoms of certain ele- 
ments to combine. — F. affinite, fr. L. affini- 
tdtem, acc. of affinitds, 'neighborhood, rela- 
tionship by marriage', fr. affinis. See affine and 

affirm, tr. and intr. v. — OF. afermer, fr. L. af- 
firmdre, 'to make steady, to strengthen, corro- 
borate', fr. ad- and firmdre, 'to make firm or 
steady, to strengthen', fr. firmus, 'firm'. See 


firm, adj. F. affirmer and E. affirm have been 
refashioned after Latin affirmare. 

affirmation, n. — F. affirmation, fr. L. affirmd- 
tidnem, acc. of affirmdtio, fr. affirmants, pp. of 
affirmare. See prec. word and -ion. 

affirmative, adj. — F. affirmatif (fem. affirma- 
tive), fr. L. affirmdtivus, fr. affirmatus, pp. of af- 
firmare. See affirm and -ative. 
Derivative: affirmative-ly , adv. 

affix, tr. v. — ML. affixdre, freq. of L. affigere (pp. 
affixus), 'to fasten, fix, or attach to', fr. ad- and 
figere, 'to fasten, fix'. See fix and cp. afiiche. 
Derivatives: affix-al, adj., affix-ation, n.,affix- 
er, n., affix-ture, n. 

affix, n. — F. affixe, fr. L. afflxum, neut. of affix- 
us, pp. of affigere. See affix, v. 

afflatus, n., inspiration. — L. afflatus, 'a blowing, 
breathing, inspiration', fr. afflatus, pp. of af- 
fldre, 'to blow on', fr. ad- and flare, 'to blow'. 
See blow, v., and cp. flatus and words there 
referred to. 

afflict, tr. v., to distress. — L. affilctdre, 'to dam- 
age, harass, torment, distress', freq. of affllgere 
(pp. afflictus), 'to cast down, throw down, over- 
throw', fr. ad- and fligere (pp. flictus), 'to 
strike', which is cogn. with Gk. 9Xf(3etv, 'to 
press, crush', Lett, blaizit, 'to press, crush, 
strike', bliezt, 'to strike', Czech, Pol. bliziia, 
'scar', OSlav. blizi, blizu, 'near', W. blif, 'cata- 
pult', blifaidd, 'quickly'. Cp. conflict, inflict, 
profligate, thlipsis. 

Derivatives: afflict-ed, adj., afflict-er, n., afflict- 
ing, adj., afflict-ing-ly, adv., affliction (q.v.), af- 
flict-ive, adj., afflict-ive-ly , adv. 

affliction, n. — F., fr. L. affiictidnem, acc. of af- 
flictid, 'pain, suffering, torment', fr. afflictus, pp. 
of affligere. See prec. word and -ion. 

affluence, n. — F., fr. L. affluentia, 'a flowing to, 
affluence, abundance', fr. affluens, gen. -entis. 
See next word and -ce and cp. influence. 

affluent, adj., abundant; rich — F., fr. L. affluens, 
gen. -entis, pres. part, of affluere, 'to flow to', 
fr. ad- and fluere, 'to flow'. See fluent and cp. 
afflux, effluent, influent. 
Derivative: affluent, n., a tributary. 

afflux, n. — L. afflitxum, neut. pp. of affluere, 'to 
flow to'. See prec. word and cp. flux. 
Derivative: afflux-ion, n. 

afford, tr. v. — ME. aforthen, fr. OE. gefordian, 
'to further', fr. pref. ge- and fordian, 'to further' 
fr. ford, 'forth'. See forth and cp. further, v. For 
the weakening of the OE. pref. ge- into a- in 
English cp. aware. The spelling afford (with 
double /) is due to a confusion of the Teut. pref. 
a- with L. ad-, 'to', and its assimilated form af- 
before /. See af- and cp. affright. 

affordable, adj. — Formed fr. afford with suff. 
-able; first used by Carlyle. Cp. adoptable, dis- 
likable, forgettable. 

afforest, tr. v., to turn into a forest. — ML. 
afforestare, fr. ad- and forestdre, fr. Late L. 
forestis (scil. silva), 'open woodland'. See forest 

and cp. words there referred to. 
Derivatives: afforest-ation, n., afforest-ment, n. 
affranchise, tr. v. — Fr. F. affranchiss-, pres. part, 
stem of affranchir, 'to free, set free, liberate', fr. 
a, 'to' (see a), and franc, fem. franche, 'free'. See 
ad- and franchise. 
Derivative: affranehise-ment, n. 
affray, tr. v., to frighten. — ME. afraien, affraien, 
formed — with change of prefix — fr. OF. esfreer, 
*esfreier (F. effrayer), 'to frighten, terrify', fr. 
Gaul.-L. *exfriddre, 'to put out of peace', 
fr. L. ex-, 'out of (see ex-), and Frankish 
*fridu, 'peace', which is rel. to OE. fridu, OHG. 
fridu, 'peace, truce', fr. Teut. base *fri-, which 
corresponds to I.-E. base *pri-, 'to be friendly, 
to love', whence OSlav. prijati, 'to aid, help', 
prijatelji, 'friend', OI. prijd-, 'beloved'. Cp. 
OProvenc. esfredar, 'to frighten', which also 
derives fr. Gaul.-L. *exfriddre. See free and 
words there referred to and cp. esp. defray. 
Derivative: affray-er, n. 
affray, n. — ME. afrai, affrai, fr. OF. esfrei (F. 

effroi), fr. esfreer, *esfreier. See prec. word, 
affricate, n. (phonetics). — L. affricatus, pp. of 
affricdre, 'to rub against'. See affricate, v. 
affricate, tr. v., to rub ; to grate on. — L. affricatus, 
pp. of affricdre, 'to rub against', fr. ad- and fri- 
care, 'to rub'. See friction and verbal suff. -ate. 
Derivatives: affricat-ed, adj., affricat-ion, n., 
affricat-ive, adj. 
affright, tr. v., orig. spelled afright. — Meta- 
thesized fr. afyrht, fr. OE. dfyhrt, pp. of dfyrhtan, 
'to frighten', fr. a- (see intensive pref. a-) and 
fyrhtan. See fright, v. For the spelling affright 
(with double /) see afford. Derivatives : affright, 
n., affright-ed, adj., affright-ed-ly , adv. 
affront, tr. v. — OF. afronter (F. affronter), 'to 
strike on the forehead', fr. Late L. affrontdre, 
'to strike against', fr. ad- and L.frons, gen. fron- 
tis, 'forehead'. See front. 

Derivatives: affront, n., affront-ed, adj., aff'ront- 
ed-ly, adv., affront-ed-ness, n., affront-er, n., af- 
front-vie, adj., affront-ine-ness, n. 
affronte, adj., facing each other (her.) — F., pp. 

of affronter, 'to affront'. See affront, 
affuse, tr. v., to pour upon. — L. affusus, pp. of 
affundere, 'to pour upon', fr. ad- and fundere, 
'to pour'. See fuse, 'to melt' and cp. confuse, in- 
fuse, refuse, suffuse, transfuse, 
affusion, n. — L. affiisio, gen. -dnis, 'a pouring 
upon', fr. affusus, pp. of affundere. See prec. 
word and -ion. 
afield, adv. — OE. on felda, 'in the field'. See a-, 

'on', and field, 
afikoman, less exactly atikomen, n., a piece of 
matzah broken off from the central of the three 
matzoth, used at the end of the meal in the 
Seder service (Jewish religion). — Heb. aphi- 
qomdn, fr. Gk. e7r1.Kwu.10v, 'festal procession 
after the meal', prop, subst. use of the neut. of 
the adj. imx.<ZnLioq, 'of, or at, a festal proces- 
sion', fr. ejrt, 'on, upon; at' (see epi-), and x£>u.o<;, 

'banquet, merrymaking, revel'. See comedy, 
afire, adv. and adj. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and 

aflame, adv. and adj. — Formed fr. a- 'on', and 

afheker, adv. and adj., flickering. — Coined by 

Browning fr. a-, 'on', and flicker, 
afloat, adv. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and float, 
aflower, adv. and adj. — Coined by Swinburne 

fr. a-, 'on', and flower, 
aflush, adv. and adj., flushing. — Formed fr. a-, 

'on', and flush, 'a blush', 
aflush, adv. and adj., on a level, even. — Formed 

fr. a- 'on', and flush, 'level', 
afoot, adv. and adj. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and 


afore, adv. — ME. afore, aforn, fr. OE. onforan. 
See a-, 'on', and fore. 

a fortiori, adv., all the more. — L., 'from the 
stronger (reason)', fr. a, 'from' and abl. of 
fortior, compar. of fortis, 'strong'. See a-, 'from', 
fort and -ior. 

afraid, adj. — Orig. pp. of affray, 'to frighten'. 

afreet, n., an evil demon or jinni.— Translitera- 
tion of Arab, 'ifrtt (in vulgar pronunciation 
'afrtt); name of an evil demon or monstrous 
giant in Mohammedan mythology. 

afresh, adv. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and fresh. 

African, adj. and n. — L. Africdnus, fr. Africa, 
fr. Afer, 'African'. 

Afrikander, n., a South African native of Dutch 
descent. — Formed fr. Du. Afrikaner, 'African', 
with d inserted on analogy of Du. Hollander, 
Eng lander, etc. 

aft, adv. — OE. ssftan, 'behind', rel. to Goth. 
aftana, 'from behind', prop, superlatives formed 
fr. OE. xf, af, of, resp. Goth, af, 'of, with the 
Teut. superlative suff. -ta, which corresponds to 
the I.-E. superl. suff. -to (cp. Gk. TrpwToc, 'first', 
superl. of np6, 'before', and see proto-). Cp. 
the first element in eftsoons and the last element 
in abaft. For the orig. comparative form of OE. 
af see next word. 

after, adv. and prep. — ME. after, efter, fr. OE. 
sefter, 'behind in place or time', rel. to ON. eptir, 
'after', aptr, 'back', Dan., Swed. efter, OHG. 
aftar. Goth, aftra, aftaro, 'behind', and cogn. 
with Gk. dcTioj-^p-fj, 'farther off. Suff. -ter has 
comparative force (cp. -ther). After orig. meant 
'more away', and represents the comparative 
form of OE. af, 'off, away', which is cogn. with 
OI. dpa, Gk. aTr6, L. ab, 'away from'. See of and 
cp. words there referred to. Cp. also aft, abaft 

after, adj. — OE. seftera, fr. sefter. See after, prep. 

aftermath, n., prop, '(grass which springs up) after 
(the first) mowing'. — See after and math. 

aftermost, adj. — ME. eftemeste, fr. OE. sefte- 
mest, seftemyst, superlative formed fr. OE. sef 
'of, with the suffixes -re, -me and -st; rel. to 
Goth, aftumists (= af-tu-mi-sts), 'the last', a 
treble superlative formed fr. af, 'of. The double 
superlative suffixes: Goth, -tu-mi- and OE. 

-te-me- are cogn. with OI. -ta-ma (e.g. in 
sreshfhatamah, 'most brilliant', antamah, 'next'), 
Avestic -t e -md (in vahishtdt e md, 'best'), L. -tu- 
mus, -ti-mus (in op-tumus, op-timus, 'best', in- 
timus, 'innermost'). E. aftermost (fr. ME. efte- 
meste) was influenced in form by after and most. 
See aft and -most. For the superl. suff. -tumus, -ti- 
mus, cp. intimate, posthumous, optimism,ultimate, 
maritime. For the Teut. superl. suff. -st (= I.-E. 
-isto) see best. 

afterward, afterwards, adv. — OE. sefterweard, 
compounded of sefter, 'behind', and -weard, 
'toward'. See after and -ward, -wards. 

ag-, assimilated form of ad- before g. 

aga, agha, n., a title of rank, esp. in Turkey. — 
Turk, agha, 'chief, master, lord', rel. to East 
Turkish agha, 'elder brother'. 

again, adv. — ME. agen, agein, fr. OE. ongegn, 
ongean, 'against, again', fr. on, 'on', and gegn, 
gagn (hypothetic forms), which are rel. to OS. 
gegin, 'against', angegin, 'against, again', ON. 
gegn, 'straight, direct', igeng, 'against', Dan., 
Swed. igen, 'again', OFris. jen, OHG. gegin, 
gagan, MHG. gegen, gein, gen, G. gegen (poet, 
also gen), 'against, toward', OHG. ingagan, in- 
gegin, MHG. engegen, G. entgegen, 'against, in 
opposition to, toward'. Cp. against, gaudy, and 
the first element in gainsay, Gegenschein. 

against, prep. — ME. ayeynst, ageinest, againest, 
formed fr. OE. ongegen, ongean, with the ad- 
verbial suff. -es and excrescent -t. See prec. word 
and cp. amidst, amongst, betwixt, whilst. 

agalloch, n., aloewood. — ModL. agattochum, 
fr. Gk. ayaXXoxov, dyaXoxov, 'aloe, aloewood', 
which is prob. a loan word fr. OI. aguruh, 'aloe- 
wood'. Cp. eaglewood. Cp. also aloe. 

agalma, n., statue, image. — Gk. 4yaXu.a, that 
in which one delights, ornament; 'statue', fr. 
aydcXXeiv, 'to glorify, exalt', which is of un- 
certain origin. 

agama, n., name of various Indian scriptures 
(Hinduism). — OI. dgamah, lit. 'coming up', 
from particle a-, 'toward', and the stem of gd- 
mati, 'goes'. OI. a- is rel. to Avestic a- and cogn. 
with Gk. i- (e.g. in e-deXeiv, 'to will'), tj- (e.g. 
in y)-P au ^ ' little > small'), 6- (e.g. in 4-xeXXeiv, 
'to run a ship aground') ; cp. the first element in 
ananda and the second element in Anopheles and 
in samadh. OI. gdmati is rel. to Avestic jamaiti, 
'goes', and cogn. with Gk. (3atvo> (for *fSa[x-j.o>, 
*pdv-uo), 'I go', L. venid (for *g w mid), 'I come', 
Goth, qiman, OE. cuman, 'to come'; see come 
and cp. jagat. 

Agama, n., a genus of lizards (zool.) — ModL., 
fr. Sp. agama, which is of Caribbean origin. 

Agamemnon, n., king of Mycenae, leader of the 
Greeks against Troy. — L., fr. Gk. ' Ayauiu-vow, 
which prob. stands for *'Aya-|ji8[ni>v, lit. 'rul- 
ing mightily', fr. Syav, 'very much', and uiSwv, 
'ruler', prop. pres. part, of the ancient verb 
(x^Seiv, 'to protect, rule over', which derives fr. 
I.-E. base *mtd-, 'to measure, limit, consider', 



a -rf-enlargement of base *me-, 'to measure'. See 
meditate and cp. Medea, Medusa and the second 
element in Andromeda, Diomedes, Ganymede. 

agami, n., the trumpeter (a South American 
bird). — F., fr. Galibi agamy. 

agamic, adj., asexual (biology). — Formed with 
suff. -ic fr. Gk. ayajxo:;, 'unmarried'. See 

Agamidae, n., a family of lizards (zool.) — ModL., 
formed fr. agami with suff. -idae. 

agamo-, before a vowel agam-, combining form 
meaning 'asexual'. — Gk. dya^o-, fr. aya|iO<;, 
'unmarried'. See next word. 

agamous, adj., cryptogamous (hot.) — L. agamus, 
fr. Gk. &ya|xoi;, 'unmarried', fr. d- (see priv. 
pref. a-) and yduo;, 'marriage'. See gamo-. For 
E. -ous, as equiv. to Gk. -oq, L. -us, see -ous. 

agamy, n., absence or non-recognition of mar- 
riage relation. — Gk. dya[/ia, 'celibacy, single 
estate'. See agamous and -y (representing 
Gk. -ia). 

Agapanthus, n., a genus of plants of the lily family 
(bot.) — ModL., lit. 'flower of love', fr. Gk. 
aya^y), 'love', and av&o?, 'flower'. See agape, 
n., and anther. 

agape, adv. and adj., gaping. — Lit. 'on the gape' ; 
coined by Milton fr. pref. a-, 'on', and the noun 
gape. Derivative: agape, adj. 

agape, n., love feast of the early Christians. — 
L., fr. Gk. ayaTTY), 'love', pi. ayctrtai, 'love feast', 
fr. ayocrav, 'to love', which is of uncertain 
origin. Cp. the first element in Agapanthus, 

Agapornis, n., a genus of parrots (ornithol.) — 
ModL. lit. 'bird of love', compounded of iyam], 
'love', and opvic, 'bird'. See agape, n., and orni- 

agar-agar, n., a gelatinous substance obtained 
from dried seaweed. — Malay. 

agaric, n., any fungus of the genus Agaricus. — 
L. agaricum, fr. Gk. dyapixov, 'larch fungus', 
named fr. Agaria, a place in Sarmatia, abound- 
ing in this kind of fungi. Derivative : agaric, adj. 

Agaricaceae, n. pi., a family of fungi (hot.) — 
ModL. formed from Agaricus with suff. -aceae. 

agaricaceous, adj. — See prec. word and -aceous. 

Agaricus, n., a genus of fungi (bot.) — ModL., 
fr. L. agaricum. See agaric. 

Agastache, n., the giant hyssop (bot.) — Gk. dyd- 
iTTotx'J?, 'rich in ears of corn', compounded of 
ayav, 'much', and nxayyc,, 'ear of corn'. The 
first element is of uncertain origin. It possibly 
derives fr. I.-E. *mga- and is rel. to Gk. iisya;, 
'great, large'; see mega-. The second element is 
cogn. with ON. stinga, OE. stingan, 'to thrust'; 
see sting and cp. Stachys. 

agastric, adj. having no stomach (zool.) — Form- 
ed fr. priv. pref. a-, and Gk. yarrrr,p, 'stomach'. 
See gastric. 

agate, n., a kind of chalcedony. — F., fr. L. 
achates, fr. Gk. d^-nr)?, which is of ncertain 
origin. The name of the river Achates m Sicily, 

as well as the name of the faithful friend of Ae- 
neas, prob. derive from Gk. &-/&Trj<;. See Frisk, 
GEW., I, p. 199 s.v. 

agate, adv., on the way. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', 
and gate, 'street'. 

Agatha, fem. PN. — L., fr. Gk. aycdW], fem. of 
dyadic, 'good'. See agatho-. 

Agathis, n., a genus of timber trees of the pine 
family (bot.) — ModL., fr. Gk. dya*Ki;, 'ball of 
thread', which is of unknown origin. 

agathism, n., the doctrine that all things tend 
toward good. — Formed with suff. -ism fr. Gk. 
dya&o?, 'good'. See agatho-. 

agatho-, before a vowel agath-, combining form 
meaning 'good'. — Gk. dya&o-, dyaft-, fr 
dyaS-o?, 'good' ; of uncertain origin. Cp. Aga- 
tha, agathism. 

Agathosma, n., a genus of plants of the rue family 
(bot.) — ModL., lit. 'smelling good', com- 
pounded of Gk. aya&ot;, 'good' (see agatho-), 
and 6<j[xt), 'smell, odor'. See agatho- and 

Agave, n., the mother of Pentheus (Greek my- 
thol.) — L., fr. Gk. ' Ayocur], prop. fem. of dcyauo?, 
'illustrious, noble' (of kings), 'brilliant, glorious' 
(of things), rel. to yaieiv (for *yaf-i£iv), 'to 
rejoice, exult', yaOpo?, 'exulting in something', 
ya&eiv = yr ; S-£iv, 'to rejoice', and cogn. with 
L. gaudere (for *ga w idere), 'to rejoice'. (The d- 
in d-yau6<; has intensive force.) See joy and 
cp. gaud. 

Agave, n., a genus of plants of the amaryllis 
family (bot.) — ModL., fr. prec. word. 

agaze, adv. and adj., gazing. Formed fr. a-, 'on', 
and gaze. 

age, n. — ME., fr. OF. aage, eage (F. age), fr. 
VL. *aetdticum, fr. L. aetdtem (acc. of aetas, 
'age'), whence also It. eta, Catal. edat, Sp. edad, 
Port, idade, 'age'. L. aetas is contracted fr. aevi- 
tds, fr. aevum, 'space of time, eternity'. See aeon 
and cp. eternal. Cp. also coetaneous, coeval, 
longevity, primeval, moyen age. 
Derivatives: age, intr. and tr. v., ag-ed, adj., 
ag-ed-ly, adv., ag-ed-ness, n., age-less, adj. 

-age, suff. forming nouns denoting act, process, 
function, condition, dignity or place. — OF. and 
F. -age, fr. Late L. -dticum, fr. L. -dtus, pp. suff. 
of verbs in -are (i.e. verbs of the 1st conjuga- 
tion). See adj. suff. -ate and cp. -atic. 

agee, adv., awry (dial.) — Formed fr. a- and dial. 
E. gee, 'to turn'. 

Agelaius, n., a genus of birds of the family Icter- 
idae, comprising the blackbird (ornithol.) — 
ModL., fr. Gk. dyeXaio?, 'belonging to a herd, 
gregarious', fr. dye>.7j, 'heard', lit. 'that which 
is led or driven', fr. aysiv, 'to lead', which is 
cogn. with L. agere, 'to drive, lead, do, act'. 
See agent, adj., and cp. words there referred to. 

agency, n. — Late L. agentia (whence also F. 
agence), fr. L. agens, gen. agentis, pres. part of 
agere. See agent, adj. and n., and -cy. 

agenda, n. — L., 'things to be done', neut. pi. 



of agendus, the gerundive of agere. See agent. 
For the use of other Latin gerundives or their 
derivatives in English cp. addendum, Amanda, 
Amandus, avisandum, corrigendum, credenda, 
deodand, dividend, girandole, habendum, hacien- 
da, horrendous, launder, legend, memorandum, 
minuend, Miranda, multiplicand, ordinand, pre- 
bend, propaganda, pudendum, radicand, redden- 
dum, referendum, repetend, reprimand, reverend, 
subtrahend, tremendous. 

agent, adj. — L. agens, gen. agentis, pres. part, 
of agere, 'to set in motion, drive, lead, conduct, 
guide, govern ; to do, act', whence agmen, 'army, 
troop, band, multitude', lit. that which is lead', 
fr. I.-E. base *ag-, 'to drive, lead, act, do', whence 
also Gk. Syeiv, 'to lead, guide, drive, carry 
off', dylvciv, 'to lead, bring', dycov, 'assembly, 
contest in the games', dy<ovi5, 'struggle for vic- 
tory, anguish, agony', dyioyo;, 'leader', dycoyr), 
'a carrying away, a leading', OI. djati, 'drives', 
ajirdh, 'moving, active', Avestic aza'ti, 'drives', 
Toch. A dk-, B Sk-, 'to travel, lead', Arm. acem, 
'I lead, bring', ON. aka, 'to drive'. Cp. agent, 
n. Cp. also abigeat, acorn, acre, act, action, acti- 
vate, actor, actress, actuate, Agelaius, agenda, 
agile, agitate, agminate, -agogue, agonist, ago- 
nize, agony, agrarian, agrestic, agriculture, agrio-, 
agro-, agronomy, Agrostis, Agyieus, aisle, ala, 
ambages, ambagious, ambassador, ambiguous, 
ament, anagogy, antagonist, apagoge, assay, 
Auriga, axilla, axiom, axis, axle, cache, chora- 
gus, clarigation, coact, coagulate, cogent, cogi- 
tate, demagogic, deuteragonist, embassy, epact, 
essay, exact, examen, exigent, exiguous, exility, 
indagate, intransigent, isagoge, paragoge, para- 
gonite, pedagogue, pilgrim, prodigal, protago- 
nist, react, redact, remex, stavesacre, strategy, 
synagogue, transact, tritagonist, and the second 
element in castigate, clarigation, fastigiate, fu- 
migate, fustigate, levigate, litigate, mitigate, na- 
vigate, objurgate, purge, variegate. 

agent, n. — F., in the sense of 'acting force', fr. 
ML. agens, in the sense of 'acting person', fr. 
It. agente; both these words derive fr. L. agens, 
gen. agentis, pres. part, of agere. See agent, adj. 

agential, adj. — Formed fr. agency with suff. 

Ageratum, n., a genus of plants of the thistle 
family (bot.) — ModL. ageratum, fr. Gk. dyvj- 
patTov, neut. of ayrfiaxoc, 'ageless, everlasting', 
fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and y^pa?, 'old age'. 
See geronto-. 

ageustia, ageusia, n., lack of the sense of taste 
(med.) — Gk. dys'jcfTLa, 'a not-tasting, fasting', 
fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) and a derivative of Gk. 
yeikaSai, 'to taste', fr. I.-E. base "geus-, *gus-, 
'to taste, enjoy by tasting'. See choose and cp. 
gust, 'relish'. For the ending see suff. -ia. 

agger, n., mound, rampart (Roman antiq.) — L., 
'heap, pile, dam, dike, mound, rampart', lit. 
things brought together', from the stem of ag- 
gerere, 'to bring to (a place), bring together', 

fr. ad- and gerere, 'to bear, carry'. See gerent 
and cp. exaggerate, 
agglomerate, tr. and intr. v., to gather into a 
mass. — L. agglomerdtus, pp. of agglomerdre, 
'to wind into or as into a ball', fr. ad- and glo- 
merdre, 'to form into a ball', fr. glomus, gen. 
glomeris, 'a ball of yarn'. See glomerate and cp. 

Derivatives: agglomeration (q.v.), agglomerat- 
ive, adj., agglomerat-or, n. 
agglomerate, adj., gathered into a mass. — L. ag- 
glomerdtus, pp. of agglomerdre, See agglome- 
erate, v. 

Derivative: agglomerate, n. 

agglomeration, n. — L. agglomerdtid, gen. -dnis, 
fr. agglomerdtus, pp. of agglomerdre. See agglo- 
merate, v., and -ion. 

agglutinant, adj. uniting. — L. agglutindns, gen. 
-antis. See agglutinate and -ant. 
Derivative: agglutinant, n. 

agglutinate, tr. v., to unite with glue or as with 
glue; intr. v., to unite. — L. agglutindtus, pp. of 
agglutindre, 'to fasten together with glue, to 
fasten to', fr. ad- and gliitindre, 'to glue', fr. 
gluten, gen. glutinis, 'glue'. See gluten, glue and 
verbal suff. -ate. 

Derivatives: agglutin-ated, adj., agglutin-ation, 
n., agglutinat-ive, adj., agglutinat-or, n. 

agglutinate, adj., united. — Sec agglutinate, v. 

agglutinin, n., a substance causing agglutination 
(bacteriology). — Coined by the German bac- 
teriologist Max von Gruber (1853-1927) from 
the stem of L. agglutindre, 'to glue on'. See 
agglutinate and chem. suff. -in. 

aggrandize, tr. v. to make larger, increase. — F. 
agrandiss-, pres. part, stem of agrandir, 'to en- 
large', fr. a, 'to' (sec a), and grandir, 'to in- 
crease', fr. L. grandire, 'to make great, increase', 
fr. grandis, 'great'. See grand. The spelling with 
double g is due to the analogy of Latin words 
beginning with agg- (for ad-g). 
Derivatives: aggrandizement (q.v.), aggrandiz- 
er, n. 

aggrandizement, n. — F. agrandissement, fr. C 
grandir. See prec. word and -ment. 

aggravate, tr. v., to make worse. — L. aggra- 
vdtus, pp. of aggravdre, 'to make heavier, make 
worse', fr. ad- and gravdre, 'to charge with a 
load, to make heavy', fr. gravis 'heavy'. See 
grave, 'weighty', and cp. grieve, 'to feel grief, 

Derivatives :aggravat-ed, adj., aggravat-ing, adj., 

aggravat-ing-ly, adv., aggravation (q.v.), aggra- 

vat-ive, adj., aggravat-or, n. 
aggravation, n. — Late L. aggravated, gen. -dnis, 

fr. L. aggravdtus, pp. of aggravdre. See prec. 

word and -ion. 
aggregable, adj., that can be aggregated. — See 

aggregate and -able, 
aggregate, tr. v. to gather into a mass; to amount 

to. — L. aggregatus, pp. of aggregdre, 'to add 

to, attach oneself to, follow', lit. 'to bring to the 


flock', fr. ad- and gregdre, 'to gather into a 
flock', fr. grex, gen. gregis, 'flock'. See grega- 
rious and verbal suff. -ate and cp. congregate, 
egregious, segregate. 

Derivatives: aggregat-ion, n., aggregat-ive, adj., 
aggregat-or, n., aggregat-ory, adv. 

aggregate, adj., gathered into a mass. — L. aggre- 
gates, pp. of aggregdre. See aggregate, v. 
Derivatives: aggregate, n., a collective mass; 
sum total, aggregate-ly, adv., aggregate-ness, n. 

aggress, intr. v., to start a quarrel. — F. agresser, 
fr. Late L. aggressdre, freq. of L. aggredi(pp. ag- 
gressus), 'to go to, approach, attack', fr. ad- 
and gradi (pp. gressus), 'to step, go', ft. gradus, 
'step'. See grade. For the change of Latin a (in 
gradi) to e (in ad-gressus, ag-gressus) see acce/tf 
and cp. words there referred to. For the form 
of gressus, pp. of gradi, see congress. 
Derivatives: aggression (q.v.), aggress-ive, adj., 
aggress-ive-Iy, adv., aggress-ive-ness, n., 
ior (q.v.) 

aggression, n. — F. agression, fr. L. aggressidnem, 
acc. of aggressid, 'a going to; an attack', fr. 
aggressus, pp. of <w«/r. See prec. word and 

aggrieve, tr. v., 1) to grieve; 2) to injure in one's 
rights. — ME. agreven, fr. OF. agrever, fr. L. 
aggravdre, 'to make heavier*. See aggravate. 
Derivatives: aggriev-ed, adj., aggriev-ed-ly, adv., 
aggriev-ed-ness, n. 

aghast, adj., frightened. — ME. agast, agasted, 
pp. of agasten, 'to frighten', formed fr. intensive 
pref. a- and OE. gxstan, 'to frighten', fr. gist, 
gast, 'spirit'. See ghost and cp. ghastly. Cp. also 
the second element in flabbergast. 

agile, adj., nimble, active. — F., fr. L. agilis, 
'that can be moved easily, nimble, quick', ft. 
agere, 'to move, drive'. See agent, adj., and cp. 
words there referred to. For the ending see 
suff. -ile. 

Derivatives: agile-ly, adv., agile-ness, n., agili- 
ty (Q-v.) 

agility, n. — F. agilite, ft. L. agihtatem, acc. of 
agilitds, 'mobility, nimbleness, quickness', fr. 
agilis. See prec. word and -iry. 

agio, n., the discount paid to exchange one cur- 
rency for another. — It. aggio, agio, fr. dial. It. 
lajje, fr. MGk. dXXiyiov, 'exchange', fr. Gk. 
aXXocYT], 'change'; see allagite. The / in lajje 
was mistaken for the It. def. article and was 
accordingly dropped. 

agiotage, n. — F., fr. agioter, 'to be a stockjob- 
ber', fr. agio. See prec. word and -age. 

agist, tr. v., to take cattle to graze at a certain 
prize. — OF. agister, ft. a, 'to' (see a), and gister 
(F. giter), 'to lodge, lie', ft. giste (F. gite), 'lying 
place, resting place', fr. L. jacita, fern. pp. of 
L. jacere, 'to he', used as a noun. See jet, 'to 
spirt forth', and cp. gist, 'essence'. Cp. also ad- 
jacent, agio. 

agistment, n., l) the act of agisting; 2) an agree- 
ment to agist; 3) profit made by agisting. — 

OF. agistement, fr. agister. See prec. word and 

agistor, agister, n., one who agists. — AF. agis- 
tour, fr. OF. agister. See agist and agential suff. 
-or, resp. -er. 

agitable, adj. — L. agitdbilis, 'that can easily be 
moved', fr. agitdre. See agitate and -able, 
agitate, tr. and intr. v. — L. agitdtus, pp. of agi- 
tdre, 'to put in constant motion, drive, impel', 
freq. of agere, 'to move, drive'. See agent, adj., 
and verbal suff. -ate and cp. cogitate. 
Derivatives: agitat-ed, adj., agitat-ed-ly, adv., 
agitation (q.v.) 

agitation, n. — F., ft. L. agitdtidnem, acc. of agi- 
tdtid, 'motion, agitation', fr. agitdtus, pp. of 
agitdre. See agitate and -ion. 
Derivative: agitation-al, adj. 
agitato, adj. agitated (musical direction). — It., 
pp. of agitate, ft. L. agitdre. See agitate, 
agitator, n. — L., fr. agitdtus, pp. of agitdre. See 
agitate and agential suff. -or. 
Agkistrodon, n., a genus of pit vipers (zoo/.) — 
ModL., compounded of Gk. #Yxt<TTpov, 'fish- 
hook', and oStiv, gen. oSovto?, 'tooth'. The 
first element is rel. to Syxoi;, 'a bend, hollow', 
ayxwv, 'elbow', lit. 'the bend of the arm', and 
cogn. with L. angulus, 'angle, corner'; see 
angle, 'corner'. For the second element see 

Aglaia, n., one of the Graces in Greek mythol- 
ogy. _ L.,fr. Gk. ' AyXata, lit. 'splendor, beau- 
ty, brightness', fr. <xyXa6i;, 'splendid, beautiful, 
bright', which is of uncertain origin. It pos- 
sibly stands for *a-yXaF6<; and is formed fr. 
copul. pref. a- and I.-E. base *gl-, zero degree of 
base *gel-, 'clear, serene, cheerful, lovely; to 
laugh'. Copul. pref. a- (in *a-yXaF6<;) stands 
for I.-E. *sm-, a weak gradational form of I.-E. 
base *sem-, 'one, together'; see same. Fr. base 
*gel- derive Gk. y<xkrp6$, 'calm, serene', rctXfynr], 
'stillness of wind and wave', yeXav, 'to laugh', 
'laughter'; see geloto- and cp. words 
there referred to. 

Aglaspis, n., a genus of Cambian Xiphosura 
(paleontol.) — ModL., lit. 'with a glittering 
shield', contracted ft. Gk. ayXaos, 'splendid, 
beautiful, bright', and dtams, 'shield'. See 
Aglaia and aspidium. 
agleam, adv. and adj., gleaming. — Formed fr. 
a-, 'on', and gleam. 

aglet, aiglet, n., the metal tag of a lace. — F. 
aiguillette, dimin. of aiguille, 'needle', ft. VL. 
*acucula, corresponding to L. acicula, dimin. of 
acus, 'needle'. Cp. It. agucchia, OProvenc., Port. 
agulha, Sp. aguja, 'needle', and see acus, aiguil- 
le. For the ending see suff. -et 
agley, adv., awry (chiefly Scot.). — Formed fr. 
a- 'on', and Scot, gley, 'to squint'. 
Aglossa, n. pi., a suborder of amphibians (zool.) 
— ModL., fr. Gk. &f\uaao<;, 'tongueless'. See 
next word. 

aglossal, adj., tongueless. — Formed with adj. 



suff. -al fr. Gk. SyXoictoc., 'without a tongue', 
fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and yXcoaaa, 'tongue'. 
See gloss, 'note', and cp. prec. word, 
aglow, adv. and adj., in a glow. — Formed fr. 
a-, 'on', and glow. 

agmatine, n. , name of the base C 5 H 14 N 4 (biochem.) 

— Coined by the German physiological chemist 
Albrecht Kossel (1853-1927) fr. Gk. ay^a, gen. 
dtyiiaxo;, 'fragment', and chem. suff. -ine. Gk. 
«YH.a is rel. to Syvuixi (for *Fa.yv\i[Li), 'I break', 
and cogn. with Toch. wdk-, 'to burst, crack', in 
the causative form, 'to cause to split, to dis- 
tinguish', wdkdm, 'peculiarity'. See Frisk, GE W., 
I, p. 13 s.v. ayvupn. 

agmatology, n., the study of fractures in surgery. 

— Compounded of Gk. (, gen. Hy^oc,, 
'fragment*, and -Xoyia, fr. -X6yo<;, 'one who 
speaks (in a certain manner); one who deals 
(with a certain topic)'. See agmatine and -logy. 

agminate, agminated, adj., grouped. — Formed 
with adj. suff. -ate, resp. also -ed, fr. L. agmen, 
gen. -minis, 'multitude in motion, crowd, army', 
lit. 'that which moves', fr. agere, 'to set in mo- 
tion, drive'; cogn. with OI. djmah, 'path', Gk. 
oyixoi;, 'furrow; path'. See agent, adj., and -men. 

agnail, n., a hangnail. — OE. angnsegl, 'worn on 
the foot', compounded of ang- (used only in 
compounds), 'narrow, painful', and nsegl, 'nail'. 
The first element is rel. to OE. enge, 'narrow'; 
see anger. For the second element see nail. Cp. 

agnate, adj., sprung from the same male ances- 
tor. — L. agndtus, 'related by the father's side', 
lit. 'born to', pp. of agndsci, 'to be bom in ad- 
dition to', fr. ad- and OL. gndsci (whence L. 
nasci), 'to be born'. See natal and cp. cognate, 

Derivatives: agnate, n., agnat-ic, adj. 
agnation, n., an agnate relationship. — L. ag- 
natio, gen. -onis, ft. agndtus. See prec. word 
and -ion. 

agnathous, adj., having no jaws. — Formed fr. 
priv. pref. a- and Gk. yvafto?, 'jaw'. See gna- 
thic and -ous. 

Agnes, fern. PN. — L. Agnes, fr. Gk. 'Ayvtj, lit. 
'pure, chaste', fern, of ocyvo!;. See agnus castus 
and cp. Inez. The most frequent ME. forms of 
the name Agnes were Annis, Annys. Cp. Nancy. 

Agni, n., one of the chief gods of the Vedas. — 
OI. Agnih, 'the god of fire', fr. agnih, 'fire', which 
is cogn. with L. ignis, 'fire'. See igneous. 

agnize, tr. v., to recognize (archaic). — Formed 
fr. L. agnoscere on analogy of recognize (fr. L. 

agnoiology, n., the doctiine of ignorance (philos.) 
— Coined by J.-F. Ferrier in 1854 fr. Gk. Gtyvoia, 
'ignorance', and -Xoyta, ft- -Xoyot;, 'one who 
speaks (in a certain manner); one who deals 
(with a certain topic)'. Gk. Scyvoia is formed 
fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and the stem of yiyvco- 
oxeiv, 'to know'; see gnostic and cp. agnostic. 
For the second element see -logy. 

agnomen, n., name added to the surname (Roman 
antiq.) — L. agnomen, fr. ad- and OL. gndmen 
(whence L. ndmen), 'name'. See name and cp. 
nominal. Cp. also cognomen. 

agnostic, n., one who professes that the existence 
of a First Cause and the essential nature of 
things are not and cannot be known. — Coined 
by Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-95) in 1869 on 
analogy of gnostic fr. Gk. aYvoKJxo?, 'unknown, 
not to be known'. See priv. pref. a- and gnostic. 
Derivative: agnostic, adj. 

agnosticism, n., the doctrine of agnostics. — 
Formed fr. prec. word with suff. -ism. 

agnus castus, n., an ornamental tree. — L. ; agnus 
derives fr. Gk. ccyvcx;, 'a willowlike tree, used 
at religious festivals, the chaste tree', which is 
of unknown origin. This word was confused 
both with L. agnus, 'lamb', and Gk. <xyv6?, 
'sacred, chaste', whence arose the name agnus 
castus, prop, 'the chaste lamb', and, as a loan 
translation of this latter name, G. Keuschlamm, 
and E. chaste tree. For the etymology of castus 
see chaste. Cp. the second element in Elaeagnus. 

ago, adv. — Prop. pp. of ME. agon, 'to go away', 
fr. OE. dgdn, 'to go away, pass by', ft. intensive 
pref. a- and gdn, 'to go'. See go. 

agog, adverb and adj., in a state of excitement. — 
F. en gogues, 'mirthful'. Cp. etre en goguette(s), 
'to be on the spree', goguenard, 'mocking, ban- 
tering'. All these words derive from *gog-, a 
base of imitative origin. 

-agogue, combining form meaning 'leading, guid- 
ing', as in demagogue, pedagogue. — Gk. -ocyo)- 
y6;, fr. aycoYoi;, 'leader', fr. ctyeiv, 'to lead'. See 
agent, adj. 

agomphious, adj., toothless. — Coined by the 
German naturalist Ch. G. Ehrenberg (1 795- 1 876) 
from priv. pref. a- and Gk. you^o? (scil. iSoiv), 
'grinder tooth', fr. you-tpo?, 'bolt, nail'. Seegom- 
phosis and -ous. 

agonic, adj., not forming an angle. — Formed 
with suff. -ic fr. Gk. Sytovoi;, 'without angles', 
fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and y<ovti, 'angle'. See 

agonist, n., a contender in public games. — Gk. 

aytoviaTT)?, 'combatant; actor', fr. aywv^Ea&ai. 

See agonize and -ist and cp. antagonist, deutera- 

gonist, protagonist, tritagonist. 

Derivatives: agonist-ic, adj., agonist -ic-al-ly, 

adv., agonistics (q.v.) 
agonistics, n., athletics. — See prec. word and -ics. 
agonize, intr. v., to suffer extreme pain; tr. v. to 

cause extreme pain, to torture. — F. agoniser, 

'to begin death agony', fr. ML. agdnizdre, fr. 

Gk. ivov'.'Tsa&o!!, ' ,0 contenfl f° r a P" 7 ^ 10 
struggle', fr. 4yo>v 'assembly; contest in the 
games'. See agony and -ize. 
Derivatives: agoniz-er, n., agonu-ing, adj., ag- 
oniz-ing-ly, adv. 
agonothete, n., leader of the public games in an- 
cient Greece. — Gk. dcyowoSi-nf]?, 'judge of the 
contest', formed fr. &y<ov, 'contest', and the 



stem of -uS-svai, 'to put, place'. See agony and 

agony, n., extreme pain. — OF. (= F.) agonie, 
fr. Eccles. L. agonia, fr. Gk. <xy<ovta, 'struggle', 
orig. 'struggle for victory in the games', fr. aycov, 
'assembly, contest in the games', fr. iysiv, 'to 
lead, guide', which is cogn. with L. agere, 'to 
set in motion, drive, lead'. See agent and -y 
(representing Gk. -ta) and cp. agonist, 
agora, n., an assembly; the place of assembly; 
the market place. — Gk. dyopa, rel. to aysipetv, 
'to assemble', ayupi?, 'assembly', ayupTT)?, 
'beggar', and cogn. with L. grex, gen. gregis, 
'flock'. See gregarious and cp. the second ele- 
ment in allegory, category, panegyric, paregoric 
agoranome, n., a superintendent of the market 
{Greek antiq.) — L. agq^dnomus, fr. Gk. ayopa- 
v6u,o<;, 'clerk of the market', fr. ayopa, 'market' 
and the stem of veueiv, 'to divide, distribute'. 
See agora and Nemesis, 
agoraphobia, n., morbid fear of being in open 
spaces {med.) — Coined by Westphal in 1871, 
who first described this morbid condition. The 
word lit. means 'fear of a public place.' See 
agora and -phobia, 
agouti, aguti, aguty, n., a Central- American and 
West-Indian rodent. — F., fr. Sp. aguti, a native 
Indian name, 
agraffe, n., hook, clasp. — F. agrafe, back forma- 
tion fr. agrafer, 'to hook, fasten', fr. a, 'to' 
(see a), and OF. grafer, 'to fasten with a hook', 
fr. grafe, 'hook', fr. OHG. krdpfo, 'hook'. 
See grape. 

agraphia, n., inability to write; a form of aphasia 
( me d.) — Medical L., formed fr. priv. pref. a- 
and -graphia. 

agrarian, adj., 1) of the land; 2) of agriculture. — 
Formed with suff. -an fr. L. agrdrius, 'pertaining 
to land', fr. ager, gen. agri, 'field, land', which 
is rel. to Umbr. ager and cogn. with Gk. iypo?, 
'field', Goth, akrs, OE. secer, 'field'. See acre 
and agent and cp. agriculture. Cp. also acorn, 
agrestic, agrio-, agro-, Agrostis and the second 
element in onager. 
Derivative: agrarian, n. 

agree, intr. v. — ME. agreen, fr. OF. agreer (F. 
agreer), 'to receive with favor', fr. a (F. a), "to' 
(see a), and gre (F. gre), 'will, pleasure', fr. L. 
gratum, neut. of the adjective grams, 'acceptable, 
pleasing, agreeable, grateful', used as a noun. See 
grateful and cp. the second element in maugre. 
Derivatives : agreeable (q.v.), agre-ed, adj., agre- 
ed-ly, adv., agree-ing, adj., agree-ing-ly, adv., 
agreement (q.v.) 
agreeable, adj. — ME. agreable, fr. OF. agreabie 
(F. agreable). See agree and -able. 
Derivatives: agreeabil-ity, n., agreeable-ness, n., 
agreeabl-y, adv. 
agreement, n. — OF. agrement (F. agrement), fr. 

agreer. See agree and -ment. 
agrestic, adj., rustic, rural. — L. agrestis, 'per- 
taining to the fields', fr. ager, 'field'; see agrar- 

ian. Agrestis has been dissimilated fr. *agrestris. 
(Cp. campestris, 'relating to the field', fr. cam- 
pus, 'field', and terrestris, 'earthly', fr. terra, 

agricolite, n., silicate of bismuth {mineral.) — 
Named after the German mineralogist Georg 
Agricola (H94-I555)- For the ending see subst. 
suff. -ite. 

agriculturalist, n., a farmer. — Formed fr. L. 
agricultura (see agriculture) with the suffixes -al 
and -ist. Cp. agriculturist. 

agriculture, n. — F., fr. L. agricultura, lit. 'culti- 
vation of the land', compounded of ager, gen. 
agri, 'field, land', and cultura, 'cultivation'. See 
agrarian and culture. 

Derivatives: agricultur-al, adj., agriculturalist, 
agriculturist (qq.v.) 

agriculturist, n., an agriculturalist {rare). — 
Formed with suff. -ist fr. L. agricultura. See 
prec. word. 

Agrimonia, n., a genus of herbs {bot.) — ModL. 

See next word, 
agrimony, n. — L. agrimonia, fr. Gk. apyejiuvT], 

'a kind of poppy', which is prob. borrowed fr. 

Heb. argdmdn, 'purple' ; influenced in form by 

L. ager, gen. agri, 'field'. See Argemone. 
agrimotor, n., a machine used in agriculture. — 

Compounded of L. ager, gen. agri, 'field' (see 

agrarian), and E. motor. 

agrio-, combining form meaning 'wild'. — Gk. 
aypio-, fr. Sypioq, 'wild', lit. meaning 'living in 
the fields', fr. i-{p6q, 'field', which is cogn. with 
L. ager, 'field'. See agrarian. 

agriology, n. the study of prehistoric human cus- 
toms. — Compounded of agrio- and Gk. -Xoyta, 
fr. -Xoyo;, 'one who speaks (in a certain man- 
ner); one who deals (with a certain topic)'. 
See -logy. 

agrito, n., name of the plant called scientifically 
Mahonia trifoliata. — Sp., fr. agrio, 'sour', fr. 
VL. acrus, fr. L. deer, 'sharp', in VL. also 'sour'. 
Cp. F. aigre, 'sour', which also derives fr. VL. 
acrus, and see acrid. Cp. also eager and the 
second element in vinegar. 

agro-, combining form meaning 'pertaining to 
agriculture". — Gk. iypo-, fr. ayp^, 'field', 
which is cogn. with L. ager, 'field'. See agrarian. 

agronomy, n., the science of crop production; 
management of land. — F. agronomie, fr. Gk. 
dcypovonos, 'rural', which is compounded of 
iypo;, 'field' and the stem of vs|xetv, 'to as- 
sign, manage', 'to drive (cattle) to pasture'. See 
agrarian and Nemesis. 

Derivatives: agronom-ic, agronom-ic-al, adjs., 
agronom-ics, n., agronom-ist, n. 
Agropyron, n., a genus of perennial grasses {bot.) 
— ModL., lit. 'field wheat', fr. Gk. ayoo?, 
'field', and 7r0p6s, corn, wheat'. The first ele- 
ment is cogn. with L. ager, 'field'; see agrarian. 
For the second element see pyrene and cp. words 
there referred to. 
Agrostemma, n., a genus of plants of the pink 



family; the corn cockle {bot.) — ModL. lit. 
'crown of the field', fr. Gk. ayp6;, 'field', and 
CTTE|j.(xa, 'wreath'. See agro- and stemma. 

Agrostis, n., a genus of grasses, the bent grass 
{bot.) — L. agrostis, 'couch grass', fr. Gk. 
fiypwtjTtq, fr. dcypo?, 'field'. See agro-. 

agrostology, n., that branch of botany which deals 
with grasses. — Compounded of Gk. #ypcocm<;, 
'grass', and -Xoyta, fr. -Xoyo?, 'one who speaks 
(in a certain manner); one who deals (with a 
certain topic)'. See Agrostis and -logy. 

aground, adv. {naut.) — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and 

agrypnia, n., sleeplessness {med.) — Medical L., 
fr. Gk. dcypu7rvta, sleeplessness, wakefulness', 
fr. aypuTnio?, 'wakeful', which is compounded 
of aypo;, 'field', and utzvos, 'sleep'; the orig. 
meaning of aypo7rvo.; was 'sleeping in the field'. 
See agro- and hypno-. 

aguardiente, n., spirituous liquor. — Sp., lit. 
'burning water', compounded of agua, 'water' 
fr. L. aqua, and ardiente, fr. L. ardentem, acc. of 
ardens, pres. part, of ardere, 'to burn'. See aqua- 
tic and ardent. 

ague, n., malarial fever. — OF. ague, 'an acute 
fever', prop. fern, of the adjective agu (F. aigu), 
'sharp, acute (scil. fever)', fr. L. {febris) acuta, 
'an acute fever', fern, of acutus, 'sharp, acute'. 
See acute. 

Derivatives: agu-ish, adj., agu-ish-ly, adv., agu- 
ish-ness, n., ague-like, adj. 
agunah, n., a woman prevented from remarrying 
because she has no proof of hei- husband's death 
{Jewish religion). — Heb. 'dghund n , lit.'restrained 
(from marrying)', passive fern. part, of 'dghdn, 
'he restrained, shut up', which is rel. to Arab. 
'd'jama, IV (= causative) form of stem '-j-m, 'to 
shut up'. 

Agyieus, n., a name of Apollo {Greek mylhol.) — 
Gk. 'AyjiEu;, lit. 'guardian of the streets', fr. 
ayjia, 'street', lit. 'that through which some- 
thing is led or driven', fr. ocyeiv, 'to drive', 
which is cogn. with L. agere, 'to set in motion, 
drive; to do, act'. See agent, adj. 
agynary, adj., having no female organs {bot.) — 
Formed fr. priv. pref. a-, Gk. yjvV;, 'woman' 
(see gyneco-), and adj. suff. -ary. 
ah, interj. — Of imitative origin, 
ana, interj. — Of imitative origin. 
Ahabah Rabbah, the second of two benedictions 
preceding the Shema in the morning prayer 
{Jewish liturgy). — Heb. ahdbhd" rabbd", lit. 
with great love' (so called from the two first 
words of the text of the benediction). Ahdbhd", 
love', derives fr. ahdbh, 'he loved', which is rel. 
*o Aram, ahdbh, 'he loved', and possibly also 
**> Arab, hdbba, 'he was moved'. Rabbd h is fern. 
°f rabh, 'great' (whence Mishnaic Heb. rabh, 
**»sster'). See rabbi and cp. the first element in 

^ahath Olam, the second of the two benedic- 
tions preceding the Shema in the evening prayer 

{Jewish liturgy). — Heb. ahabhdth 'dldm, 'with 
everlasting love' (so called from the two first 
words of the text of the benediction). Ahabhdth 
is the state construct of ahdbhd", 'love'; see 
prec. word. 'Oldm means 'eternity' (in Mishnaic 
Hebrew also 'world') ; see Olam Habba. 

Ahasuerus, n., name of a Persian king {Bible); 
identical with Xerxes. — Heb. Ahashwerosh (al- 
so, in the kethib of the Book of Esther 10:1, 
Ahashresh), fr. OPers. Xshaydrshan- (whence 
also Gk. Elp^;), 'lit. 'male (i.e. hero) among 
kings', fr. xshaya-, 'king', and arshan-, 'male, 
man'. The first element derives fr. I.-E. base 
*qpe{i)-, *qp e {i)-, 'to rule' ; see check, 'a sudden 
stop'. The second element is cogn. with Gk. 
apCTTjv, 'male, masculine', OI. [sabhdh, 'bull, 
steer', fr. I.-E. base *eras-, *ras-, *eres-, *ers-, 
'to flow, wet, moisten', whence also L. ros, gen. 
rdris, 'dew' ; see roric and cp. rasa. Cp. Xerxes. 

ahead, adv. and adj. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and 

aheap, adv. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and heap. 

ahem, interj. — Of imitative origin. 

Ahi, a serpent in Vedic mythology, identified 
with Vritra. — OI. dhih, 'serpent', rel. to Avestic 
azish and cogn. with Gk. £x'?» 'viper', L. anguis, 
'serpent, snake'. See anguine and cp. echidna. 

ahoy, interj. — A natural sound, compounded of 
the interjections a, 'ah', and ho y. See ah and hoy. 

Ahriman, n., the spirit of evil in the Zoroastrian 
religion. — Gk. 'Apeiu-avtoc. (in Aristotle) or 
'Apei|iivY]<; (in Agathias), fr. Avestic afira mai- 
nyu, 'the evil (lit. hostile) spirit'. 

ahull, adv. {naut.) — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and 
hull, 'body of a ship'. 

ahura, n., a benevolent deity {Persian mythology). 
— Avestic ahura-, 'a god, a good spirit', rel. to 
OI. dsurah, of same meaning. Sec asura and cp. 
the first element in Ormazd. 

Ahura-Mazda, n. — See Ormazd. 

ai, n., the three-toed sloth. — Tupi at, a word 
imitative of the cry of the animal. 

aid, tr. v. — OF. aidier, aider (F. aider), fr. L. 
adjutdre, 'to help', freq. of adjuvdre (pp. adju- 
tus), 'to help', sustain', fr. ad- and juvdre, 'to 
help', which is of uncertain origin. Cp. adju- 
tant, adjuvant, coadjutor, jocund, jury, adj. 
Derivatives: aid-er, n., aid-ful, adj. 

aid,n. — OF.(= F.) aide, back formation ix. aider. 
See aid, v. 

aide-de-camp, aid-de-camp, n. — F. aide-de-camp, 
lit. 'camp assistant'. See aid, n., and camp. 

aigrette, n., egret. — F. aigrette. See egret. 

aiguille, n., 1) a peak shaped like a needle; 2) a 
needlelike borer. — F., 'a needle', fr. VL. 
*acucula. See aglet. 

aiguillette, n., an aglet. — F., dimin. of aiguille, 
'needle'. See prec. word and -ette. 

aikinite, n., a sulfobismutite of lead and copper 
{mineral.) — Named after the English mineral- 
ogist Arthur Aikin. For the ending see subst. 
suff. -ite. 


ail, tr. and intr. v. — ME. eilen, ailen, fr. OE. 
eglan, 'to molest, trouble', rel. to Goth, agls, 
'shameful', agio, 'distress, oppression', us-agljan, 
'to oppress'. 

Derivatives: ail-ing, adj., ail-ment, n. 

Ailanthus, more correctly Ailantus, the tree of 
heaven (bot.) — ModL., fr. Amboyna ailanto, 
'tree of the gods', or 'tree of heaven'. The spell- 
ing ailanthus is due to a confusion of the end 
of this word with Gk. Sv$o<;, 'flower'. 

aile, winged (her.) — F., 'winged', fr. aile, 'a 
wing*, fr. L. ala. See aisle and cp. aileron, 

aileron, n., hinged flap of the wing of an air- 
plane. — F., 'little wing', dimin. of aile, fr. OF. 
ele, fr. L. ala, 'wing'. See aisle and cp. words 
there referred to. 

ailette, n., a steel plate woiji on the shoulders for 
protection. — F., 'little wing', dimin. of aile, 
•wing', fr. L. ala, 'wing'. See aisle and cp. pre- 
ceding word. For the ending see suff. -ette. 

ailurophile, ailurophil, n., a lover of cats. — Com- 
pounded of Gk. oc'iXoupo;, 'cat', and -cpiXo;, 
'loving'. For the first element see Ailurus, for the 
second see -phile. 

ailurophobia, n., morbid fear of cats. — Com- 
pounded of Gk. aXXoupoz, 'cat', and -<po(iia, 
'fear of, fr. 96(30;, 'fear'. See prec. word and 

Ailurus, n., the genus consisting of the panda 
(zool.) — ModL., fr. Gk. atXoupoi;, 'cat', which 
is of uncertain origin; its derivation fr. Gk. 
aloXoq, 'quick moving, rapid', and oupa, 'tail', 
is folk etymology. Cp. aeluro-. 

aim, intr. and tr. v. — ME. aimen, eimen, fr. OF. 
aesmer, which is formed fr. a, 'to' (see a), and 
esmer, fr. L. aestimdre, 'to estimate'. See esteem. 
Derivatives: aim, n., aim-less, adj., aim-less- 
ly, adv. 

air, n., atmosphere. — ME. aire, fr. OF. (=■ F.) 
air, fr. L. aer (whence also Rum. aer, OProvenc., 
Catal., Sp. aire, Port, air, 'air'), which derives 
fr. Gk. <*T)p, gen. i\tpos, Att. gen. depo;, 'air' 
(from the Att. acc. aipa is borrowed It. aria, 
'air'). Gk. a-r;p (cp. the parallel forms Aeol. 
auTjp, Dor. a^p) and the rel. aupa, 'air in 
motion, breeze', are of uncertain origin. They 
are possibly rel. to detpeiv, 'to lift up, raise', 
and lit. mean 'that which rises'. See aorta, and 
cp. aerate, aerial, aero-, the first element in 
aerostat, and the second element in malaria. 
Derivatives: air, v., air-able, adj., air-er, n., air- 
ing, n., air-less, adj., air-y, adj., air-i-ly, adv., 
air-i-ness, n. 

air, n., melody, tune. — F., fr. It. aria, of s.m., 
fr. L. derea, fern, of the adjective aereus, 'per- 
taining to the air', fr. aer, 'air'. See prec. word 
and cp. aria. 

airplane, n. — Compounded of air and plane. 
See aeroplane. 

aisle, n . _ ME. He, ele, fr. OF. ele (F. aile), 
•wine', fr. L. ala. of s.m., which stands for *ag- 

s-ld and is rel. to axilla, 'armpit', and cogn. with 
OI. dksah, 'collarbone', Avestic ashayi (dual 
gen.), 'of both shoulders', Arm. anut (for *as- 
nut'), 'armhole', OHG. ahsala, MHG. ahsel, 
G. Achsel, ON. dxl, OS. ahsla, OE. eaxl, 
'shoulder'. All these words are formed fr. I.-E. 
base *ag-, 'to move, drive', with reference to 
the arms moved from the shoulders. See agent, 
adj., and cp. aileron, ailette, alar, alate, aliform, 
aliped, alula, axil, axilla, axillary, axle, oxter, 
and the second element in bezel. 
Derivative: aisl-ed, adj. 
aitch, also ache, n., name of the letter h in Eng- 
lish. — ME. ache, fr. OF. ( = F.) ache, which 
is of uncertain origin. It possibly derives— to- 
gether with It. acca and Port, agd, of s.m.— 
from a form *hakka, which would stand for 
orig. ha-ka (for h-k, i.e. h and k (as the con- 
sonant following h in the alphabet). The deriva- 
tion of the French name of the letter h fr. F. 
hache, 'ax' (in allusion to the form of the small 
h which resembles an ax) is contradicted by the 
fact that whereas the letter h is called acca in It. 
and agd in Port., the It., resp. Port, name for 
the ax is accia, resp. facha. 
aitchbone, n. — Fr. ME. a nache bone, fr. OF. nache, 
pi., 'rump', fr. VL. *natica, fr. L. natis, which is 
cogn. with Gk. v<5to?,v&tov, 'back'; see nates. 
The loss of the initial n is due to a misdivision 
of a nache bone into an ache bone. Cp. adder, 
apron, auger, ekename, ouch, umble pie, umpire. 
ajar, adv., on the turn, slightly opened. — ME. 
on char, 'on the turn*, fr. a-, 'on', and ME. 
chearr, char, 'a turn', fr. OE. cierr, cyrr. See 
char, 'a turn of work', and cp. words there 
referred to. 

ajar, adv., out of harmony. — Compounded of 
a- 'on' and jar, 'creak'. 

Ajax, n., in the Iliad, the name of two Greek 
heroes of the Trojan war: Ajax the Greater, son 
of Telamon, and Ajax the Less, son of Oileus.— 
L. Ajax, fr. Gk. ACS;. The name Aia; prob. 
denoted orig. an earth god and derives fr. Gk. 
ala, 'earth'. See Kretschmer in Glotta 15.1927, 
and Frisk, GEW. I, p. 30. 
ajonjoli, n., sesame. — Sp. ajonjoli fr. Arab, al- 
juljuldn, lit. 'the sesam', altered in Spain into al- 
juljulfn (cp. the Sp. variant aljonjoli). 
Ajuga, n., a genus of plants of the mint family; 
the bugle weed (bot.) — A ModL., hybrid 
coined fr. Gk. privative pref. a- and L. jugum, 
'joke' (see jugular and yoke); so called from the 
seeming absence of the upper lip of the corolla, 
akasa. n., the name of space in Sankhya philo- 
sophy. — OI. akasa-, 'space', formed fr. em- 
phatic pref. a and kdsate, 'appears, shines', prob. 
from I.-E. base *q"ek-, *q w eg-, whence also 
Avestic (ashman, 'eye', dkasat, 'he beheld', Gk. 
•ribtticop, later form Tfotjiap (prob. for *q w ek- 
mor), 'sign, token', OSlav. kazo, kazati, 'to 
show'. Cp. ukase, 
akerite, n., a quartz syenite (petrogr.) — Named 



after Aker in Sweden. For the ending see subst. 
suff. -ite. 

akimbo, adv. and adj. — ME. in kenebowe, prob. 
of Scand. origin. Cp. Icel. kengboginn, 'bent into 
a curve', and see kink and bow, 'a weapon'. 

akin, adj. — Formed fr. a-, 'of, and kin. 

akinesia, n., absence of motion in a muscle (med.) 

— Medical Latin, fr. priv. pref. a- and Gk. xl- 
V7]m<;, 'motion', fr. xTveiv, 'to move'. See ki- 
nesis and -ia. 

Akkadian, also Accadian, adj. and n. — Formed 
with suff. -ian fr. Heb. Akkdd (Gen. 10:10), 
name of a district and city in Babylonia. 

al-, assimilated form of ad- before /. 

-al, suff. forming adjectives, as in royal, or sub- 
stantives of adjectival origin, as in rival. — 
Either fr. F. -al, -el, or directly fr. L. adj. suff. 
-dlis. In many cases the suff. -dlis was used al- 
ready in Latin both adjectivally and substanti- 
ally (cp. L. rivdlis, 'pertaining to a brook; one 
who uses the same brook; neighbor; competi- 
tor, rival', and see rival). Cp. the suffixes -ial 
and -ar. 

-al, suff. forming verbal nouns, as arrival, avow- 
al. — L. -alia, neut. pi. of -dlis, but in Vulgar 
Latin mistaken for the fern. sing. suff. ; formed 
either directly from Latin or through the medi- 
um of OF., F. -aille (as in OF. arrivaille, etc.). 

-al, chem. suff. denoting aldehyde as in broma/, 
chloral. — F. , from the first syllable of aldehyde. 

ala, n., a wing or anything similar to a wing (anat.) 

— L. See aisle and cp. alar. 

a la, short for d la mode, 'in the fashion or style 
of, as a la francaise, 'in the French fashion or 
style'. — See a and file. 

alabamine, n., name of a chemical element dis- 
covered in 1 93 1 by the American chemist Fred 
Allison (1882- ) and his collaborators and 
named by them after the Alabama Polytechnic 
Institute; now called astatine. For the ending 
see chem. suff. -ine. 

alabandite, n., manganese sulfide (mineral.) — 
Named after Alabanda in Asia Minor. For the 
ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

alabarch, n., title of the chief official of the Jews 
of Alexandria during the Grecian period. — 
Gk. aXipipxT)?, which lit. means 'ink ruler', 
and origin, denoted an official in charge of 
the 'written' notes or records. — Gk. aXoc- 
(Bapyrji;, is compounded of £Xa(3a, 'ink* (He- 
sychius), and ap/o;, 'leader, chief, ruler' (see 
-arch). The parallel form dtpaPapx?); is second- 
ary and due to assimilation — Most diction- 
aries either do not deal with the etymology of 
the word alabarch at all, or content themselves 
with the stereotypic remark : 'origin unknown' . — 
In the Addenda et Corrigenda to Liddell and 
Scott's Greek-English Lexicon, new (ninth) ed. 
(reprinted 195'), P- 2053a s.v. ' Apa(3apx7)S, the 
word 'AXapdtpxi? is explained as dissimilated 
fr. 'ApaPapxT)?, 'ruler of the Arabs, emir'. — 
The fact is, however, that we must distinguish 

between 'Apa(3dpxif]<; in the sense of 'Ruler of 
the Arabs', and apafSapx^;, the assimilated 
form of aXaPapx^is, title of the chief magistrate 
of the Jewish population in Alexandria, a name 
which has nothing to do with the Arabs, 
alabaster, n., a translucent whitish kind of gyp- 
sum. — OF. alabastre (whence F. albdtre), fr. 
L. alabaster, fr. Gk. dXdpaaxpo;, dXd[3aaTpov, 
fr. earlier aXtkfiaa-zoQ, fr. Egypt *a-la-baste, 
'vessel of the goddess Ebaste (= Bubaste). See 
Frisk, GEW., p. 62 s.v. dXapaaxo;. Cp. alley 
'choice marble'. 

Derivatives: alabaster, alabastri-an, alabastr- 
ine, adjs. 

alack, interj. — Prob. formed fr. ME. a, 'ah', 
and lak, 'loss, failure'. See ah and lack and cp. 

alacran, n., scorpion. — Sp. fr. Arab, al-dqrab, 
'the scorpion' fr. al-, 'the', and 'dqrab, 'scorpion', 
which is rel. to Heb. 'aqrdbh, Aram, 'aqrabbd, 
Syr. 'eqqarbd, Ethiop. 'aqrab, 'arqab, Akkad. 
aqrabu, 'scorpion'. 

alacrity, n., eager readiness. — L. alacritds, gen. 
-atis, 'cheerfulness', fr. alacer, fern, alacris, neut. 
alacre, 'cheerful', which stands for *ala-tlis and 
is cogn. with Goth, aljan, 'zeal', OE. ellen, 
OHG. ellian, ellen, of s.m. Cp. allegro. For the 
ending see suff. -ity. 
Derivative: alacrit-ous, adj. 

alaite, n., a hydrous vanadium pentoxide (min- 
eral') _ Named after the Alai Mountains. For 
the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

alalite, n., a synonym of diopside (mineral.) — 
Named after Ala in Tirol. For the ending see 
combining form -lite. 

alameda, n., a public walk with poplar trees 
(Sp. American). — Sp., fr. alamo, 'poplar'. See 

alamo, n., poplar (Sp. American). — Sp. alamo, 
fr. alno, 'the black poplar', fr. L. alnus, 'alder'. 
See alder. 

Alan, masc. PN. — ML. Alanus, of Celtic origin, 
alanine, alanin, n., aminopropionic acid (chem.) 
— Prob. formed from the first syllable of alde- 
hyde, the syllable -an (inserted for euphonic 
reasons), and chem. suff. -ine. The name was 
coined by Strecker, the discoverer of this sub- 
stance, in 1849, who, however, gives no expla- 
nation for the name, 
alar, adj., 1) pertaining to a wing; 2) winglike; 
3) in anatomy, axillary. — L. dldris, 'of the 
wing', fr. ala, 'wing'. See aisle. 
Alaric, masc. PN. — L. Alaricus, a name of Visi- 
gothic origin lit. meaning 'all-ruler', fr. Teut. 
*ala-, 'all', and •rikja, 'rule'. See all and Reich 
and cp. the 2nd element in Roderick, Theodoric. 
alarm, n. — F. alarme, fr. It. all'arme, 'to arms' 
(lit. 'to the arms'), fr. aile (pi. fern.), 'to the', 
fr. a (fr. L. ad), 'to', and le, 'the', fr. L. illae, 
'those' (fern.) See ad-, ille and arm, 'weapon', 
and cp. alarum. For a similar fusion of the 
article with the following word cp. alert. 


Derivatives : alarm, tr. v., alarm-able, alarm-ed, 

adjs., alarm-ed-ly, adv., alarm-ing, adj., alarm- 

ing-ly, adv., alarmist (q.v.) 
alarmist, n., i) one who starts alarming rumors; 

2) one easily frightened. — A hybrid coined fr. 

F. alarme (see prec. word) and -ist, a suff. of 

Greek origin, 
alarum, n. — A poetical variant of alarm, 
alary, adj., pertaining to wings. — L. dldrius, fr. 

dla, 'wing'. See aisle and -ary and cp. alar, 
alas, interj. — F. helas, composed of he, a word 

of imitative origin, and las, 'tired, weary', in OF. 

also meaning 'unfortunate', fr. L. lassus, 'tired, 

weary'. See lassitude and late. E. alas was prob. 

influenced in form by alack (q.v.) 
Alastor, n., son of Neleus and brother of Nestor 

in Greek mythology; fig. used in the sense of an 

avenging spirit. — Gk. ' AXacrrcap, lit. 'wanderer', 

a derivative of aXac&ou, 'to wander, roam'. See 

hallucinate and cp. the first element in Aleo- 


alastrim, n., a mild form of smallpox (med.) — 
Port., fr. alastrar, 'to ballast a ship', fig. 'to 
cover all over, spread, strew', fr. a (fr. L. ad), 
'to', and lastro, 'ballast', fr. G. Last, 'loud, charge, 
burden, weight'. See ad- and last, 'burden'. 

alate, alated, adj., winged. — L. dldtus, 'winged', 
fr. dla, 'wing'. See aisle and adj. suff. -ate and 
cp. words there referred to. 

alatern, alaternus, n., a buckthorn (Rhamnus ala- 
ternus). — L. alaternus, 'buckthorn', of Etrus- 
can origin. 

Alauda, n., a genus of birds, the skylark (orni- 
thol.) — ModL., fr. L. alauda, 'lark', of Gaulish 
origin, and prob. literally meaning 'tufted'. 

alazor, n., the safflower. — Sp., fr. Arab. al-usfCtr, 
in vulgar pronunciation al-'osfdr, fr. al-, 'the', 
and 'usfur, resp. osfSr, 'safflower'. 

alb, a long white vestment. — ML. alba for L. 
alba (vestis), 'while (garment)', fern, of albus, 
'white'; cogn. with Gk. 4X965, 'dull-white lep- 
rosy', SXcpi, aAtptTOv, 'barley meal', OHG. 
albi3, elbi3. OE. elfet, 'swan', lit. 'the white 
bird', OSlav., Russ. lebedi, Serb, labud, Pol. 
iabedz, Czech labud, 'swan', for orig. *olh-edi, 
*olb-edi, *olb-odi, 'the white bird'. Cp. also Arm. 
aiauni, 'white pigeon, dove', Alb. el'p, eVbi, 'bar- 
ley', Hitt. alpash, 'cloud'. Cp. abele, ablet, al- 
bedo, albescent, albino, albite, albo-, Albuca, al- 
bugo, album, albumen, albumin, alburnum, al- 
phitomancy, aubade, aube, auburn, daub. 

albacore, n., a species of tunny (zool.) — Sp. alba- 
cora, fr. Arab. albdkra h , 'the young camel', fr. al-, 
'the', and the collective noun bakr, 'young 
camels', whence bdkra", 'young she-camel', rel. 
to bikr, 'virgin, woman having first child', from 
the stem of the verb bdkara, 'he rose early, did 
something early', and to Heb. b e khor, 'first 
born', b e khdrd", 'the right of first born', bikh- 
rd", 'young camel', bikkurd h , 'first ripe fig', 
bikkurtm, 'first fruits', Ethiop. bakur, 'first 


albatross, n. — Port alcatraz, 'cormorant, peli- 
can' (whence also F. albatros), a variant of 
alcatruz, 'the bucket of a water wheel', fr. Arab. 
al-qddBs, 'machine for drawing water; jar', fr. 
al-, 'the', and Gk. xaSo?, 'jar', which is a loan 
word from Heb. kadh, of s.m. The name was 
orig. applied to the pelican as 'the water carrier', 
i.e. the bird that carries water in its pouch. For 
sense development cp. Arab, saqqd, 'pelican', 
lit. 'water carrier'. The alteration of Port, alca- 
traz to E. albatross (after L. albus, 'white') was 
prob. suggested by the white color of the alba- 
tross. ModPort. albatroz has been reborrowed 
fr. F. albatros. Cp. alcatras. 

Alban, masc. PN. — L. Albdnus, lit. 'of Alba', fr. 
Alba, name of the mother city of Rome. 

albedo, n., the ratio of light reflected from a sur- 
face (astron.) — L. albedo, 'whiteness', fr. albus, 
'white'. See alb. 

albeit, conj. — ME. al be it, 'all through it be', 
compounded of all, be and it. Cp. although. 

alberca, n., a waterhole. — Sp., 'sink, pool', fr. 
Arab. al-birka h , fr. al-, 'the', and birka h , 'sink, 
pool', which is rel. to Heb. b l rekhd n , Aram. 
b e rekhtd, 'pool, pond'. 

Albert, masc. PN. — F., fr. OHG. Adalbert, lit. 
'bright through nobility', fr. adal, 'nobility', 
and beraht, 'bright'. Cp. Ethelbert, fr. OE. AZdel- 
bryght, which is the exact equivalent of OHG. 
Adalbert. For the first element see atheling and 
cp. words there referred to. For the second 
element see bright and cp. the second element 
in the names Egbert, Gilbert, Herbert, Hubert, 

albert, n. — Shortened from Albert chain ; named 
after Albert, the Prince Consort (1819-61) of 
Queen Victoria. 

Alberta, fern. PN. — Formed fr. Albert. 

albertite, n., a bituminous mineral. — Named 
after Albert County in New Brunswick, where 
it is found. For the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

albescence, n. — Formed fr. next word with 
suff. -ce. 

albescent, adj., becoming white. — L. albescens, 
gen. -entis, pres. part, of albescere, 'to become 
white', inchoative of albere, 'to be white', fr. 
albus, 'white'. See alb and -escent. 

Albigenses, n. pi., religious reformers in southern 
France between 1020 and 1250. — ML., so 
called fr. AM or Albigia, a town in Languedoc 
in France where they resided and where their 
tenets were first condemned (in 1176). 

Albin, masc. PN. — L. Albinus, a Roman cog- 
nomen, fr. albus, 'white'. See alb and cp. 

Albina, Albinia, fern. PN. — Fern, of L. Albinus. 
See Albin. 

albino, n., man or animal lacking in pigmen- 
tation.— Port., fr. L. albus, 'white', orig. applied 
by the Portuguese to African Negroes who were 
mottled with white spots. See alb. 
Derivatives: albin-ic, adj., albin-ism, n. 


Albion, ancient name of England. — L., fr. a 
non- Aryan base *alb, 'mountain', whence also 
Alba, Irish name of Scotland, L. Alpes, 'the 
Alps'. See alp, 'high mountain'. 

albite, n., a white feldspar (mineral.) — Formed 
with subst. suff. -ite fr. L. albus, 'white'. See alb. 

Albizzia, n., name of a genus of the mimosa fami- 
ly (bot.) — ModL., fr. Albizzi, name of an 
Ital. family, one of whom is said to have intro- 
duced it into Italy. For the ending see suff. -ia. 

albo-, before a vowel alb-, combining form mean- 
ing 'white'. — Fr. L. albus, 'white'. See alb. 

albricias, n., a gift to the bringer of good news. — 
Sp., rel. to Port, alvicaras, Valencian albixeres; 
fr. Arab. al-bishdra h , fr. al-, 'the', and bishdra h , 
'tidings, gift for good tidings', rel. to bashira, 
'he was glad, joyful', bashshara, 'he gladdened 
somebody with good tidings', Heb. b e sdrd h , 
'tidings, good tidings, reward for good tidings', 
bissir, 'he brought tidings, gladdened with good 
tidings', Ethiop. absdra, Syr. sabbdr (with me- 
tathesis), 'he brought good tidings', Ugar. bshr, 
Akkad. bussuru, 'to bring good tidings'. 

Albuca, n., a genus of plants of the lily family 
(hot.) — ModL., fr. L. albucus, 'the asphodel', 
lit. 'the white plant', fr. albus, 'white'. See alb. 

albugo, n., a white spot on the cornea of the 
eye. — L. albugo, 'a white spot, a disease of the 
eye, a film', fr. albus, 'white'; see alb. For the 
suff. cp. aerugo, 'rust of copper' (see aeruginous). 

album, n., a blank book for pictures, stamps, auto- 
graphs, etc. — L. album, 'a white tablet, on which 
various kinds of notices were inscribed'; prop, 
neuter of albus, 'white', used as a noun. See alb. 
albumen, n., the white of an egg. — L. albumen, 
gen. albuminis, fr. albus, 'white'. See alb and cp. 
cerumen. Derivatives : albumen-ize, tr. v., albumen- 
iz-ation, n. 

albumin, n., one of a class of proteins (biochem.) 
— See albumen and chem. suff. -in. 

albuminoid, adj., resembling albumin, n., pro- 
tein. — A hybrid coined fr. albumin, a word of 
Latin origin, and Gk. -oeiSrj!;, 'like', fr. elSoi;, 
'form, shape'. See -oid. 

albuminous, adj., of, like, or containing albumen 
or albumin. — Formed fr. albumen with suff. 
-ous (as if fr. L. *albumindsus). 

albuminuria, n., the presence of albumen in the 
urine (med.) — Medical L., fr. F. albuminurie, 
a hybrid coined by the French physician Martin 
Solon (1795-1856) in 1838 fr. L. albumen, 'white 
of the egg', and Gk. o-jpov, 'urine'. See albumen, 
urine and -ia. 

albumose, n., proteose formed from albumin 
(biochem.) — Coined by Mialhe in 1846 fr. al- 
bumin and subst. suff. -ose. 

alburnum, n., sap wood. — L. alburnum (whence 
also OF. aubour, and, with change of suff., F. 
aubier), prop. neut. of the adjective alburnus, 
'white, whitish', fr. albus, 'white'. See alb and 
cp. auburn. 

Aka, n., a genus of birds of the auk family (or- 


nithol.) — ModL. See auk and cp. Alcedinidae. 
alcabala, n., excise. — Sp., fr. Arab. al-qabdla h , 
fr. al-, 'the', and qabdla h , 'act of receiving'. 
See cabal. 

Alcaic, adj., pertaining to Alcaeus or to either of 
the two meters invented by him. — L. Alcaicus, 
fr. Gk. 'AXxaixog, 'pertaining to or used by 
Alcaeus', fr. 'AXxaTo;, Alcaeus, a poet who 
lived in Mytilene about 600B.C. E. For theending 
see suff. -ic. 

alcaide, n., commander of a fortress; warden of 
a prison. — Sp., fr. Arab, al-qd'id, 'the leader' 
fr. al-, 'the', and part, of qdda, 'he led (the army)' 
Cp. kaid. 

alcalde, n. the mayor of a Spanish town. — Sp., 
fr. Arab, al-qddi, 'the judge', formed fr. al-, 
'the', and part, of qdda, 'he decided'. See cadi. 

alcatras, n., the pelican; the frigate bird. — Port. 
alcatraz. See albatross. 

alcazaba, n., fortress. — Sp., fr. Arab. al-qdsaba h , 
'the fortress', from al-, 'the', and qdsaba", 'city, 
capital, fortress', fr. qdsaba, 'he cut, chopped 
up', which is rel. to Heb. qatzdbh, 'he cut off', 
Mishnaic Heb. qatztzdbh, 'butcher', Aram. 
qatztzabhd, of s.m. (Arab, qassdbh, 'butcher', is 
a Hebrew loan word.) 

alcazar, n., a castle, a palace. — Sp., fr. Arab. 
al-qasr, 'the castle', fr. al-, 'the', and L. castrum, 
'fortified place, fort, castle'. See castrameta- 
tion and cp. castle. 

Alcedinidae, n. pi., a family of birds comprising 
the kingfishers (ornithol.) — ModL., formed 
with suff. -idae fr. L. alcedd, 'kingfisher', which 
is latinized fr. Gk. aXxucov, on analogy of Latin 
words ending in -edd. See halcyon. 

Alces, n., the genus of the elk (zool.) — L. alces, 
'elk', a loan word fr. Teut. *alxis. Cp. ON. elgr, 
OHG. elaho, 'elk' and see elk. 

Alcestis, n., wife of Admetus, one of the Argo- 
nauts ; she offered her life for her husband but 
was rescued from the lower world by Heracles 
(Greek mythol.) — L. Alcestis, fr. Gk. " AXar^zi^, 
lit. 'valiant, courageous', fr. aXxv), 'protection, 
help, strength, power, courage'. See Alexander. 

alchemist, n. — OF. alqemiste (F. alchimiste), fr. 
alqemie. See alchemy and -ist. 

Alchemilla, n., a genus of plants of the rose family ; 
the lady's-mantle (bot.). — ModL., fr. Port. 
alchimelech, fr. Arab, iklil al-mdlik, 'the crown 
of the king'. The first element is prob. a loan 
word fr. Aram, k'lil, kHild, 'crown'. For the 
second element see malik, Mameluke. 

alchemy, n. medieval chemistry. — OF. alquemie 
(13th cent.), alchimie (14th cent.) (F. alchimie), 
fr. ML. alchemia, fr. Arab, al-kimiyd, fr. al-, 
'the', and MGk. -/r^da, x r iW-^' prop, 'the art 
of the black land (Egypt)', fr. Gk. X/;u.l5c, 'Black- 
land, Egypt', fr. Egypt, khem, khame, 'black'. 
The derivation from Gk. yrupsii, 'pouring', 
from the stem of x^ £lv > ' to P our '. ' s folk et y- 
mology. See W. Muss-Arnolt, Transactions of 
the American Philological Association, vol. 



XXIII, p. 149. Cp. chemical, chemist, chemistry. 

Derivatives: alchem-ic, alchem-ic-al, adjs., al- 
chem-ic-al-ly, adv. 

Alcmaeon, n., one of the epigones (Greek mythol.) 
— L. Alcmaed(n), fr. Gk. 'AXxualcov, prob. 
meaning lit. 'valiant, brave'. Cp. Gk. aXxjxatos 
(Hesychius), 'young man', &Xx[juxp£<; (neut.) 
(ibidem), 'strong, powerful'. 

Alcmene, n., the mother of Hercules (Greek 
mythol.) — L., fr. Gk. 'AXx^vy), ' the strong 
one', fr. aXx-r,, 'strength, power'. See Alexander. 

alcohol, n. — ML., fr. Arab, al-kohl, vulgar pro- 
nunciation of al-kuhl, fr. al-, 'the', and kohl, 
resp. kuhl, 'antimony (used for painting the eye- 
lids)', which is rel. to Heb. kdhdl (Ezek. 23:40); 
'he painted the eyelids with antimony', Aram.- 
Syr. k e hal, Ethiop. kahdla, of s.m., Aram. 
kuhld, Ethiop. kuhel, 'antimony'. (Akkad. guhlu, 
'antimony', is prob. a word.)Its mod- 
ern sense ('highly rectified spirits') is due to the 
analogy of the fineness of this powder. Cp. kohl. 
Derivatives: alcohol-ic, adj., alcohol-ic-ally, 
adv., alcohol-ism, n., alcohol-ize, tr. v. 

alcoholometer, n., an instrument for measuring 
the alcoholic strength of liquids. — A hybrid 
coined fr. alcohol and Gk. ui-rpov, 'measure'. 
See meter, 'poetical rhythm'. 
Alcoran, n. — F. alcoran, fr. Arab, al-qur'dn, 'the 
Koran', fr. al-, 'the', and qur'dn, lit. 'reading'. 
See Koran. 

alcornoque, n., the bark of several trees. — Sp., 
Port, 'cork tree', a hybrid coined fr. Arab, al-, 
'the', and L. quercus, 'oak', changed into *quer- 
nus. See cork and cp. Quercus. 

alcove, n., 1) a recessed section in a room; 2) any 
recess. — F. alcove, fr. Sp. alcoba, fr. Arab, al- 
qitbba*, fr. al-, 'the', and qiibba", 'arch, vaulted 
tent', which is rel. to Arab, qdbba, 'it was bent', 
and to Heb. qubbd h , 'vaulted tent', Syr. q e bhd- 
bhd, 'vault, vaulted tent', Akkad. qababu, 
'shield'. All these words are derivatives of the 
Sem. base q-b-b, 'to be bent, crooked, vaulted'. 

aldea, n„ hamlet, villa. — Sp. and Port., 'ham- 
let', fr. Arab, al-, 'the', and ddya", 'farm, ham- 
let'. Cp. aldeia. 

Aldebaran, n., a red star in the constellation 
Taurus (astron.) — Arab. Al-Dabardn, lit. 'the 
following (star)', fr. ddbara, 'he followed'; so 
called in reference to its position with regard to 

aldehyde, n. (chem.) — Coined by the German 
chemist Justus von Liebig (1803-73) from the 
abbreviation of a/cohol dehydrogenatum, 'alco- 
hol deprived of hydrogen'. 

aldeia, n., hamlet. — Port, aldeia. See aldea. 

alder, n., tree rel. to the birch. — ME., formed 
with excrescent d fr. OE. alor, which is rel. to 
OS. elora, ON. Sir, Dan. elle, el, Swed. al, 
MDu. else, Du. els, OHG. erila (fr. earlier 
elira), G. Erie, fr. Teut. *aliso; cogn. with 
Russ. dttcha (for *alisa-), 'alder*, Pol. olcha, of 
s.m., OSUv. jellcha, L. atnus (for *alsnos), Lith. 

alksnis (with excrescent k), OPruss. alskande. 
All these words possibly derive fr. I.-E. base 
*el-, *ol-, 'yellow'. Cp. OHG. elo, 'yellow', and 
see elk. See also elm and elder, the tree, and cp. 
alamo, alameda, aliso, Alnus. Cp. also F. alise, 
'sorb apple', which is a Frankish loan word, 
alder, n., head of family, chief. — OE. aldor, eal- 
dor, fr. aid, eald, 'old'. See old and -or, -er. 
Derivatives: alder-dom, n., alderman (q.v.) 
alderman, n. — OE. (e)aldorman, 'prince, chief, 
compounded of (e)aldor, 'chief, and man. See 
alder, 'chief, and man. Derivatives: alderman-ic, 
adj., alderman-cy, n., alderman-ess, n., alderman- 
ly, adj., alderman-ry, n., alderman-ship, n. 
Aldine, adj., printed by Aldus Manutius (1450- 
1515). — Formed with adj. suff. -ine fr. Latin- 
ization of It. Aldo, an abbreviated form of Teo- 
baldo. See Theobald, 
ale, n. — OE. ealo, alo, rel. to ON. 61, and cogn. 
with L. alumen, 'alum', fr. I.-E. base *alu-, 
'bitter'. OPruss. alu, 'mead', Lith. alits, OSlav. 
olu, 'beer', are Teut. loan words. Cp. alum, 
alumina, aluta, alutaceous. 
aleatory, adj., depending on chance. — L. dled- 
tdrius, 'pertaining to a gamester', fr. dlea, 'die, 
game of hazard', prob. meaning orig. 'mere 
chance', and derived fr. Gk. <*Xs6<;, a collateral 
form of 7)Xe6?, 'wandering in mind, distraught, 
foolish'. See Aleochara and the adj. suffixes -ate 
and -ory. 

aleberry, n. — Compounded of ale and ME. bre, 
'brewis, broth', fr. OE. brlw. See brew, brewis. 
alec, n., herring; fish pickle. — L. al(l)ec, hal- 
(l)ec, also allex, hallex, prob. borrowed fr. Gk. 
&X(X)?£, a var. of SX(4 'alec, fish pickle', 
aleconner, n., an old official who tested the quali- 
ty of ale (English hist.) — Compounded of ale, 
con, 'to examine', and agential suff. -er. 
alectryomachy, n., cock-fighting. — Compound- 
ed of Gk. dtXsxTpufiv, 'cock', and ^xr,, 'battle, 
fight'. The first element lit. means 'warder off, 
fighter', and is rel. to dOi&ew, 'to ward, drive 
or keep off, dcXe^P, 'fighter', iXx-nfa, of 
s.m. See Alexander and cp. the first element in 
next word and the second element in hippalec- 
tryon. For the second element in alectryomachy 
see -machy. 

alectryomancy, n., divination by means of a cock 
and grains of corn. — Compounded of Gk. 
AXexTpuciv, 'cock', and li-ovreta, 'oracle, divin- 
ation'. See prec. word and -mancy. 
alee, adv., on or toward the lee (naut.) — Formed 
fr a-, 'on', and lee. Derivative: alee, adj. 
Alemanni, also Alamanni, n. pi., Suebic tribes, 
who settled in Alsace and part of Switzerland.— 
L fr Teut. Alamann- which prob. means 'the 
aliens', lit. 'foreign men'. The al- in Al-e-manm 
Al-a-manm lit. means 'other, foreign', and is of 
the same origin as al- in L. al-ius, 'the other , in 
the tribe name Al-lobrogi (see AHobrogi), and 
el- in else (q.v.) Cp. alias and Alsatia. For the 
second element in Al-e-manni, Al-a-mannl see 


man. Cp. F. allemand, 'German', which also 
derives fr. Teut. Alamann- (see allemande). 

alembic, n. — ME., fr. OF. ( = F.) alambic, fr. 
OSp. (= Sp.) alambique fr. Arab, al-anbtq, 'the 
still', which is formed fr. a/-,'the', and Gk. Sjxpi!;, 
'cup, cap of a still, alembic', which is of uncer- 
tain, possibly Semitic origin. Cp. It. lambicco, 
which is of the same origin as Sp. alambique. 

Alenu, n., concluding prayer (Jewish liturgy). — 
Heb. 'dlinu, lit. 'upon us', formed fr. 'al, 'on, 
upon', with -inu, the pronom. suff. of the 1st 
person in the plural. The prayer is so called 
from the first words 'dlinu l e shabbe a h, 'it is (in- 
cumbent) upon us to praise'. Heb. 'al is rel. to 
'dld h , 'he went up'. See aliyah. 

Aleochara, n., a genus of rove beetles (entomol.) 
— ModL., compounded of Gk. oXsoq, a col- 
lateral form of i]Ks6q, 'wandering in mind, dis- 
traught, foolish', and x«P«, 'joy'. The first ele- 
ment is rel. to &Xa<r§ai, 'to wander, roam' ; see 
hallucinate and cp. Alastor, aleatory. The second 
element is rel. to x<«p£iv, 'to rejoice', x^P 1 ?. 
'grace, kindness'; see Charis. 

aleph, n., name of the 1st letter of the Heb. al- 
phabet. — Heb. aleph, pausal form of eleph, 'ox' ; 
so called in allusion to the ancient Hebrew form 
of this letter, representing the head of an ox. Cp. 
alpha. For the form cp. daleth, lamedh, samekh. 

alepidote, adj., without scales (zool.) — Gk. 
aXeTitSwTo?, fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and 
X£7u8&>t6<;, 'covered with scales', fr. Xents, gen. 
XetuSo?, 'scale'. See lepido-, leper. 
Derivative: alepidote, n., a fish without scales. 

alerce, alerze, n., the sandarac tree. — Sp., 'the 
larch tree', fr. Arab, al-arz, in vulgar pronun- 
ciation al-erz, fr. al-, 'the', and arz, resp. erz, 
'coniferous tree, pine tree, cedar', borrowed fr. 
Heb. erez, 'cedar'. 

alert, adj., watchful; active, nimble. — F. alerte, 
fr. earlier a Verte, a Vairte, fr. It. alVerta, lit. 
'on the height', fr. erta, 'height', prop. fern, of 
erto, 'steep, precipitous', pp. of ergere, 'to erect, 
raise', used as a noun, fr. L. erigere. See erect. 
Derivatives : alert-ly, adv., alert-ness, n. 

Alethea, fern. PN. — Gk. dXyj&eia, 'truth', fr. 
aXvj&Tji;, 'true'. See aletho- and cp. Philathea. 

alethiology, n., the science of truth. — G. Alethi- 
ologie, compounded of Gk. <xXr|&£ta, 'truth' (fr. 
dAV)&T)t;, 'true'), and -Xoyla, fr. -Xoynq, 'one who 
speaks (in a certain manner); one who deals 
(with a certain topic)'. See aletho- and -logy. 
The word was first used by J. H. Lambert in his 
Neues Organon (in 1764). 

aletho-, combining form meaning 'true'. — Gk. 
«Xr,Oo-, fr. aXrj8-r)<:, 'true', lit. 'not concealing', 
fr- i- (see priv. pref. a-) and Xtj&t), 'forgetful- 
fess, oblivion', which is cogn. with L. latere, 
'to lie hid or concealed, to lurk'. See latent and 
cp. Lethe, Alethea. 

Alethopteris, n., a genus of fossil ferns, found 
especially in the coal formation. — ModL., lit. 
'having true ferns', coined by Sternberg fr. 


aletho- and Gk. 7rrepis, 'fern', which is rel. to 
TCT£p6v, 'feather, wing'. See ptero-. 
Aletris, n., a genus of plants; the colic root (bot.) 
— ModL., fr. Gk. aXe-cpii;, 'a female slave, who 
grinds corn', fr. dtXeiv, 'to grind' (see next 
word); so called from the mealy appearance of 
its blossoms. 

aleurone, also aleuron, n., a proteid substance 
found in cereals (biochem.) — Gk. iSXeupov, 
'wheat flour', fr. aXsTv, 'to grind', which is 
cogn. with Arm. alam, 'I grind, pulverize', aleur, 
'flour', and prob. also with OI. anuh (for *al- 
nuh), 'thin, fine'. Cp. prec. word and the first 
element in Aleyrodes. 

alevin, n., a young fish. — F., 'fry, young fish', 
fr. OF. alevain, fr. VL. *allevdmen, fr. L. alle- 
vdre, 'to lift up, lighten, alleviate', in VL. also 
'to bring up, rear', fr. ad- and levdre, 'to raise, 
lift up'. See lever and cp. elevate. The French 
form alevin (fr. OF. alevain) is due to the change 
of suff. -ain (fr. L. -amen) to suff. -in (fr. L. -inus). 

Alexander, masc. PN. — L. Alexander, fr. Gk. 
'AXe^avSpoi;, lit., 'defender of men', fr. AXs^stv, 
'to ward off, keep off, turn away, defend, pro- 
tect, and avTjp, gen. avSpoq, 'man'. 'AXe^eiv is 
desiderative of aXlxEiv, 'to ward off, which is 
related to aXxr), 'protection, help, strength, 
power, courage', &kx.i.\ioc„ 'strong', and cogn. 
with OI. rdksati, 'protects', OE. ealgian, 'to de- 
fend', and possibly also with OE. ealh, OS. 
alah, Goth, alhs, 'temple', OLith. elkas, alkas, 
'sacred wood', Lett, elks, 'idol'. Cp. Alcmene, 
alexin, aiexipnarmic, Alexis, Alexius, Alcestis, 
analcite. Cp. also lac, 'one hundred thousand'. 
For the 2nd element in Alexander see andro-. 

alexanders, the meadow parsnip. — Lit. 'the 
flower of Alexander (the Great)' ; so called for 
its brilliant color suggesting royalty. 

Alexandrine, n., a verse of six iambic feet, having 
the caesura after the third. — F. alexandrin; so 
called because first used by the French poet 
Alexandre de Paris (de Bernai) in a poem on 
Alexander the Great, dating from the 13th cent. 

alexandrite, n., a dark green variety of chryso- 
beryl (mineral.) — Named after Alexander II 
of Russia. For the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

alexia, n., inability to read (med.) — Medical L., 
formed fr. priv. pref. a- and Gk. Xe£i<;> 'speech', 
from the stem of \iyzw, to tell, say, speak' 
(see lexicon), but confused in meaning with L. 
legere, 'to read'. For the ending see suff. -ia. 

alexin, n., a substance which destroys bacteria 
(immunology). — Coined by the German bacteri- 
ologist Hans Buchner (1850-1902) in 1888, fr. 
Gk. aXeEsiv, 'to ward off, keep off, protect'. 
See Alexander and chem. suff. -in. 

aiexipnarmic, adj. counteracting poison, anti- 
dotal. — Gk. iXeiiitpap^axoi;, 'acting as an anti- 
dote', fr. aXs^eiv, 'to ward off, keep off, pro- 
tect', and tpapjiaxov, 'drug, poison'. See Al- 
exander, pharmacy and -ic. 
Derivative: aiexipnarmic, n., an antidote. 


alexipyretic, adj., keeping off fever. — Com- 
pounded of Gk. d&^Eiv, 'to ward off, keep 
off, protect', and nope-roc., 'fever', fr. mip, 'fire'. 
See Alexander and pyretic. 
Derivative: alexipyretic, n. 

Alexis, masc. PN. — Gk. "AXci;ic, fr. iXe^ew, to 
ward off, keep off, protect'. See Alexander and 
cp. next word. 

Alexius, masc. PN. — L., fr. Gk. 'AX^io?, lit. 
'defender, helper', fr. deXs^v. See prec. word. 

Aleyrodes, n., a genus of insects (entomol.) — 
ModL., fr. Gk. dtXeupciSv].;, 'resembling flour', 
compounded of SXeupov, 'wheat flour', and 
-toS*)?, 'like'. See aleuron and -ode, 'like'. 

alezan, n., a sorrel horse. — Sp. alazdn (whence 
F. alezan), 'sorrel-colored (horse)', fr. Arab, al- 
ftisdn, 'the noble and beautiful horse'. 

alfa, n., the esparto grass. — Arab, halfd', rel. 
to Mishnaic Heb. keleph, Aram, hil'phd, 'rush, 
reed', from stem h-l-p, 'to be sharp, cut through, 
pierce'. Cp. acalephe. 

alfalfa, n., lucerne. — Sp., fr. Arab. al-fdsfasa\ 
(Cp. the collateral Sp. form alfalfez, which rep- 
resents the intermediate form between Arab. 
al-fdsfasa h and Sp. alfalfa.). 
alfaqui, n., a Mohammedan scholar. — Sp., fr. 
Arab, al-faqih, fr. al-, 'the', zndfagih, 'learned, 
intelligent', fr. fiqh, 'knowledge, intelligence', 
alfenide, n., an alloy of nickel and silver. — So 
called after the chemist Halphen, who invented 
this alloy in 1850. For the ending see suff. -ide. 
Alfred, masc. PN. — OE. JElfrid, compounded 
of self, 'elf, and rxd, 'counsel'. See elf and read, 
alfresco, adv. and adj., in the open air. — It. al 
fresco, lit. 'in the fresh (air)'. It. al, lit. 'to the , 
is formed fr. a, 'to' (fr. L. ad), and the def. article 
il (fr. L. tile, 'that'); see ad- and iUe and cp. al 
segno. For It. fresco see fresco, 
alga, n. — L., 'sea weed', cogn. with OI. pisdh, 
'viscous, sticky', Norw. ulka, 'moldy; slime', 
fr. I.-E. base *el-, *ol-, 'to putrefy, rot', whence 
also Norw. ul, 'moldy', Swed. ul, 'rancid', L. 
ulva, 'sedge'. Cp. Ulva. 
Algae, n. pi., a division of plants of the Thallo- 
phyta (bot.) — L., pi. of alga. See prec. word, 
algalia, n., the abelmosk. — Sp., fr. Arab, al- 
gdliya*, 'the civet'; so called in allusion to its 
musky seeds. 

algarroba, n., 1) the carob tree; 2) the common 
mesquite (Prosopis juliflora). — Sp., fr. Arab. 
al-kharruba h , 'the carob*, fr. al-, 'the', and 
kharruba", 'carob tree'. See carob. 

algarrobilla, n., a yellow dye from the seeds and 
pods of Prosopis juliflora. — Sp., a dimin. 
formed fr. algarroba. 

algebra, n. — Fr. Arab, al-jabr (in vulgar pro- 
nunciation al-jebr), 'reunion (of broken parts in 
equations)', short for al-jabr w'al-muqdbala", 're- 
union and comparison', title of a work written 
by Mohammed ibn Musa al-Khowarizmi, 
great mathematician of the 9th cent. The title 
refers to, and the work deals with, the solution 


of equations, which was the original scope of 
algebra. Al-jabr is formed fr. al-, 'the', andM>". 
'reunion', which is rel. to the verb ja'bara, 'he 
bound together, united'. Cp. algorism. 
Derivatives: algebra-ic, algebra-ic-al, adjs., al- 
gebra-ic-al-ly, adv., algebmization (q.v.), alge- 
braist (q.v.) . 
algebraist, n., an expert in algebra. — A hybrid 
coined fr. algebra and -ist, a suff. of Greek 

algebraization, n., reduction of algebraic sym- 
bols (philos.) — G. Algebraisierung, fr. algebra- 
isieren, a hybrid coined by Edmund Husserl 
(1 859-1 938) fr. algebra and suff. -isieren, fr. 
Gk. -£siv. See -ize and -ation. 
algebraize, tr. v. — See prec. word, 
algedonic, adj., characterized by the association 
of pain and pleasure. — Compounded of Gk. 
SXyoc, 'pain, and f,8ovix6<;, 'pleasant', fr. t)Sqvt), 
'pleasure'. See algid and hedonic. 
Algernon, masc. PN. — Lit. 'with mustaches', fr. 
OF als gernons. OF. als (F. aux) stands for a 
les, lit. 'to the' (pi.), fr. L. ad- (see ad-) and the 
plural of the article le, fr. L. ille, 'that one'; 
see ille and cp. words there referred to. OF. ger- 
non is a collateral form of grenon, 'mustache', 
fr. VL. *grandnem, acc. of *grand, a word of 
Teut. origin. Cp. OHG. gratia, OE. granu, 'mus- 
tache', G. Granne, 'awn, beard', fr. I.-E. base 
*gher-, 'to stick out', whence also OSlav. gram, 
'point, edge', W. gran, 'eyelid', Mir. grend, 

-algia, suff. denoting 'pain', as in cardialgia, myal- 
gia, neuralgia (med.) — Gk. -aXyia, fr- ^Y°S. 
'pain', whence xkyslv, 'to feel pain', apyaXsoc;, 
(dissimilated fr. *<iXyaX£o<;), 'painful'; of un- 
certain origin. Cp. algio-. 
algid, adj., cold; chilly. — F. algide, fr. L. algi- 
dus, 'cold', fr. algere, 'to be cold', which is cogn. 
with ON. elgiar, Icel. elgur, 'drifting snow'; not 
rel. to Gk. aXyeiv, 'to feel pain'. See E. L. Liden, 
Studien zur altindischen und vergleichenden 
Sprachgeschichte, Uppsala, 1897, P^6. Cp. 

Derivatives: algid-ity, n., algid-ness, n. 
algio-, combining form meaning 'pain' or 'per- 
taining to pain', as in algiomuscular. — Fr. Gk. 
SXfoQ, 'pain'. See -algia. 

algo-, before a vowel alg-, combining form de- 
noting 'pain', as in algedonic. — Fr. Gk. SXyo;, 
'pain'. See -algia. 

algoid, adj., resembling algae. - A hybrid coined 
fr. L. alga and Gk. -ozM&, 'like', fr. el&os, 
'form, shape'- See alga and -oid. 
algodonite, n., a copper arsenide (mineral.) 
Named after the Algodones mine m Chile. For 
the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 
Algol n a fixed star in the constellation Per- 
seus (astron.) — Lit. 'the Demon Star', fr- Arab. 
al-ghul, 'the demon', fr. al-, 'the', and ghul, 
'demon'. See ghoul, 
algolagnia, algolagny, n., the feeling of pleasure 


in causing or suffering pain (psychopathol.) — 
ModL. algolagnia, coined by Schrenck-Notzing 
fr. Gk. SXyo?, 'pain', and Xayvot;, 'lustful, 
lecherous'. For the first element see -algia. Gk. 
Xdcyvoi; is rel. to Xayapo?, 'slack, loose', XTjyeiv, 
'to stay, leave off, cease*, and cogn. with OE. 
sleac, 'slow, slack'. See slack, adj., and cp. lack, 
languid, lax, adj. 
algology, n., the study of algae. — A hybrid coin- 
ed fr. L. alga and Gk. -Xoyta, fr. -Xoyo?, 'one 
who speaks (in a certain manner) ; one who deals 
(with a certain topic)'. See alga and -logy. 
Derivatives: algolog-ical, adj., algolog-ist, n. 
algor, n„ cold; chill. — L„ fr. algere, 'to be cold'. 
See algid and -or. For the mode of formation 
cp. terror, 'fright', fr. terrere, 'to frighten', albor, 
'white color', fr. albere, 'to be white', 
algorism, n., the Arabic system of numerals. — 
ME. algorisme, fr. OF. algorisme (F. algorith- 
me), fr. ML. algorismus, from the inexact trans- 
literation of Arab. al-Khowarizmi, 'the man of 
Khowdrizm (the modern Khiva), surname of 
Abu Jafar Mohammed ibn Musa, great mathe- 
matician of the 9th cent. His famous work Al- 
jabr w'al muqdbala k ('Reunion and compar- 
ison'), introduced the use of Arabic numerals in 
Europe, which denoted a turning point in the 
history of mathematics. Cp. algebra, 
algous, adj., pertaining to algae. — L. algdsus, 
fr. alga, 'seaweed'. See Alga and -ous. 
alguazil, n., peace officer in Spain. — Sp. alguacil, 
fr. earlier alguazil, fr. Arab, al-wazir, fr. al-, 
'the', and wazfr, 'vizier'. See vizier, 
algum, n. — See almug. 

alhacena, n., an alcove. — Sp., fr. Arab, al-khi- 
zdna h , 'the store room, the cell', fr. al-, 'the', 
and khdzana, 'he stored up'. See magazine and 
cp. almacen. 

Alhagi, n., a genus of plants of the pea family 
(bot.) — ModL., fr. Arab, al-hdj, 'the camel's 
thorn', which is rel. to Talmudic Heb. heghd, 
Aram, heghd, heghHhd, Syr. hdghHhd, of s.m. 
The primary meaning of these nouns is 'thorns 
forming a hedge', from the Semitic base h-y-g, 
h-w-g, 'to surround, hedge, fence in'. See 
H.L.Fleischer in his Contributions to Jacob 
buch iiber die Taimudim und Midraschim, I, 
p. 556, and Immanuel Low, Aramaische Pfian- 
zennamen, Leipzig, 1881, pp. 145-47. 

Alhambra, n., the palace of the Moorish kings at 
Granada. — Sp., fr. Arab. (al-kaVat) al-hamrd', 
'the red (castle)', fern, of dhmaru, 'red', rel. to 
hdmmara, 'he dyed red', humra h , 'redness', Heb. 
hemdr, 'bitumen, asphalt' (so called because of 
its reddish color), hdmdr, 'he covered or smear- 
ed with asphalt', hdmer, 'mortar, clay' (so called 
from its color), Heb. hdmdr, Arab, himdr, 
Aram. -Syr. hamdrd, Akkad. imeru, 'ass', lit. 'the 
reddish brown animal', Heb. yahmur, Aram. 
yahmurd, Arab, yahmur, 'roebuck' (also named 
from its color). The Alhambra was called 'the 


red castle', from the color of the sun-dried 
bricks of which its outer walls were built. 

Alhambresque, adj., made in the style of the Al- 
hambra. — A hybrid coined fr. Alhambra and 
suff. -esque (fr. It. -esco). 

Al Het, the longer confession of sin recited on 
the day of Atonement (Jewish Religion). — 
Heb. 'al het, 'upon or for the sin'; so called 
because each sentence begins with the words 'al 
het, resp. v e 'al het ('Forgive us "for the sin" we 
have committed by ...'). 

alias, adv., otherwise called; n., an assumed 
name. — L. alias, 'in another way, at another 
time, otherwise', fr. alius, 'another', which is 
cogn. with Gk. axXo? (for *aXio<;), 'another', 
Goth, aljis, 'other', OE. elles, 'otherwise'. See 
else and words there referred to and cp. esp. 
alibi, alien. 

alibi, n., plea that the accused person was else- 
where than at the place where the crime was 
committed (law). — L. alibi, 'elsewhere', com- 
pounded of alius, 'other', and ibi, 'there'. See 
prec. word and ibidem. 

alible, adj., nourishing. — L. alibilis, 'nourishing, 
nutritious', fr. alere, 'to nourish'. See aliment 
and cp. words there referred to. For the ending 
see suff. -ible. 
Derivative: alib-il-ity, n. 

Alice, fem. PN. — OF. Aliz, Aaliz, fr. OHG. Adal- 
haid, lit. 'of a noble kind'. See Adelaide and 
cp. Alison. 

Alice blue. — Named after Mrs. Alice Roosevelt, 
wife of President Theodore Roosevelt. 

alicula, n. a short cloak (Rom. antiq.) — L. 'a 
light upper garment', a dimin. formed fr. Thes- 
sal. Gk. aXXixa, acc. of aXXi";, 'upper gar- 
ment; purple cloak', with suff. -ula (see -ule). 
L. alicula is not rel. to L. ala, 'wing'. 

alidade, n., indicator of an astrolabe. — F., fr. 
Sp. alidada, fr. Arab. al-iddda h , 'the revolving 
radius of a circle'. 

alien, adj. and n. — L. alienus, 'belonging to an- 
other', fr. alius, 'another'. See alias. 
Derivatives: alien-able, adj. (cp. F. alienable), 
alien-abil-ity, n., alienage (q.v.), alienate (q.v.), 
alien-ee, n., alienism (q.v.), alienist (q.v.) 

alienage, n., status of an alien. — F. alienage, ir. 
aliener, fr. L. alienare. See next word and -age. 

alienate, tr. v. — L. aliendtus, pp. of alienare, 'to 
make something another's, to take away, re- 
move', fr. alienus. See alien and verbal suff. -ate. 
Derivatives: alienation (q.v.), alienat-or, n. 

alienation, n. — ME., fr. OF. alienation (F. alie- 
nation), fr. L. aliendtidnem, acc. of aliendtio, 
'transference or alienation of property', fr. alie- 
ndtus, pp. of alienare. See prec. word and -ion. 

alienism, n., the status of a alien. — Formed fr. 
alien with suff. -ism. 

alienist, n., specialist in mental diseases. — F. 
alieniste, a hybrid formed fr. L. alienus, with 
suff. -iste. See alien and -ist. 
aliform, adj., wing-shaped. — Compounded of 



L. ala, 'wing', and forma, 'form, shape'. See 
aisle and form, n. 
alight, intr. v., to descend, get down. — ME. 
alihten, fr. OE. dlihtan, fr. a- (see intensive 
pref. a-), and lihtan, 'to alight'. See light, 'to 

alight, adj., on fire. — ME. aliht, pp. of alihten, 
'to light up'. See a-, 'on', and light, n. 

align, tr. v., to range in line; intr. v., to fall into 
line. — F. aligner, fr. a, 'to' (see a-), and ligne, 
fr. L. linea, 'line'. See line and cp. allineate. 
Derivatives: align-er, n., alignment (q.v.) 

alignment, alignement, n. — F. alignement, fr. 
aligner. See align and -ment. 

alike, adv., adj. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and like, adj. 

aliment, n., food. — L. alimentum, 'nourishment, 
food', fr. alere, 'to rear, nourish, support, main- 
tain', fr. I.-E. base *al-, 'to grow, nourish'. See 
old and cp. words there referred to. For the end- 
ing see suff. -ment. 

Derivatives: aliment-al, adj., alimentary (q.v.), 
alimentation (q.v.) 

alimentary, adj. — ML. alimentarius, 'pertaining 
to nourishment', fr. L. alimentum. See aliment 
and adj. suff. -ary. 

alimentation, n. — ML. alimentdtid, gen. -dnis, 
fr. L. alimentum. See aliment and -ation. 

alimony, n., money paid to a wife out of her hus- 
band's income during or after separation or 
divorce (law). — L. alimdnia, 'nourishment, 
sustenance', formed fr. alere, 'to rear, nourish, 
support, maintain', with suff. -monia, which is 
cogn. with Gk. suff. -fx<ov. See aliment and -mony. 

Aline, fem. PN. — F., shortened fr. Adeline. See 

aline, tr. and intr. v. — A var. of align, 
aliped, adj., wing-footed. — Compounded of L. 

ala, 'wing', and pes, gen. pedis, 'foot'. See alar 

and pedal. 

Derivative: aliped, n. 

aliphatic, adj., fatty. — Formed with suff. -ic 
from the stem of Gk. SXcitpetp, also SXenpoc, 
gen. iXziyonoc, 'oil, fat', fr. aXetipsiv, 'to anoint'. 
See adipose and cp. next word. 

aliptes, n., the manager in the school for wres- 
tlers (Roman antiq.) — L.aliptes,{T.Gk.aXelTiTt)c„ 
lit. 'anointer'. fr. AXeifpeiv, 'to anoint'; see 
prec. word. He was so called because it was his 
care to annoint the bodies of the wrestlers with 

aliquant, adj., not dividing without leaving a re- 
mainder. — F. aliquante, fr. L. aliquantus, 
'somewhat, some, moderate', compounded of 
alius, 'other', and quantus, 'how great'. See 
alias and quantum. 
Derivative: aliquant, n. 

aliquot, adj., dividing exactly, without leaving a 
remainder. — L., 'some several, a few', com- 
pounded of alius, 'other', and quot, 'how much, 
how many'. See alias and quota and cp. the 
second element in hidalgo. 

Alisma, n., a genus of aquatic plants, the water 

plantain (bot.) — ModL., fr. Gk. &lia\ia, 'the 
water plantain'. 
Derivative: alism-al, adj. 

alismoid, adj., resembling a water plantain. — 
Compounded of Gk. Xkia^ac, 'the water plan- 
tain', and -oetSif)!;, 'like', fr. zlSoq, 'form, shape'. 
See -oid. 

aliso, n., any of several plants of the genus Alnus 
or their wood (bot.) — Sp., 'alder', fr. Goth. 
*alisa, 'alder', fr. Teut. *aliso-. See alder, the tree. 

Alison, fem. PN. — F., prop, a dimin. of Alice 

alisonite, n., a variety of covellite (mineral.) — 
Named after R. E. Alison of Chile. For the end- 
ing see subst. suff. -ite. 

aliunde, adv., from another place. — L., 'from 
another place', compounded of alius, 'another' 
(see alias), and unde, 'from which place; from 
whatever place', fr. orig. *cunde, rel. to the pro- 
nominal base *q w o-. See who and words there 
referred to and cp. esp. ubiety. 

alive, adj. — ME. on live, alive, fr. OE. on life, 
'in life'. See on and life, and cp. live. 
Derivatives: alive, adv., alive-ness, n. 

aliyah, n., i) the act of being called to the alme- 
mar to participate in the reading of the Torah ; 
2) immigration to Israel. — Heb. 'dliyyd h , 'a 
going up', fr. 'dld h 'he went up, ascended', which 
is rel. to Ugar. 7v, Arab, 'did, 'he went up, 
ascended', Akkad. elu, 'to go up, ascend', Heb. 
'al, Aram.-Syr. 'al, Ugar. '/, Arab, 'did, 'on, 
upon; against', Heb. 'dle h , 'leaf, lit. 'that which 
springs up', 'did", 'burnt offering' (prop. fem. 
part, of the verb 'did", and lit. meaning 'that 
which goes up'), 'elydn, 'high, higher', ma'dld h , 
'step, stair', md'ld h , 'upward'. Cp. Alenu, Eli. 

alizari, n., madder root. — F., fr. Sp. alizari, fr. 
Arab. al-'asdra h , 'the juice', fr. al-, 'the', and 
dsara, 'he squeezed, pressed', which is rel. to 
Heb. 'dtzdr, Aram.-Syr. 'dtzdr, 'he retained'. 

alizarin, alizarine, n., a dye (chem.) — F. ali- 
zarine, fr. alizari. See prec. word and chem. suff. 
-in, -ine. 

aljama, n., a Jewish congregation in Spain. — 
Sp., fr. Arab. at-jamd'a h , fr. al-, 'the', and ja- 
md'a h , 'assembly', fr. jdma'a, 'he gathered to- 
gether, assembled'. 

aljamia, n., Moorish name of the Spanish lan- 
guage. — Sp. aljamia, fr. Arab. al-ajamtya h , 
'the non-Arabic, barbarian (language)', fr. al-, 
'the', and fem. oCajamf, 'non-Arabic, barbarian'. 

aljofaina, n., wash basin. — Sp., fr. Arab, al- 
jufdyna h , dimin. of al-jdfna h (whence Sp. alja- 
fana), fr. al-, 'the', and jdfna", 'dish'. 

alkahest, n., the universal solvent of the alche- 
mists. — F. alcahest, fr. ML. alcahest, a pseudo- 
Arabic word prob. coined by Paracelsus. 

alkali, n. — F. alcalli (now spelled alcali), fr. 
Arab, al-qilt, fr. al-, 'the', and gilt, 'charred 
ashes of the saltwort', fr. gala, 'he fried, roast- 
ed', which is rel. to Heb. qdld h , 'he roasted, 
parched', Aram, q'ld, 'burned', Akkad. qalu, 


'to burn' ; cp. kali. The word alkali first appears 
in the writings of Albertus Magnus (1 2o6?-i 280). 
alkalimeter, n., an instrument for measuring the 
strength of alkalis. — A hybrid coined fr. alkali 
and Gk. jxeTpov, 'measure'. See meter, 'poet- 
ical rhythm'. 

alkaline, adj. — A hybrid coined fr. alkali and 

-ine, a chem. suff. of Latin origin, 
alkaloid, n. — A hybrid coined fr. alkali and 

Gk. -oetS^s, 'like', fr. etSos, 'form, shape'. See 


alkanes, n. pi. , a series of saturated hydrocarbons ; 

the methane series (chem.) — Formed fr. a/Ayl 

and methane-i. 
alkanet, n., the bugloss. — Sp. alcaneta, dimin. 

of alcana, fr. Arab, al-hinnd. See next word. 
Alkanna, n., a genus of plants of the borage 

family (bot.) — ModL., fr. Sp. alcana, fr. Arab. 

al-hinnd', fr. al-, 'the', and hinnd', 'henna'. See 


alkyl, n., any radical of the methane series, as 
methyl, ethyl, etc. (chem.) — Formed fr. alkali 
with suff. -yl. 

all, adj. — ME. all, fr. OE. eall, all, rel. to OS. 
OFris., OHG., MHG. al, ON. allr, Dan., Swed., 
G. all, Goth, alls, OHG. ala- (in ala-wdri, 'quite 
true'), Goth, ala- (in ala-mans, 'mankind', lit. 
'all men'), and cogn. with Lith. al- (in al-vienas, 
'every one'). Cp. albeit, withal. Cp. also Alaric, 
allodium, alone, Ella. 
Derivatives: all, n. and adv., alt-ness, n. 

allactite, n., basic manganese arsenate (mineral.) 
— Formed with subst. suff. -ite fr. Gk. aXXdca- 
aeiv, 'to change* (fr. 3cXXo?, 'other'); so called 
in allusion to its pleochroism. See else and cp. 
alio-, alias. Cp. also allagite, cataUactic, paral- 
lactic, trophallax. 

allagite, n., a carbonated rhodonite (mineral.) — 
Formed with subst. suff. -ite fr. Gk. dcXXayr), 
'change', which derives from the stem of dXXao- 
oelv, 'to change'. See prec. word and cp. 
words there referred to. Cp. also agio, diallage, 

Allah, n., Mohammedan name of the Supreme 
Being. — Arab. Alldhu, contraction of al-Ildhu, 
fr. al-, 'the', and Ildh. 'God'. See Elohim. 

allanto-, combining form meaning 'sausage'. — 
Gk. dXXocvro-, fr. aXXag, gen. aXXavro^, 'sau- 
sage', a loan word fr. L. dlium, allium, 'gar- 
lic', the orig. meaning of Gk. aXXa? being 
'garlicky (sausage)'. Ion. <SXXt), glossed by He- 
sychius, and rendered by him with Xi/avov 
('greens, vegetables'), is of the same origin. See 


■Hantoic, adj., pertaining to the allantois. — See 

aUantois and -ic. 
■Dantoid, adj., resembling a sausage. — • Gk. 

iXXotvroeiS^)?, 'sausage-shaped', fr. aXXou;, gen. 

•iXXavros, 'sausage' and -oei^rfi, 'like', fr. eISo?, 

form, shape'. See allanto- and -oid. 

Derivative: allantoid-al, adj. 
allantois, n., a membranous sac in the embryos 

of mammals, birds and reptiles (anat.) — ModL., 
fr. Gk. itXXavTOEt8Y)i;, 'sausage-shaped'. See prec. 

allative, adj., pertaining to a case that expresses 
motion toward; n., the allative case (gram.) — 
Formed with suff. -ive fr. L. alldtus, 'brought to' 
(used as pp. of adferre, afferre, 'to bring to'), 
fr. ad- and latus, 'borne, carried' (used as pp. of 
ferre, 'to bear, carry'), which stands for *tldtos, 
fr. *//-, zero degree of I.-E. base *tel-, *tol-, 'to 
bear, carry', whence L. tollere, 'to lift up, raise', 
tolerdre, 'to bear, support'. See tolerate and cp. 
collate and words there referred to. 

allay, tr. v., 1) to quiet; 2) to alleviate. — ME. 
alaien, fr. OE. dlecgan, is to put down, remit, 
give up', fr. d- (see intensive pref. a-) and lecgan, 
'to lay'. See lay, 'to place'. 
Derivatives: allay-er, n., allay-ment, n. 

allegation, n. — F. allegation, fr. L. allegationem, 
acc. of allegdtid, 'despatching a mission', fr. 
allegatus, pp. of allegdre, 'to despatch, com- 
mission, mention, adduce', fr. ad- and legdre, 
'to send with a commission, despatch'. See leg- 
ate and -ion. 

allege, tr. v. — ME. aleggen, 'to bring forward as 
evidence', fr. AF alegier, which is formed— 
with change of prefix— fr. OF. esligier, 'to free, 
disengage, buy, pay, possess', fr. VL. *exliti- 
gdre, 'to free from a lawsuit', fr. 1st ex- and 
litigare, 'to sue, quarrel'. See litigate. 
Derivatives: alleg-ed-ly, adv., alleg-er, n. 

allegiance, n. — ME. alegeance, formed fr. a (fr. 
L. ad), 'to', and OF. ligeaunce, ligeance, fr. lige. 
See ad-, liege and -ance and cp. ligeance. 

allegorize, tr. and intr. v. — F. allegoriser, fr. L. 
allegorizare, fr. allegoria. See next word and 

Derivatives: allegoriz-ation, n., allegoriz-er, n. 
allegory, n. — F. allegorie, fr. L. allegoria, fr. 
Gk. AXXYifopia, 'figurative language', lit. 'a 
speaking about (seemingly) something else'; 
compounded of fiXXo?, 'other' (see alio-), and 
aYopeusiv, 'to speak in the assembly', fr. ayopd, 
'assembly', which is rel. to ayeipstv, 'to as- 
semble', fr. I.-E. base *ger, 'to gather, collect'. 
See gregarious and cp. category, panegyric The 
word allegory was introduced into English by 

Derivatives: allegoric (q.v.), allegor-ism, n., al- 
legor-ist, n., allegor-ist-er, n., allegorize (q.v.) 

allegretto, adj., n., and adv. (music). — It., dimin. 
of allegro (q.v.) 

allegro, adj., n., and adv. (music). — It. allegro, 
'cheerful, gay', fr. L. alacer, fem. alacris, neut. 
alacre, 'lively, cheerful, brisk'. See alacrity. 

allelo-, combining form, meaning 'one another'. 
— Gk. (xXXtjXo-, fr. oXXyjXwv, Dor. aXX&Xtov, 
'of one another', fr. *£XX5XX-, *iXXaX-, con- 
traction of *<ScXXo<;-£XXov (masc), *<5tXX<x-aXXav 
(fem.), etc., lit. 'the other' (nom.)— 'the other' 
(acc.), fr. iXXoi;, 'another, other'. See alio- and 
cp. diallelon, parallel. • 



alleluia, n. and interj. — L., fr. Gk. dXX7]Xouia, 
fr. Heb. hallHu-yAh, 'praise ye the Lord'. See 

allemande, n., name of various German dances. 

— F., prop. fem. of allemand, 'German', fr. 
Teut. Alamann-, stem of L. Alamannl, Alemanni 
(pi.), name of a Suebic people, applied in ex- 
tension to all the Germans. See Alemanni. 

allergology, n., the study of allergies. — Coined 
fr. ModL. allergia and Gk. -Xoyid, fr. -Xoyo?, 
'one who speaks (in a certain manner) ; one who 
deals (with a certain topic)'. See allergy and 

Derivatives: allergolog-ic-al, adj., allergolog- 
ist, n. 

allergy, n., hypcrsensitiveness of body cells to 
certain substances {immunology). — ModL. al- 
krgia, coined about 1905 by Clemens von Pir- 
quet, an Austrian pediatrist (1874-1910), fr. Gk. 
aXXo?, 'another' and Ipyov, 'work'. See alio- and 
ergon and cp. energy. 
Derivative: allerg-ic, adj. 

allerion, n., an eagle with expanded wings (her.) 

— F. alerion, fr. Frankish *adalaro, correspond- 
ing to MHG. adelar (G. Adler), 'eagle', orig. a 
compound meaning 'noble eagle'. The first ele- 
ment of this compound is rel. to OHG. adal, 
'noble family', edili, OE. xdele, 'of noble de- 
scent'. See atheling and cp. words there referred 
to. For the second element see erne and cp. 

alleviate, tr. v. — L. allevidtus, pp. of allevidre, 
a collateral form of allevdre, 'to lighten, alle- 
viate', fr. ad- and levdre, 'to lighten, ease', fr. 
levis, 'light'. See levity and verbal suff. -ate. 
Derivatives: alleviat-ion, n., alleviat-ive, adj., 
alleviat-or, n. 

alley, n., a narrow passage. — OF. alee (F. allee), 
'a going, passage', prop. fem. pp. of OF. aler 
(F. aller), 'to go', fr. L. ambuldre, 'to go, walk'. 
See amble and cp. purlieu. 
Derivative: aliey-ed, adj. 

alley, n., a choice marble. — Abbreviation of 
alabaster; so called because it was orig. made 
of alabaster. 

alliaceous, adj., belonging to the genus Allium 
(hot.) — Formed fr. Allium with suff. -aceous. 

alliance, n. — ME. aliance, fr. OF. aliance (F. 
alliance), fr. OF. alter (F. allier). See ally and 

Alliaria, n., a genus of plants of the mustard 
family (hot.) — ModL., fr. L. allium, 'garlic' 
(see Allium) ; so called with reference to its odor. 

allice, allice shad, n. — F. alose, fr. L. alausa, 
'shad'. See alose. 

alligation, n., relation between the prices of the 
ingredients of a mixture and the price of the 
mixture; 'the rule of mixtures'. — L. alligdtid, 
gen. -dnis, 'a binding to', fr. alligdtus, pp. of al- 
ligdre, 'to bind something to', fr. ad-, and ligdre, 
'to bind, tie, fasten'. See ligament and cp. 
alloy, ally. 

alligator, n. — Corruption of Sp. el lagarto. 
which is shortened fr. el lagarto de Indias, name 
of the cayman, lit. 'the lizard of the (West) 
Indies'. Sp. el, 'the', derives fr. L. ille, 'that one', 
lagarto comes fr. L. lacertus, 'lizard'. See ille 
and lizard. 

alligator pear, the avocado. — Formed fr. Na- 
huatl ahuacatl through the medium of the Mex. 
Sp. forms alvacata, alligato. Cp. avocado, 
alliterate, intr. v., to use alliteration. — ML. at- 
literdtus, pp. of alliterdre, 'to begin with the 
same letter', fr. ad- and L. littera, 'letter'. See 
letter and verbal suff -ate. 
Derivatives: alliteration (q.v.), alliterat-ive, adj., 
alliterat-ive-ly, adv. 
alliteration, n., repetition of the same letter in 
several words of a sentence. — ML. alliterdtid, 
gen. -dnis, from alliterdtus, pp. of alliterdre. 
See prec. word and -ion. 
Allium, n., a genus of herbs of the lily family 
(bot.) — L. dlium, allium, 'garlic', prob. cogn. 
with OI. dluh, alukdm, 'bulb'. Accordingly dlium 
would lit. mean 'the bulbous plant'. There is 
little probability in Vanicek's suggestion to ex- 
plain dlium as 'the strong-smelling plant', by 
deriving it from the base *an-, 'to breathe, 
smell'. Cp. alliaceous, Alliaria. Cp. also allanto-. 
Cp. also the first element in allyl. 
alio-, combining form, meaning 'other'. — Gk. 
dXXo-, fr. aXXos, 'another, other', which stands 
for *dXioi;, and is cogn. with L. alius, 'an- 
other'. See alias. 
Allobroges, n. pi., a Celtic tribe inhabiting the 
north of Gallia Narbonensis (now Savoy). — 
L. Allobroges (pi. of Allobrox), lit. meaning 'the 
aliens', in allusion to their having driven out the 
original inhabitants. The al- in Al-lobroges is 
identical both in origin and meaning with al- 
ia L. al-ius, 'the other', and in ML. Al-satia, and 
with el- in E. else (q.v.) See also Alsatia and cp. 

allocate, tr. v., to set apart; to allot, assign. — 
Late L. allocdtus, pp. of allocdre, fr. ad-, and 
L. locdre, 'to place'. See locate and cp. allow, 
'to assign', which is a doublet of allocate. 

allocation, n. — Late L. allocdtid, gen. -dnis, fr. 
allocdtus, pp. of allocdre. See prec. word and -ion. 

allochroic, adj., changeable in color. — Formed 
with suff. -ic fr. Gk. aXXo/pooc, 'changed in 
color, fr. aXXoi;, 'another' and /poa, xpota, 
'skin, surface, color of the skin'. See alio- and 

allochroite, n., a sub-variety of andradite. — See 
prec. word and subst. suff. -ite. 

allochromatic, adj., changeable in color. — Com- 
pounded of alio- and chromatic. 

allochrous, adj., changing color. — See allo- 
chroic and -ous. 

alloclase, alloclasite, n., a mineral containing 
bismuth, cobalt, arsenic, sulfur and iron. — 
Compounded of alio- and Gk. vX&aiq, 'a break- 
ing*, fr. xX5v, 'to break'. See clastic and cp. 



words there referred to. For the ending see 

subst. suff. -ite. 
allocution, n., address. — L. allocutid, gen. -dnis, 

'address', fr. allocutus, pp. of alloqui, 'to speak 

to', fr. ad- and loqui, 'to speak'. See loquacious 

and cp. locution, 
allodial, alodial, adj., pertaining to an allodium. 

— ML. allddidlis, fr. allodium. See allodium and 
adj. suff. -al. 

Derivatives: al(l)odial-ism, n., al(l)odial-ist, n., 
al(l)odial-ly, adv. 

aliodiality, alodiality, n., the quality of being al- 
lodial. — - F. allodialite, fr. allodial, fr. ML. alld- 
didlis. See prec. word and -ity. 

allodium, alodium, n., land held as absolute prop- 
erty. — ML. allodium, Latinized fr. Frankish 
*al-dd (whence also ML. alodis, a word occur- 
ring in the Salic Law), lit. 'entire property', com- 
pounded of *al, 'all' (see all), and* dd, 'proper- 
ty', which is rel. to OS. dd, OHG. *dt, OE. Sad, 
ON. audr, Goth, auda-, 'possession, property, 
wealth', the second element in MHG. klein-dt, 
G. Klein-od, 'jewel, gem', lit. 'little wealth'. For 
the second element in allodium cp. the first ele- 
ment in Edgar, Edith, Edmund, Edwin. — It. al- 
lodio, Sp. alodio, OF. alue, aluef (whence F. 
alleu), OProvenc. alo, aloe, 'allodium', are 
Frankish loan words. 

allogamy, n., cross-fertilization (bot.) — Com- 
pounded of alio- and Gk. -y<x\xia., fr. yA^ioq, 
'marriage'. See -gamy. 

allogeneous, adj., of a different kind. — Formed 
with suff. -ous fr. Gk. dXXoyevT)!;, 'of another 
kind'. See alio- and -gen. 

allogeneity, n. — See prec. word and -ity. 

allograph, n., a writing made by another person. 

— Compounded of alio- and Gk. -ypacpo;, fr. 
Ypa9Ei\i, 'to write'. See -graph. 

allomerism, n., variation in chemical composi- 
tion without change in crystalline form. — Com- 
pounded of Gk. aXXo;, 'other' and ulpo?, 'part'. 
See alio-, mero- and -ism. 

allomerous, adj. — See prec. word and -ous. 

allomorph, n. (mineral.) — Gk. dXXofxopcpo?, 'hav- 
ing another form'. See alio- and -morph. 
Derivatives : allomorph-ic, adj . , allomorph-ism, n. 

allomorphite, n., a barite with the qualities of an- 
hydrite. — See allomorph and subst. suff. -ite. 

allonge, n., a thrust (in fencing) (obsol.) — F., 'a 
lengthening', fr. allonger, 'to lengthen', fr. OF. 
alongier, fr. a, 'to' (see a-), and long, 'long'. See 
long, adj., and cp. longeron, lunge. 

allonym, n., the name of another person assumed 
by the author of a work. — Compounded of 
Gk. icXXoc, 'other' and 6vu[/.oc, dial, form of 
5vo(jta, 'name'. See alio- and name and cp. ono- 
mato. Cp. also anonymous, antonym, cryptonym, 
homonym, metonymy, paronymous, patronymic, 

allopath, n. — Back formation fr. allopathy, 
allopathy, n., treatment of disease by remedies 
that produce effects opposite to those caused 

by the disease. — G. Allopathie, coined by the 
German physician Samuel Hahnemann (1755- 
1843) fr. Gk. aXXo?, 'other', and -KdcS-eia, fr. 
Tia&oi;, 'suffering'. See alio- and -pathy and cp. 
enantiopathy, homeopathy. 

'Derivatives: allopath-ic, adj., allopath-ic-ally, 
a.dv.,aIlopath-et-ic, adj. ,allo-path-et-ical-ly, adv., 
allo-path-ist, n. 

allophylian, adj., foreign; specif., neither Indo- 
European nor Semitic; n., one who speaks an 
allophylian language. — L. allophylus, fr. Gk. 
(XXX69GX01;, 'of another tribe, foreign' (in the 
Septuagint, aXXotpuXoi is the usual rendering of 
PHishtim, 'Philistines'); compounded of aXXo?, 
'other' and <sf>\y\, 'tribe' which is rel. to cpOXov, 
'stock, race'. See alio-, phylo- and -ian. 

allot, tr. v. — OF. aloter (F. alloter, allotir), a 
hybrid coined fr. a, 'to' (see a), and lot, a word 
of Teut. origin. See lot. 

allotment, n. — F. allotement, fr. alloter. See prec. 
word and -ment. 

allotrio-, before a vowel allotri-, combining form 
meaning 'abnormal', as in allotriophagy. — Gk. 
dXXoxpio-, dXXoTpi-, fr. dXX6-rpio;, 'strange', 
which is formed fr. oeXXoc, 'other' (see alio-), 
and Tp-, zero degree of the compar. suff. --ep, 
for which see -ther. 

allotriophagy, n., an unnatural appetite (med.) — 
Compounded of allotrio- and Gk. ^ayia, 'eat- 
ing of, fr. -cpdyo?, 'eating'. See -phagy. 

allotropy, n., the change of physical properties 
without change of chemical substance. — Gk. 
dXXoTpojria, 'strangeness, variety', fr. dXXoTpo- 
tos, 'strange', which is compounded of aXXo;, 
'other' and Tporox;, 'turn, direction, way'; in- 
troduced into chemistry by the Swedish chemist 
Jons Jakob Berzelius (1779- 1848) in 1841. See 
alio- and -tropy. 

Derivatives : allotrop-ic, allotrop-ic-al, adjs., allo- 
trop-ic-al-ly, adv., allotrop-ism, n. 

allow, tr. and intr. v. — ME. alouen, fr. OF. aloer, 
alouer, 'to place; to let, rent' (whence F. al- 
louer. 'to assign, allocate'), fr. Late L. allocdre, 
fr. ad- and L. locdre, 'to place' (whence F. loner, 
'to let, rent') (see allocate) ; confused in meaning 
with OF. aloer, alouer, 'to approve', fr. L. al- 
lauddre, 'to extol', fr. ad- and lauddre, 'to praise' 
(whence F. louer, 'to praise'); see laud. 
Derivatives: allowable (q.v.), allowance (q.v.), 
allow-ed-ly, adv., allow-er, n. 

allowable, adj. — F. allouable, 'permissible', fr. 
allouer, 'to permit'. See allow, and -able. 
Derivatives: allowable-ness, n., allowabl-y, adv. 

allowance, n. — OF. alouance, fr. aloer, alouer, 
'to place; to let'. See allow and -ance. 
Derivative: allowance, tr. v. 

alloxan, n., an oxidation product of uric acid 
(cnem.) — Coined fr. a//antoin and ojcalic; so 
called because it contains residues of allantoin 
and oxalic acid. The name alloxan was coined 
by Liebig and Wohler (see Ann. Chem. Pharm. 
XXVI, 256). 



alloy, n. — F. aloi, fr. OF. alei, aloi, fr. aleier, 
aloier, 'to bind, combine' (whence F. aloyer, 
'to alloy'), fr. L. alligare, 'to bind to (some- 
thing)', fr. ad- and ligare, 'to bind, tie, fasten'. 
See ligament, and cp. alligation. 

alloy, tr. v. — OF. aleier, aloier, 'to bind, com- 
bine'. See alloy, n. 

alloyage, n. — F. aloyage, 'the act of alloying', 
fr. aloyer, 'to alloy'. See alloy, and -age. 

allspice, n., the berry of the pimento (Pimento 
officinalis) and the spice made from it. — Com- 
pounded of all and spice; so called because it 
is supposed to combine the flavors of several 

allude, intr. v. — L. alludere, 'to play with; to 
refer to', fr. ad- and ludere, 'to play'. See ludi- 
crous and cp. collude, delude, elude, illude. 

allumette, n., a match for lighting. — F., fr. al- 
lumer, 'to light, kindle', fr. VL. *alluminare, fr. 
ad- and L. luminare, 'to light up, brighten', fr. 
lumen, gen. luminis, 'light'. Cp. It. alluminare, 
OProvenc. alumenar, Sp. alumbrar, Port, alu- 
miar, 'to light, illuminate', and see luminous. 

allure, tr. v., to tempt by a bait. — ME. aluren, 
fr. OF. aleurrer, fr. a, 'to' (see a), and leurrer, 
'to lure'. See lure. 

Derivatives: allure, n., allure-ment, n., allur-er, 
n., allur-ing, adj., allur-ing-ly, adv., allur-ing- 

ness, n. 

allusion, n. — L. allusio, gen. -onis, 'a playing 
with, a reference to?, fr. allusus, pp. of alludere. 
See allude and -ion, and cp. collusion, delusion, 
elusion, illusion. 

allusive, adj. — Formed with suff. -ive fr. L. allusus 
pp. of alludere. See allude and cp. collusive, de- 
lusive, elusive, illusive. 

Derivatives: allusive-ly, adv., allusive-ness, n. 

alluvial, adj. and n. — Formed with adj. suff. -al 
fr. L. alluvius, 'alluvial'. See alluvion. 

alluvion, n., i) washing of water against the shore; 
2) a flood; 3) alluvium. — F., fr. L. alluvidnem, 
acc. of alluvia, 'an overflow, inundation, allu- 
vial land', lit. 'a washing upon', fr. alluere, 'to 
wash upon or against', fr. ad- and luere, 'to 
wash', which is rel. to lavdre, 'to wash'. See lave 
and -ion and cp. antediluvian, deluge, dilute, 
diluvium, elution. 

alluvium, n., matter deposited by flowing water. 
— L., neut. of alluvius, 'alluvial', fr. alluere. 
See alluvion. 

ally, tr., and intr. v. — ME. alien, fr. OF. alier 
(F. allier), 'to join, unite', fr. L. alligare, 'to bind 
to something', fr. ad- and ligare, 'to bind'. See 
ligament and cp. alliance. 
Derivative: ally, n. 

allyl, n., a univalent radical, C 3 H S (chem.) — 
Formed with suff. -yl fr. allium, 'garlic' (see Al- 
lium) ; so called because it was first obtained as 
a disulfide from garlic (by Wertheim in 1844). 

Alma, fem. PN. — Lit. 'nourishing', fr. L. alma, 
fcm. of almus, fr. alere, 'to nourish*. See aliment 
and cp. Alma Mater. 

almacen, n., warehouse, magazine. — Sp., fr. 
Arab, al-mdkhzan, fr. al-, 'the', and mdkhzan, 
'storehouse', fr. khdzana, 'he stored up'. See 
magazine and cp. alhacena. 

almaciga, n., the tree Agathis alba. — Sp., a var. 
of almastiga, 'mastic', fr. Arab. al-mdstaka h , fr. 
al-, 'the', and mdstaka h , 'mastic', ult. fr. Gk. 
[iaaxtxT). See mastic. 

almadia, n., a kind of boat. — Sp. almadia, fr. 
Arab. al-ma'dtya h , fr. al-, 'the' and ma'dtya h , 
'ferryboat', a derivative of the verb, 'add, 'he 
passed by', which is rel. to Heb. 'ddhd", Aram. 
'Odht, 'ddhd, Syr. 'adhd, Ethiop. 'addwa, 'he 
passed by', Heb. 'adh, 'as far as', 'adh, 'eternity' 
(lit. 'passing time'), la'ddh, 'for ever'. 

almagest, n., 1) the treatise of Claudius Ptolemy 
of Alexandria on astronomy; hence 2) any 
similar medieval work on astronomy or astrol- 
ogy. _ ME., fr. OF. almageste, fr. Arab, al- 
majistf, fr. al-, 'the', and Gk. (xeytaTT) (scil. 
(riivTa^i?), 'the greatest composition', fem. of 
piyiazoq, superlative of ^eyas, 'great' ; see me- 
ga-. In their admiration for the great work of 
Claudius Ptolemy the Arabian translators 
changed the title of his work from MsyaXtj 
auvTa^i? (t^s daTpovo[j.ia<;), 'Great work (on 
astronomy)', into MeytaTT] crovra^ic, 'the great- 
est work'. 

almagra, n., red ocher. — Sp., fr. Arab, al- 
mdghra", fr. al-, 'the', and mdghra", 'red ocher'. 
Alma Mater, one's university or school. — L., 
'fostering mother'. Almus, fem. alma, neut. al- 
mum, 'nourishing, fostering', is related to aid, 
alere, 'to nourish', and prob. cogn. with the 
second element in Gk. (puT-aX^io?, 'producing, 
nourishing, fostering', epithet of Zeus and of 
Poseidon. See aliment and cp. Alma. For the 
second element see mater, mother, 
almanac, n., a calendar giving astronomical data 
and other useful information. — F. almanach, 
fr. ML. almanachus (whence also It. almanacco, 
Sp. almanaque, G. Almanach, etc.), fr. Gk. 
dX|AeviXiaxa (*?'■)■ 'calendars', which is prob. 
of Coptic origin; prob. influenced in form by a 
confusion with Arab, al-mandh, 'the gift'. Sp.- 
Arab. al-mandkh, 'the almanac', is itself a loan 
word fr. ML. almanachus. 
almandine, n., a purple variety of garnet (miner- 
al.) — F., assimilated fr. earlier alabandine, fr. 
L. {gemma) Alabandina, a precious stone, fr. 
Alabanda, a town in Caria, an ancient district 
of Asia Minor. For the ending see suff. -ine. 
ahnemar, n., platform with reading desk in a 
synagogue. — Arab, al-minbar, 'the pulpit*, fr. 
al-, 'the', and minbar, which orig. denoted 'an 
(elevated) seat', and is a loan won* fr. Ethiop. 
minbar, 'seat'. See mimbar. 
almeriite, n., a hydrous basic aluminium sodium 
sulfate (mineral.) — Named after Almeria in 
Spain. For the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 
almighty, adj. — OE. ealmihtig, mlmihtig, fr. eall, 
•all*, and mihtig, 'mighty'. See all and mighty. 

almogavar, n., a light-armed Spanish soldier in 
the middle ages. — Sp., fr. Ar. al-mughdwir, lit. 
'the raider', fr. al-, 'the', and active partic. of 
ghdwara, 3rd conjugation of ghdra, 'he raided, 

Almohades, n., pi., members of a Mohammedan 
sect, founded by Mohammed ibn Abdallah. — 
Lit. 'the unitarians' ; shortened it.*Al-mo\ahides, 
from Arab, al-muwahhidun, 'they who profess 
the unity of God', fr. al-, 'the', and active part, 
of the 2nd conjugation of wdhuda, 'he was alone' 
whence also wahfd, 'solitary' ; rel. to Heb. yahid, 
'only one, solitary', ydhad, yahddw, 'together'. 

almond, n. — ME., fr. OF. almande (F. amande), 
fr. VL. amandula, fr. L. amygdala, fr. Gk. 
AiiuySAXv), 'almond', which, according to H. 
Lewy, Die semitischen Fremdworter im Griechi- 
schen, pp. 25-26, is borrowed from Heb. me- 
ghedh El, 'divine fruit'. [The ending -ula in VL. 
amandula, corresponding to the Gk. ending -<xkt) 
in afiuySaXT), was mistaken for the dimin. suff. 
(see -ule) and consequently dropped in OF. al- 
mande, E. almond, etc.] The n before the d is 
excrescent. Cp. amygdalate. Cp. also mandorla. 

almoner, n. — OF. almosnier (F. aumdnier), fr. 
almosne (F. aumone), fr. VL. "alemosina, fr. 
Eccles. L. eleemosyna. See alms. 

almonry, n. — OF. almosnerie (F. aumonerie), fr. 
almosnier, 'almoner'. See prec. word and -y (re- 
presenting OF. -ie). 

Almoravides, n. pi., the members of an African 
tribe. — Arab. al-Murdbifun, fr. al-, 'the', and 
murabitun, lit. 'monks living in a fortified con- 
vent', denominated fr. rib&t, 'fortified convent', 
fr. rdbata, 'he applied himself to something, de- 
voted himself to religious life', 3rd conjugation 
of rdbata, 'he bound'. Cp. marabou, marabout, 

almost, adv. — ME. almest, almost, fr. OE. eal- 
msest, zlmsest, lit. 'mostly, all'. See all and most. 

alms, n. — ME. almesse, fr. OE. selmysse, fr. 
Eccles. L. eleemosyna, fr. Gk. SX£7][jk>ctuv7), 
'pity, mercy', in Eccles. Gk. 'charity, alms', fr. 
eXet)|jl<ov, 'pitiful, merciful', fr. iXeoq, 'pity, 
mercy', which is of uncertain, possibly imita- 
tive, origin. Cp. almoner, eleemosynary, the 
second element in frankalmoign, and the second 
word in Kyrie eleison. 

almuce, n., hood, headdress. — OF. almuce, au- 
muce (F. aumusse), fr. VL. almucia. See amice, 
'hood, headdress', and cp. words there referred 

almud, aim ode, n., a dry measure. — Arab, al- 
mudd, fr. al-, 'the', and mudd, 'a corn measure', 
fr. mddda, 'he extended, stretched', which is rel. 
to Heb. maddd, 'he measured', middd", 'meas- 
ure, stature, size", Akkad. madadu, 'to measure'. 

almuerzo, n., breakfast. — Sp., fr. almorzar, 'to 
breakfast', fr. L. admorsus, pp. of admordere, 
'to bite into', fr. ad- and mordere, 'to bite'. See 

almug, also algum, n., a tree mentioned in the 

Bible, prob. the sandalwood (the first form oc- 
curs I Kings 10:11-12, the second II Chron. 
2:7 and 9: 10-11). — Heb. almuggtm, resp. al- 
gummim (pi.). The singular of these words must 
be almOgh, resp. algdm, so that the forms 
almug and algum are incorrect. They should be 
replaced by almog, resp. algom. 
alnage, n., measurement by the ell. — OF. aul- 
nage (F. aunage), fr. aulne, 'ell', fr. Frankish 
*alina, prop, 'forearm', which is rel. to OHG. 
elina, OE. eln, 'ell'. See ell and -age. 
Derivative: alnag-er. n. 

Alnus, n., a genus of plants; the alder (hot.) — 
L. alnus, cogn. with ON. obi, OE. alor, 'alder'. 
See alder. 

alodial, alodium, n. — See allodial, allodium. 

aloe, n. — L. aloe, fr. Gk. aX6rj, 'aloe', prob. 
borrowed fr. Heb. dhdltm, dhdldth (pi.), which 
are perhaps borrowed fr. OI. agaruh, aguruh, 
'aloewood', these latter being prob. of Dravid- 
ian origin. Cp. agalloch. 

aloetic, adj. containing, or of the nature of, aloes; 
n., an aloetic medicine. — Formed with suff. 
-edc fr. Gk. dXoTj, 'aloe'. See aloe, 
aloft, adv. — ON. a lopt, 'in the air', whence arose 
the meaning 'on high'. See a-, 'on', and loft, 
aloin, n., a bitter crystalline substance (chem.) — 
Formed fr. aloe with chem. suff. -in; so called 
because it is obtained from the aloe, 
aloisiite, n., a hydrous subsilicate of calcium, 
ferrum, magnesium and sodium (mineral.) — , 
Named after Prince Luigi (Latinized into Aloi- 
sius) Amedeo of Savoy, Duke of the Abruzzi. 
For the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 
alone, adj. — ME. al one, 'all alone', fr. al, 'all', 
and one, fr. OE. an, 'one, alone'. Cp. Du. alleen, 
MHG. al-ein, al-eine, G. allein, 'alone', and see 
all and one. Cp. also lone, 
along, adv. and prep. — ME. anlong, along, fr. OE. 
andlang, which is compounded of and-, 'against', 
and long, 'long'. The first element is cogn. with 
Gk. dv-rt, 'against', L. ante, 'before' ; see ante-, 
anti-. For the second element see long, adj. 
aloof, adv. — Originally a nautical term formed 

on the analogy of Du. te loef, 'to windward'. 

See loof, luff, 
alopecia, n. baldness. — L., fr. Gk. dXcoTrexta, 

'mange in foxes, bald patches (on the head)', 

fr. aXwTTT)*;, gen. dXcoTrexo;, 'fox', which is perh. 

cognate with L. vulpes, 'fox' See Vulpes and cp. 

Alopecurus. For the ending see suff. -ia. 
Alopecurus, n., the genus of foxtails (bot.) — 

ModL., lit. 'fox tail', fr. Gk. dXco7rȣ, 'fox', and 

oup6, 'tail' (see alopecia and uro-, 'taillike') ; so 

called from the shape of the spike, 
alose, n., a small fish, the shad. — F., fr. L. 

alausa, a word of Gaulish origin. See G.-D. 

Dottin, La langue gauloise, Paris 1920, p. 225, 

and cp. aHice. 
aloud, adv. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and loud, 
alow, adv., below (naut.) — Formed fr. a-, 'on', 

and low, adj. 



Aloysius, masc. PN. — ML. Aloisius, fr. OF. 
Loots. See Louis. 

alp, a high mountain. — L. Alpes, 'the Alps', lit. 
'the High Mountains', from non-Aryan base 
*alb-, 'high; mountain', whence also Gael, alp, 
W. ailp, 'a high mountain' (cp. Albion). The 
connection of this word with L. albus, 'white', 
is based on folk etymology. SgePokorny in Zeit- 
schrift fur Keltische Philologie, 38, 313. 

alp, a demon. — G. Alp, 'elf; rel. to E. elf (q.v.) 

alpaca, n., a kind of llama and its wool. — Sp. 
alpaca, fr. Quechua alpaca, fr. paco, 'yellowish 

alpenstock, n., a long iron-pointed staff used for 
climbing mountains. — G., lit. 'Alp stick', com- 
pounded olAlpen, 'the Alps', and Stock, 'stick'. 
See alp, 'a high mountain', and stock. 

alpha, n., name of the 1st letter of the Greek al- 
phabet. — L., fr. Gk. itktpoi, fr. Heb.-Phoen. 
dleph; see aleph. The final a was added because 
a Greek word cannot end with a 9; cp. beta, 
gamma, delta, eta, theta, iota, kappa, lambda, 
sigma. See Theodor Noldeke, Die semitischen 
Buchstabennamen, in Beitrage zur semitischen 
Sprachwissenschaft, Strassburg, 1904, pp. 134 
and 135, and Eduard Schwyzer, Griechische 
Grammatik, Munchen, 1939, I, 140 y. 

alphabet, n. — L. alphabetum, compounded of 
Gk. &X901 and p^xa, names of the first two 
letters of the Greek alphabet. See alpha and 

Derivatives: alphabet, tr. v., alphabet-ar-ian, n., 
alphabet-ic, alphabet-ic-al, adjs., alphabet-ic-al- 
ly, adv., alphabet-ics, n. pi., alphabet-ism, n., 
alphabet-is t, n. alphabet-ize, tr. v., alphabetiz- 
ation, n., alphabet-iz-er , n. 

alphitomancy, n., divination from barley meal. — 
Compounded of Gk. aXipixov, 'barley groats', 
and (xavTeia, 'oracle, divination'. Gk. &X91., 
aXtpixov orig. meant 'white (grain)' and are rel. 
to dXcpo;, 'white', and cogn. with L. albus, 'white' ; 
see alb. For the second element see -mancy. 

alphitomorphous, adj., of the form of barley meal. 
— Compounded of Gk. iiXtpixov, 'barley groats', 
and (jio?97), 'form, shape'. See prec. word and 

Alphonso, masc. PN. — Sp. Alfonso, fr. OHG. 
Adalfuns, which is compounded of adal, 'noble 
family, noble descent' (see atheling), and funs, 

alphos, n., a form of leprosoy (med.) — Gk. 

aX905, 'dull-white leprosy' (whence L. alphus, 

of s.m.) ; cogn. with L. albus, 'white'. See alb. 
Alpine, adj., pertaining to the Alps. — L. Al- 

pinus, fr. Alpes, the Alps'. See alp and adj. 

suff. -ine. 

Alpinist, n., one who climbs the Alps or other 

mountains. See Alpine and -ist. 
alraun, n., the mandrake root. — G. Alraun, fr. 

OHG. alrikna, fr. Albruna, a name given to 

seeresses (see Tacitus, Germania, chapter 8). 

The name Albruna lit. means 'having the secret 

power of the Albs'; it is compounded of Alb 

and runa, 'secret'. See rune, 
already, adj. — Compounded of all and ready, 
alright, adv. — Compounded of all and right. 
Alsatia, n. — ML. Alisdtia, Alsdtia (whence also 

F. Alsace), Latinized fr. OHG. eli-sd330 'in- 
habitant of the other (bank of the Rhine)', 

whence G. Elsafi, name of the province. The 

first element in OHG. eli-sd330 is rel. to Goth. 

aljis, 'other', OE. elles, 'otherwise' ; see else. The 

second element is rel. to OHG. sissan, OE. 

sittan, 'to sit, dwell' ; see sit. 

Derivatives: Alsatian, adj. and n. 
al segno, musical direction to go back to the sign. 

— It., 'to the sign'. The first word is formed fr. 

a, 'to' (fr. L. ad), and the def. article il (fr. L. 

ille, 'that one'). See ad- and iile and cp. alfresco. 

The second word derives fr. L. signum, 'sign'. 

See sign and cp. dal segno, 
alsike, alsike clover, (bot.) — Named fr. Alsike, 

near Uppsala, in Sweden. 
Alsine, n., a genus of herbs of the chickweed 
family (bot.) — L., name of a plant, perh. 'the 
chickweed', fr. Gk. aXm\i7). 
Al Sirat, n., in the Koran, 'the right way' of faith; 
the narrow bridge leading over the fire of hell 
(Islam). — Arab, al-sirdt, 'the road', fr. al-, 
'the', and sirdt, 'road', fr. Aram. ist e rdtd, isrdtd, 
fr. Late Gk. axpaxa, fr. L. strata (scil. via), lit. 
'paved way'. See street. 

also, adv. — ME. al so, fr. OE. alswd, selswd, 
ealswd, prop, 'all so'. See all, so, and cp. as. 

alt, n. — L. altus, 'high, lofty, tall; high, shrill 
(of voice)'. Altus is the pp. aialere, 'to nourish', 
and lit. means 'nourished, grown up'. See old 
and cp. aliment. Cp. also haughty, hauteur, 
hawser, enhance, exalt, the first element in haut- 
boy, oboe, and the second element in rialto. 

Altair, n., a first magnitude star, a Aquilae (as- 
tron _) — Arab, al-fdir, shortened fr. al-nasr al- 
tair, 'the flying eagle', fr. al-, 'the', and fair, part, 
of tdra, 'it flew'. 

altar, n. — ME. alter, fr. OE. altar, fr. L. altare, 
'altar', which is prob. rel. to adoleo, adolere, 
'to burn', a verb dissimulated fr. orig. *adaleid; 
hence L. altare orig. meant 'a place for burning 
(sacrifices)'. It was influenced in form by an er- 
roneous association with altus, 'high' (as if al- 
tare meant 'a high place'). Cp. ME. auter, fr. 
OF. alter, auter (F. autel). 
Derivative: altar-ed, adj. 

altazimuth, n., an instrument for observing the 
altitude and azimuth of a star (astron.) — Com- 
pounded of the abbreviation of altitude and 
of azimuth. 

alter, tr. and intr. v. — F. alterer, fr. Late L. al- 
terdre, 'to change', fr. L. alter, 'the other (of 
two)', which stands for *aliteros, *alitros, *altros, 
and is formed with the compar. suff. -ter fi. base 
*ali-, 'there, beyond', whence also alius, 'an- 
other'. Hence alter and alius lit. denote 'one 
who stands there'; the former— in keeping with 



the sense of the compar. suff. -ter — denotes 'the 
other of two', the latter means 'another picked 
out of many (at least three) persons'. See alias, 
else and cp. altercate, altera, alternate, adulter- 
ate, adultery, altruism. For the compar. suff. -ter 
see -ther and cp. words there referred to. 
Derivatives: alter-able, adj. alter-abil-ity, n., 
alter-ation, n., alter-at-ive, adj. 

altercate, intr. v., to dispute, quarrel. — L. al- 
tercdtus pp. of altercdri, to dispute, wrangle, 
quarrel*, fr. *altercus, 'disputing', fr. alter, 'an- 
other'. See prec. word and verbal suff. -ate. 

altercation, n., dispute, quarrel. — F., fr. L. 
altercdtidnem, acc. of altercdtid, 'a dispute, 
wrangling', fr. altercdtus, pp. of allercdri. See 
altercate and -ion. 

altern, adj., alternate. — L. alternus, 'one after 
the other', fr. alter, 'the other (of two)'. See 
alter and cp. subaltern. 

alternant, adj. and n. — L. alterndns, gen. -ant is, 
pres. part, of alterndre. See alternate and -ant. 

alternate, tr. and intr. v. — L. alterndtus, pp. of 
alterndre, 'to do first one thing, then another, 
to alternate', fr. alternus. See altern and verbal 
suff. -ate. 

Derivatives: alternat-ing, adj., alternat-ing-ly , 
adv., alternation (q.v.), alternative (q.v.) 
alternate, adj. — L. alterndtus, pp. of alterndre. 
See alternate, v. 

Derivatives: alternate-ly, adv., alternate-ness, n. 

alternation, n. — L. alterndtid, -dnis, fr. alter- 
ndtus, pp. of alterndre. See alternate, v., and -ion. 

alternative, adj. and n. — ML. alterndtivus, fr. 
L. alterndtus, pp. of alterndre. See alternate, v., 
and -ive. 

Derivatives: alternative-ly, adv., alternate- 
ness, n. 

Althaea, n., a genus of plants of the marsh family 
(bot.) — L., fr. Gk. aXSmx, 'marsh mallow', 
which is rel. to aXO-aivsw, 'to heal', &\St\, 
'growth', (xXStjctxeiv, 'to grow', aXSodveiv, 'to 
make to grow, to nourish'; fr. I.-E. base *aldh-, 
resp. *ald-, enlarged fr. *al-, 'to nourish, grow'. 
See old and words there referred to and cp. esp. 

although, conj. — Compounded of all and though. 

Cp. ME. al thagh. 

alti-, combining form meaning 'high'. — L. alti-, 
fr. altus, 'high'. See alt. 

Altica, a genus of beetles of the family Chryso- 
melidae (entomol.) — ModL., fr. Gk. aXxixos, 
'good at leaping', from the stem of <xXXeo$m, 
'to leap, jump', which is cogn. with L. salire, 
'to leap, jump'. See salient. 

altigraph, n., an altimeter recording the altitudes 
reached. — A hybrid coined fr. L. altus, 'high', 
and Gk. -ypoetpo!;, fr. ypdtqjeiv, 'to write'. See 
alt and -graph. 

altimeter, an instrument for measuring altitudes. 
— A hybrid coined fr. L. altus, 'high', and Gk. 
uixpov, 'measure'. See alt and meter, 'poetical 
rhythm', and cp. altometer. 

altissimo, adj. and n. (music). — It., superl. of 

alto, 'high'. See alto, 
altitude, n., height. — L. altitudd, 'height', fr. 

altus, 'high'. See alt and -tude. 

Derivatives: altitudin-al, adj., altitudin-arian, 

adj. and n. 

alto, n. (music). — It., fr. L. altus, 'high'. See alt 

and cp. contralto, 
altogether, adv. — ME. altogedere, compounded 

of al, 'all', and togedere, 'together'. See all and 


altometer, n., a theodolite. — A hybrid coined 
fr. L. altus, 'high' and Gk. fjixpov, 'measure'. 
See alt and meter, 'poetical rhythm', and cp. 

alto-relievo, also alto-rilievo, high relief. — It. 
altorilievo, 'high relief. See alt and relief, 'pro- 
jection', and cp. mezzo-relievo. 

altruism, n., unselfishness/the opposite of egoism. 

— F. altruisme, coined by A.Comte in 1830 fr. 
L. alter, 'another', on analogy of OF., F. autrui, 
'another', whose ending is due to the influence 
of lui, 'he'. See alter and -ism. 

altruist, n., a person who believes in altruism. — 
See prec. word and -ist. 

Derivatives : altruisl-ic, adj., altruist-ic-al-ly, adv. 

aludel, n. a pear-shaped pot open at both ends, 
so that a series of such pots can be placed one 
above another; used for sublimation. — F., fr. 
Sp. aludel, fr. Arab, al-uthdl, 'a pot used for 
sublimation', fr. al-, 'the', and Gk. alfraXr,, 
'sublimed vapor', a derivative of oafreiv, 'to 
burn'. See ether. 

Aludra, n., name of a constellation in the zodiac. 

— Arab. al-'Adhrd', fr. al-, 'the', and 'adhrd', 
'a virgin', from the stem of 'ddharat, 'she was 
a virgin'. 

alula, n., the bastard wing of birds (ornithol.) — 
ModL., dimin. of L. dla, 'wing'. See aisle and 

alum, n. — OF. alum (whence F. alun), fr. L. 
alumen, 'alum', lit. 'bitter salt', cogn. with Gk. 
aXiiSoLfio?, 'bitter', OE. ealo, alo, 'ale', ON. 
61, of s.m. See ale and cp. alumina, aluta, alu- 

Derivative: alum, tr. v. 

alumin-, form of alumino- before a vowel. 

alumina, n., aluminum oxide (chem.) — Fr. L. 
alumen, gen. aluminis. See alum. 

aluminite, n., a hydrous aluminum sulfate (mi- 
neral.) — Formed with subst. suff. -ite fr. 

aluminium, n. — The same as aluminum (q.v.) 

alumino-, before a vowel alumin-, combining form 
for aluminum. 

aluminum, also aluminium, n. — ModL., coined 
by the English chemist Sir Humphrey Davy 
(1778-1829) fr. L. alumen, 'alum'. He gave the 
new element the name aluminum, but changed 
it later to aluminium. See alum and cp. the 
second element in duralumin. 

alumnus, n., pupil; graduate of a college or uni- 



versity. — L. alumnus, 'a nursling, foster-son, 
disciple', for *alo-menos, prop. pass. pres. part, 
of alere, 'to nourish' ; see old and cp. alt. For 
the suff. *-menos cp. Gk. -\xsvoc,, the suff. of the 
med. and pass, part., and L. fe-mina, 'woman', 
lit. 'suckling (woman)', and see feminine. Cp. 
also the suffixes of the words Aeschynomene, 
calumny, catechumen, clement, column, ecumen- 
ic, energumen, hapax legomenon, hegumen, 
noumenon, phenomenon, prolegomenon. 

alurgite, n., a purplish manganese mica (mineral) 
— Formed with subst. suff. -ite fr. Gk. dXoupY/)?, 
'genuine purple dye', lit. 'wrought in or by the 
sea', which is compounded of aXc, (fem.), 'sea', 
and epyov, 'work'. See halieutic and ergon. 

alushtite, n., a hydrous aluminum silicate (min- 
eral) — Named after Alushta in the Crimea. 
For the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

aluta, n., a kind of soft leather. — L., for alu-ta, 
lit. 'leather prepared by means of alum', rel. to 
alumen, 'alum'. See alum. 

alutaceous, adj., resembling aluta. — L. alutdcius, 
fr. aluta. See prec. word and -aceous. 

alveolar, adj., pertaining to alveoli. — Formed 
with suff. -ar fr. L. alveolus. See alveolus. 

alveolate, adj., pitted with small cavities, as a 
honeycomb. — L. alveoldtus, fr. alveolus. See 
next word and adj. suff. -ate. 

alveolus, n., a small cavity. — L. alveolus, dimin. 
of alveus, 'a hollow, cavity', which is rel. to al- 
vus, 'belly', and cogn. with Gk. auX6;, 'tube, 
pipe', Sv-auXo?, 'channel, riverbed', a6X<!>v, 
'hollow way, defile, ravine, glen, channel, strait', 
OS1. uliji, Lith. aulys, Lett, aulis, 'beehive', lit. 
'a trunk hollowed out', OSlav. ulica, 'defile; 
courtyard', Lith. aulas, Lett, aule, 'leg of a 
boot', OPruss. aulis, 'shinbone', Arm. ul, uli, 
'way', yli, 'pregnant'. For the correspondence 
of Gk. auXo? and L. alvus, alveus, cp. Gk. 
veupov, 'nerve', with L. nervus, of s.m., and 
Gk. 7taGpo?, 'little, small', with L. parvus, of s.m. 
For the ending see suff. -ole. Cp. carol, hy- 

alvite, n., a hydrous silicate containing yttrium 
and other metals (mineral.) — Named after Alve 
in Norway. For the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

alway, adv., always (archaic or poetic). — ME., 
lit. 'all (the) way'. See all and way. 

always, adv. — Formed fr. prec. word with adv. 
gen. suff. -s. 

alypin, alypine, a crystalline compound (pharm.) 
— Formed with chem. suff. -in, -ine, fr. Gk. 
SXOton;, 'painless', fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and 
X67T7), 'pain', whence Xii7reiv, 'to give pain to, 
to pain, grieve', Xu7rr)p6s, 'painful' (rel. to 
Xi5Ttp6?, 'wretched, distressed'); so called be- 
cause of its anesthetic nature. Gk. Xfj7nr) is of 
uncertain origin. It is perh. cogn. with OI. 
lumpdti, 'breaks, hurts, damages'. See leaf and 
cp. library. 

Alyssum, n., a genus of plants of the mustard 
family (bot.) — ModL., fr. Gk. SXuctctov, 'mad- 

wort', prop. neut. of the adj. SXuctoo?, 'curing 
madness', fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) and Xuaaa, 
Att. XuTxa, 'rage, fury, madness, frenzy'. See 

alytarch, n., chief of police at the Olympic games. 
— L. alytarcha, fr. Gk. dXuTdpx?]?, fr. dXikai;, 
'police officer (esp. at Olympic games)', and 
dpxo;, 'leader, chief, ruler'. The first element 
stands for *f aXii-Tas, lit. 'staff carrier', and is 
cogn. with Goth, walus, 'staff', ON. voir, 'a 
round stick', fr. I.-E. base *wal-, *wel-, 'to turn, 
bend, twist, roll'. See volute and cp. words there 
referred to. For the second element see arch-. 

am, v. — OE. eom, earn, am, rel. to ON. em, 
Goth, im, for I.-E. *esmi, whence also OI. dsmi, 
Hitt. esmi, Arm. em, Gk. Lesbian and 
Thessal. tp\d, Dor. tjua, Alb. jam, L. sum 
(formed on the analogy of the plural sumus, 'we 
are'), OSlav. jesmi, Lith. esmi, OPruss. asmai, 
Olr. am, 'I am', fr. I.-E. base *es-, 'to be'. See 
esse and cp. are, art, is. 

Amabel, fem. PN. — Lit. 'lovable', fr. L. amd- 
bilis, fr. amare, 'to love'. See amatory and cp. 
the PN.s Amandus, Amanda, Amy. 

amadou, n., a spongy substance. — F., fr. Proven?. 
amadou, lit. 'loving, amorous', fr. L. amator, 
'lover' (see amatory) ; so called from the inflam- 
mability of the substance. 

amain, adv. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and main, 

amalgam, n., i) a mixture of mercury with a 
metal or metals ; 2) a mixture, blend. — F. amal- 

game, fr. ML. amalgama, dissimil. fr. Arab, al- 
malgham, which is formed fr. Arab, al-, 'the' 
and Syr. mdldgmd, fr. Gk. (idXaY[ia, 'a soft 
mass', fr. |zaXdcmeiv, 'to soften', fr. jxdXaxoi;, 
'soft'. See malaco- and cp. Amalthaea. 
Derivatives: amalgam, v. (q.v.), amalgam-ate, 
tr. and intr. v., amalgam-at-ion, n., amalgam-al- 
ive, adj., amalgam-at-or, n., amalgam-ist, n., 
amalgam-ize, tr. v., amalgam-iz-at-ion, n. 

amalgam, tr. and intr. v., to amalgamate. — F. 
amalgamer, fr. amalgame. See amalgam, n. 

Amalthaea, Amalthea, n., the nurse of Zeus 
(Greek mythol.) — L., fr. Gk. 'AjxaX^cia, which 
is prob. rel. to naX»axo?, 'soft, light, weak', 
uaXaxoc, 'soft'. See malaco- and cp. amalgam. 

Amanda, fem. PN. — Lit. 'worthy to be loved', 
fem. of amandus, gerundive of amare, 'to love'. 
See amatory and cp. Amabel and names there 
referred to. For other Latin gerundives used in 
English cp. agenda and words there referred to. 

Amandus, masc. PN. — L. See prec. word. 

amanuensis, n., a person employed to write from 
dictation; secretary. — L. amanuensis, formed 
with suff. -ensis from the phrase servus a manu, 
'a servant from the hand', i.e. 'a servant writing 
from dictation'. See pref. a-, 'from', and 

Amara, n., a genus of beetles, the ground beetle 
(entomol.) — ModL., fr. Gk. Aujipi, 'trench' 
which is prob. rel. to fiu.7), 'shovel, mattock' 



(whence Sia^av, 'to cut through, clear away'), 
and cogn. with OSlav. jama, 'a pit', 
amaranth, n., 1) a mythical plant that never fades; 
2) any plant of the genus Amaranthus; 3) purple 
color. — Gk. d|xdpavTO<;, 'unfading; amaranth', 
fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-), and the stem of (locpat- 
veiv, 'to put out, quench, extinguish, to make 
to waste away', fr. I.-E. base *mer-, 'to rub, 
consume, wear away'; see smart, v., and cp. 
marasmus. The ending of amaranth (for amarani) 
is due to the influence of plant names formed 
with Gk. av&os, 'flower'. 

amaranthine, adj., 1) unfading, undying; 2) of 
purple color. — Coined by Milton fr. amaranth 
and adj. suff. -ine. 

Amaranthus, n., a genus of plants (hot .) — ModL., 
fr. Gk. dfidpav-ro?. See amaranth. 

amargoso, n., the bark of the goatbush. — Sp., 
lit. 'bitter', fr. VL. "amaricosus, fr. L. amdrus. 
See amarine. 

amarillo, n., any of several tropical American 
trees. — Sp., for *ambarillo, fr. Arab, 'anbart, 
'amber-colored', fr. 'dnbar, 'amber'. See amber. 

amarine, amarin, n., a poisonous compound 
(chem.) — Formed with chem. suff. -ine, -in, fr. 
L. amdrus, 'bitter', which is cogn. with ON. apr, 
'sharp', Swed., Norw., Du. amper, 'sharp, bit- 
ter', OE. ampre, OHG. ampfaro, MHG., G. 
ampfer, 'sorrel', OI. amldh, ambldh, 'sour'; 
wood sorrel', Arm. amok', 'sweet, Alb. tamVs, 
'(curdled) milk', embk, 'sweet' ; fr. I.-E. *am-ro-, 
fr. base *am-, 'bitter', which is rel. to *omo-, 
'raw, unripe', in OI. amah, 'raw, unripe, un- 
cooked', Gk. to[i.6<;, of s.m. See omo-, 'raw, un- 
ripe', and cp. amargoso, maraschino, margosa, 
and the second element in picamar. For the -re- 
formative element cp. Gk. mx-po?, 'bitter' (see 

amaryllid, n., any plant of the order of Amarylli- 

daceae (bot.) — See Amaryllis and -id. 
Amaryllidaceae, n. pi., an order of plants. — 

ModL., formed with suff. -aceae from the PN. 

'AnapuXXi;, gen. 'AjxapuXXiSo?. See Amaryllis, 

a genus of plants. 

Amaryllis, n., name of a shepherdess in Theocri- 
tus' Idyls. — L., fr. Gk. A^txpuXXt?. 

Amaryllis, n., a genus of plants (bot.) — From 
prec. word. 

amass, tr. v., to pile up. — F. amasser, 'to accumu- 
late, heap up', fr. Late L. *admassdre, fr. ad- 
and massdre, 'to heap up', fr. L. massa, 'a lump, 
mass'. See mass. 

Derivatives: amass-er, n., amass-ment, n. 
amastia, n., absence of the breasts. — Medical 
L., fr. Gk. SjiocffTO!;, 'without breasts', fr. 4- 
(see priv. pref. a-) and (juxot6i;, 'breast'. See 
masto- and -ia. 

amateur, n. — F., 'lover of something, amateur', 
fr. L. amdtdrem, acc. of amator, 'lover', fr. amd- 
tus, pp. of amare, 'to love*. See amative. 
Derivatives: amateur, adj., amateur-ish, adj., 
amateur-ish-ly, adv., amateur-ish-ness, n. 

Amati, n., a violin made by a member of the 
Amati family at Cremona (16th and 17th cent.) 

amative, adj., pertaining to love, amatory. — 
Formed with suff. -ive fr. L. amdtus, pp. of ama- 
re, 'to love', from the I.-E. infantile imitative 
base *ama-, whence also amita, 'father's sister', 
amicus, 'friend'. Cp. Gk. dSa^vew, 'to love' 
(Hesychius), which is formed fr. Phrygian in- 
tensive pref. d8- and *d^veiv, 'to love'. See 
aunt and cp. Amabel, amadou, Amanda, Aman- 
dus, amateur, amenity, amiable, amicable, amity, 
amorous, amour, enamor, enemy, enmity, ina- 
morato, inimical. 

amatol, n., an explosive containing ammonium 
nitrate and trinitrotoluene. — Coined fr. the 
abbreviations of ammonium and toluene. 

amatory, adj., pertaining to, or showing, sexual 
love. — L. amdtdrius, 'loving, amorous, ama- 
tory', fr. amdtus, pp. of amdre. See amative and 

Derivatives: amatory, n., amatori-al, adj., ama- 
tori-al-ly, adv., amatori-an, adj. 

amaurosis, n., decay or loss of sight (med.) — Gk. 
d(jL<xi!>p&)<Tt<;, 'a darkening', fr. d^aopo?, 'dark, 
dim, dull, faint'. See Moor and cp. words there 
referred to. For the ending see suff. -osis. 

amaze, tr. v. — ME. amasen, fr. OE. dmasian, fr. 
intensive pref. a- and -masian. See maze. 
Derivatives: amaze, n., bewilderment (poetic), 
amaz-ed, adj., amaz-ed-ly, adv., amaz-ed-ness, 
n., amaze-ment, n. 

Amazon, n., a member of a race of female war- 
riors in Scythia (Greek mythol.) — L., fr. Gk. 
' A(ia?o>v, which prob. derives fr. Heb. ammftz, 
'strong'. The form of the word 'A(j.a^v was 
prob. influenced by the folk etymology accord- 
ing to which 'A(xa£cov lit. means 'without 
breast', fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and \iaX,6q, 
'breast' (the Amazons are said to have cut off 
their right breasts in order to use the bow with 
more ease). 

Derivatives: Amazon-ian, adj., and n., Amazon- 
ism, n. 

Amazon, n., name of the largest river in the world 
in volume. — Sp. Amazonas, from prec. word; 
so called by Francisco Orellana after his battle 
with the Tapuyas (in 1541), in allusion to the 
circumstance that the women of the tribe 
helped the men in their fight. Cp. next word. 

amazonite, n., a green variety of microline (min- 
eral.) — Formed with subst. suff. -ite from the 
name of the Amazon River, near which it occurs. 

ambages, n. pi., a roundabout way. — L. am- 
bages, 'a roundabout way', lit. 'a going round', 
compounded of ambi-, 'about', and dg-, length- 
ened form of the stem of agere, 'to move, drive'. 
See ambi- and agent, adj., and cp. ambiguous. 
Cp. also amt, ambassador, embassy. For dg-, 
lengthened form of the stem of agere, cp. L. in- 
ddgdre, to trace out, investigate', which is form- 
ed fr. ind(u)-, 'in', and dg-, lengthened form of 
the stem of agere (see indagate). 



ambagious, adj., circuitous. — Formed with suff. 
-ous fr. L. ambages. See prec. word. 
Derivatives: ambagious-ly, adv., ambagious- 
ness, n. 

ambassador, n., a diplomat of the highest rank.— 
F. ambassadeur, fr. It. ambasciatore, fr. ambas- 
ciata, 'embassy'. See embassy. 
Derivatives', ambassador-ial, adj., ambassador- 
ial-ly, adv. 

ambassadress, n. — Formed fr. ambassador with 
suff. -ess. 

ambatoarinite,n., a carbonate of the cerium met- 
als and strontium (mineral.) — Named after 
Ambatoarina in Madagascar. For the ending 
see subst. suff. -ite. 

amber, n. — ME., fr. OF. (= F.) ambre, fr. Arab. 
•dnbar, 'ambergris'. Cp. It. ambra, Sp., Port. 
ambar, alambar, which all derive fr. Arab, 'dn- 
bar. Cp. also amariUo. Cp. also ambrosia and 
the second element in next word and in Liquid- 
ambar, pomander. 

Derivatives: amber, adj. and tr. v., amber-y, 

ambergris, adj. — F. ambre gris, 'gray amber'. 
For the first word see amber. F. gris is borrowed 
fr. Frankish *gris, which is rel. to Du. grijs, 'gray', 
OS., OHG., MHG. gris, 'gray', G. Greis, 'old 
man', and prob. also to OE. grseg, 'gray'. See 
grizzle, 'gray', and cp. gray and words there re- 
ferred to. 

amberite, n., an explosive. — Formed fr. amber 
with subst. suff. -ite; so called because it re- 
sembles amber. 

ambi-, before a vowel amb-, combining form 
meaning 'both, on both sides'. — L. ambi-, amb-, 
'around, round about', rel. to ambo, 'both', and 
cogn. with Gk. £u.<pl, 'round about', OI. abhi- 
(ah, Avestic aiwi-to, 'on both sides', OE. ymbe, 
OS., OHG. umbi, ON. umb, urn, MHG. umbe, 
iimbe, G. urn, Gaul, ambi-, Olr. imb-, imm-, 
imme-, 'round about, about', and with Gk. aixcpco, 
'both', Toch. A dmpi, ampe, B ant-api, OI. ub- 
h&u, Avestic uwa, OSlav. oba, Lith. abu, Lett. 
abi, OPruss. abbai, Goth, bai, OE. bd, 'both'. 
See both and cp. amphi- and the first element in 
ambsace, ancile, ancillary, ancipital, umlaut. Cp. 
also ember days. 

ambidexter, adj., using both hands with equal 
facility. — ML. ambidexter, compounded of 
ambi- and L. dexter, 'on the right side, right'. 
See dexter. 

Derivatives: ambidexter, n., ambidexter-ity, n., 
ambidextrous (q.v.) 

ambidextrous, adj. — See prec. word and -ous. 
Derivatives: ambidextrous-ly, adv., ambidex- 
trous-ness, n. 

ambient, adj., surrounding. — L. ambiens, gen. 
-entis, 'going round', pres. part, of ambire, 'to 
go round, surround', compounded of ambi-, 
'about, around', and ire, 'to go'. See ambi- and 
itinerate and cp. ambition. Cp. also andante. 

ambiguity, n. — F. ambiguitf, fr. L. ambiguitdtem, 

acc. of ambiguitds, 'double meaning', fr. ambi- 
guus. See ambiguous and -ity. 
ambiguous, adj., unclear; doubtful. — L. ambi- 
guus, 'having double meaning, shifting, change- 
able, doubtful', h.ambigere, 'to wander about', 
which stands for *amb-agere, fr. ambi-, 'about, 
around', and agere, 'to set in motion, drive' ; see 
ambi- and agent. For the change of Latin a (in 
agere) to i (in amb-igere) see abigeat and cp. 
words there referred to. For E. -ous, as equivalent 
to L. -us, see suff. -ous. 

Derivatives: ambiguous-ly, adv., ambiguous- 
ness, n. 

ambit, n., a circuit. — L. ambitus, 'a going round, 
circuit', fr. ambitus, pp. of ambire, 'to go round'. 
See ambient and cp. ambition. 

ambition, n. — F., fr. L. ambitidnem, acc. of am- 
bitid, 'a going round', esp. 'a going round of 
candidates canvassing for office', whence 'a de- 
sire for honor', fr. ambitus, pp. of ambire, 
'to go round'. See ambient and -ion and cp. 

ambitious, adj. — L. ambitidsus, 'going about in 
order to canvass for office', hence 'anxious to 
please, ostentatious', fr. ambitid, gen. -dnis. See 
ambition and -ous. 

Derivatives : ambitious-ly, adv.,ambilious-ness, n. 

ambivalence, ambivalency, n., simultaneous con- 
flicting feelings (psychol.) — Compounded of 
ambi- and valence resp. valency; introduced by 
Sigmund Freud. 

amble, intr. v., to go at an easy gait. — ME., fr. 
OF. ambler, fr. L. ambuldre, 'to go about, walk', 
which prob. stands for *amb-al-dre, fr. amb- 
(see amb-) and I.-E. base *Sl-, 'to go', whence 
also Gk. &M, 'ceaseless roaming', aXSor&ai, 
aXouveiv, 'to wander about', aXYj-rr)?, 'beggar', 
Lett, aluot, 'to wander about', L. alucinari, 'to 
wander in mind'. See hallucinate and cp. am- 
bulance, ambulate, funambulist, noctambulism, 
somnambulism. Cp. also Alastor, aleatory, Aleo- 
chara, alley, 'a narrow passage', exile, puriieu. 
Derivatives: amble, n., amble-ing, adj. 
amble, n., an easy gait. — ME., fr. F. amble, fr. 
OF. ambler. See amble, v. 
ambly-, combining form meaning 'blunt'. — Gk. 
dcaBXo-, fr. AupX'i;, 'dull, blunt, dim', which 
prob. stands for *a-(i.X-u;, and is rel. to [iaX<x- 
y.6q, 'soft'. See malaco- and cp. amalgam, Amal- 

amblyopia, n., weakening of the eyesight, the first 
stage of amaurosis (med.) — Medical L., com- 
pounded of ambly- and Gk. -coma, fr. &if, gen. 
WTO?, 'eye, face'. See -opia. 

ambo, n., a large pulpit in early Christian church- 
es. — ML., fr. Gk. <5c(i[3(ov, 'a ridge', in Middle 
Greek also 'pulpit'; of uncertain origin. 

ambos, incus (anal.) — G. Ambofi, 'anvil'. See 
beat, 'to strike', and cp. beetle, 'mallet*. 

amboyna, amboyna wood. — So called from Am- 
boyna Island, one of the Moluccas. 

ambrite, n., a fossil resin. — Formed fr. amber 



with subst. suff. -ite; so called because it re- 
sembles amber. 

Ambrose, masc. PN. — L. Ambrosius, fr. Gk. <m- 
$p6aioQ, 'immortal, belonging to immortals' . See 

ambrose, n., the wood sage. — ME., fr. F. am- 
broise (now ambroisie), fr. L. ambrosia. See 
next word. 

ambrosia, n., the food (sometimes the drink) of 
the gods in Greek mythology. — Gk. d(if}po<na, 
fem. of a(xppoOTo?, a word generally explained 
in the sense of 'immortal' and regarded as a 
lengthened form of a^po-nx;, 'immortal'. A. W. 
Verrall has proved, however, that the true 
meaning of ajj.|3p6aio; is 'fragrant'. (For the 
exquisite smell of ambrosia cp. Homer, Odys- 
sey, 18, 192-3.) 'AjiPpoCTio? is prob. a Semitic 
loan word, with the original meaning 'as fra- 
grant as ambergris; pertaining to amber', and 
a|x(3poata stands for a^[3po<na IScoSr), 'amber- 
like food'. Cp. Arab, 'dnbar (pronounced 'am- 
bar'), 'ambergris', and see amber. See also 

Derivatives: ambrosi-ac, adj., ambrosial, adj. 
(q.v.), ambrosi-an, ambrosi-ate, adjs. 
ambrosial, adj. — Coined by Milton fr. L. am- 
brosius, fr. Gk. a[iPpo<jio<;. See ambrosia and adj. 
suff. -al. 

ambry, n., cupboard; closet (archaic). — ME. al- 
mary, aumbry, fr. OF. almarie, armarie (F. ar- 
moire), 'cupboard', fr. L. armarium, 'closet, 
chest', lit. 'a place where arms are kept', fr. arma, 
gen. armdrum, 'arms; tools, instruments, uten- 
sils'. Cp. It. and Sp. armario, OProvenc. armari, 
and see arm, 'weapon', armory. 

ambsace, n., double aces. — OF. ambes as, fr. L. 
ambds, fem. acc. of ambo, 'both', and L. as, 
'unity, unit'. See ambi- and ace. 

ambulance, n. — F., fr. earlier hopital ambulant 
lit. 'a walking hospital', fr. L. ambuldns gen. 
-antis. See next word and -ce. 

ambulant, adj. — L. ambuldns, gen. -antis, pres. 
part, of ambuldre. See next word and -ant 

ambulate, intr. v., to move about, walk. — L. 
ambuldt-(um), pp. stem of ambuldre, 'to go 
about, walk'. See amble and verbal suff. -ate 
and cp. circumambulate, perambulate. 

ambulation, n. — L. ambuldtid, gen. -dnis, fr. am- 
buldt-(um), pp. stem of ambuldre. See prec. 
word and -ion. 

ambulatory, adj. — L. ambulatdrius, 'movable', 
fr. ambuldt-(um) pp. stem of ambuldre. See am- 
bulate and adj. suff. -ory. 

ambulatory, n. — ML. ambuldtdrium, a noun 
formed fr. L. ambulatdrius, 'movable'. See prec. 
word and subst. suff. -ory. 

am bury, n. — See anbury. 

ambuscade, n., ambush. — F. embuscade, Galli- 
cized fr. It. imboscata (under the influence of 
OF. embuscher), lit. 'a hiding in the bush', fr. 
imboscare, fr. ML. imboscdre, 'to lie in the bush*. 
See next word and -ade. 

Derivatives: ambuscade, tr. and intr. v., am- 
buscad-er, n. 
ambush, tr. v. — OF. embuscher (F. embucher), fr. 
ML. imboscdre, 'to lie in the bush', fr. im-, 'in, 
within', and boscus, 'bush'. See bush, 'shrub', 
and cp. prec. word. Cp. also boscage, bosky. 
Derivatives: ambush, n. (q.v.), ambush-er, n., 
ambushment (q.v.) 
ambush, n. — OF. embusche (F. embuche), back 
formation fr. embuscher. See prec. word, 
ambushment, n. — OF. embuschement, fr. em- 
buscher. See ambush, v., and -ment. 
ameen, n., official, inspector (Anglo-Ind.) — Hind. 
amin, fr. Arab, amtn, lit. 'trustworthy', fr. dmina, 
'he was steady, firm, trustworthy' (whence A'ma- 
na, 'he believed'); rel. to Heb. amen, 'verily, 
truly'. See amen, 
ameer, amir, n., a Mohammedan ruler. — Arab. 
amir, 'commander, prince', fr. dmara, 'he com- 
manded'. See emir. 
Ameiurus, n., a genus of catfishes (ichthyol.) — 
ModL., formed fr. priv. pref. a- and Gk. pieiou- 
poq, 'curtailed', which is compounded of the 
stem of [ZEicov, 'smaller, less', and oupa, 'tail'. 
See meiosis and uro-, 'tail-', 
amelcorn, n. — G. Amelkorn, compounded of 
Amel, 'starch', and Korn, 'grain' . The first element 
derives fr. L. amylum, fr. Gk. apjXov, 'starch' ; 
see amy I. The second element is rel. to E. corn, 
'grain' (q.v.) Cp. emmer. 
Amelia, fem. PN. — A Teutonic name lit. mean- 
ing 'laborious'. Cp. ON. ama, 'to trouble', and 
Amal, name of the ruling family of the Ostro- 
goths. The name was confused later with the 
name of the Roman gens Aemilia (see Emily). 
ameliorate, tr. v., to make better; intr. v., to be- 
come better. — Formed with verbal suff. -ate 
fr. F. ameliorer, which is refashioned after L. 
melior, 'better', fr. OF. ameillorer, fr. OF. meil- 
lor (whence F. meilleur), 'better', fr. L. melid- 
rem, acc. of melior, 'better'. See meliorate. 
Derivatives: amelioration (q.v.), amelior-at-ive, 
adj., amelior-at-or, n. 
amelioration, n., betterment, improvement. — F. 
amelioration, fr. ameliorer. See prec. word and 

amellus, n., name of a flower. — L., 'the purple 
Italian starwort', a word of Gaulish origin (see 
G.-D.Dottin, La langue gauloise, p. 226). The 
derivation of this word from the river name 
Mella, as suggested by Servius in his commen- 
tary on Virgil 4, 271, is folk etymology. 

amen, interj., n., adv. and tr. v. — OE., fr. Eccles. 
L. amen, fr. Eccles. Gk. Au,^v, fr. Heb. amen, 
'verily, truly, certainly', from stem a-m-n, 'to be 
trustworthy, confirm, support', whence also 
amdn, 'he supported, nourished', he'emin, 'be 
believed', emund h , 'firmness, fidelity', umndm, 
omndm, 'verily, truly, emith (for *ementh), sta- 
bility, truth'. Cp. the related Syr. ammin, 'strong, 
enduring', Aram, hemdnutha, Syr. haymdnuthd, 
'faithfulness, truth', Arab, dmina, 'he was safe', 



dmuna, 'he was faithful', d'mana, 'he believed', 
amtn, 'faithful'. Cp. ameen. Cp. also mammon. 

amenable, adj., answerable; willing; submissive. 
— Formed with suff. -able fr. F. amener, 'to 
lead, or bring up, to', fr. d, 'to' (see a), and 
mener, 'to lead', fr. VL. mindre, 'to drive (ani- 
mals) by shouting', fr. L. minari, 'to threaten'. 
The orig. meaning of L. minari has survived in 
Rum. mdna, 'to threaten'. See menace and -able. 
Derivatives : amenabil-ity, n., amenable-ness, n., 
amenabl-y, adv. 

amend, tr. and intr. v. — OF. ( = F.) amender, fr. L. 
emenddre, 'to correct, emend', with change of 
suff. (cp. the same change of suff. in It. ammen- 
dare and OProvenc. amendar); fr. e-, 'out of 
(see e-) and menda, 'defect, blemish', which is 
cogn. with OI. mindd, 'physical blemish' (for 
*mandd, influenced in form by OI. nindd, 
'blame'), Olr. mennar, 'stain, blemish', mind, 
'sign, mark', W. mann of s.m. Cp. emend, mend, 
mendacious, mendicant. 

amendment, n. — OF. (= F.) amendement, fr. 
amender. See prec. word and -ment. 

amends, n. — ME. amendes, fr. OF. amendes, pi. 
of amende, fr. amender, 'to amend'. See amend. 

amenity, n., pleasantness; attractiveness. — F. 
amenite, fr. L. amoenitdtem, acc. of amoenitds, 
'delightfulness, loveliness', fr. amoenus, 'pleas- 
ant, delightful, lovely', which is rel. to amdre, 
'to love'. See amative and -ity. 

ament, catkin. — L. ammentum, less correctly 
amentum, 'strap, thong', so called because of its 
resemblance to a strap. Ammentum stands for 
*ag-mentum, and prop, means 'something to 
lead with', fr. agere, 'to lead'. See agent and 

Derivatives: ament-aceous, ament-al, adjs. 
amentiferous, adj., bearing aments. — See ament 
and -ferous. 

amerce, tr. v., i) orig., to fine; 2) to punish. — 
ME. amercen, 'to fine', fr. AF. amercier, fr. OF. 
a merci (F. d merci), 'at somebody's mercy'. 
OF. a derives fr. L. ad, 'to'; see ad-. For F. 
merci see mercy. 

Derivatives: amerce-able, amerci-able, adjs., 
amerce-ment, n. 
America, n. — Named after Americus Vespucius 
(Amerigo Vespucci), an Italian merchant (1451- 
1512). The name America was first used by the 
German cartographer Martin Waldseemuller 
(in 1507). 

Derivatives: Americ-an, adj. and n., Americ-an- 
ism, n., Americ-an-ize, v., Americ-an-iz-ation, n. 
americium, n., name of a radioactive element 
{chem.) — ModL., named in 1946 by its dis- 
coverer Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912- ) 
after the 2 Americas. For the ending see suff. 

Amerind, n., an American Indian or Eskimo. — 
Abbreviation of American Indian; coined by 
Major John Wesley Powell (1834-1902), di- 
rector of the bureau of American Ethnology. 

Derivatives: Amerindi-an, n. and adj., Amerind- 
ic, adj. 

amethyst, n., violet quartz, used n jewelry. — 
ME. ametist, fr. OF. ametiste (F. amethyste), fr. 
L. amethystus, fr. Gk. dui&ua-roi;, 'remedy 
against drunkenness', prop, an adjective mean- 
ing 'not intoxicating', fr. a-, 'not' (see priv. pref. 
a-), and [xs&ueiv, 'to be drunken' (whence 
[tiSvaiQ, 'drunkenness'), fr. (ii-9-u, 'wine'; see 
mead, 'an intoxicating drink', and cp. methyl. 
The stone amethyst owes its name to its sup- 
posed power of preventing drunkenness. 

amethystine, adj. — L. amethystinus, fr. ame- 
thystus. See prec. word and adj. suff. -ine (re- 
presenting L. -inus). 

AMG. — Abbreviation of Allied Military Govern- 

AMGOT. — Abbreviation of Allied Military 
Government of Occupied Territory. 

Amhaarez, n., an ignoramus. — Heb. 'am hdd- 
retz, 'the people of the land'. Heb. 'am, 'people', 
derives fr. base '-m-m, 'to join, be united', 
whence also 'am, 'kinsman', 'im, 'with'. Cp. the 
rel.Aram.-Syr. 'ammd, 'people', Ugar. 'm.'clan', 
Arab, 'amm, 'a great crowd', dmma h , 'rabble', 
'dmma, 'it comprised, included', 'amm, 'father's 
brother', 'dmma", 'father's sister', Aram, 'im, 
Syr. 'am, Ugar. 'm, Arab, md'a, dial, 'am, 
'with'. Cp. the first element in Emmanuel and 
the second element in Jeroboam. Heb. eretz, 
'earth', is rel. to Aram. drd\ ar'A, Ugar. 'rs, Arab. 
ard, Akkad. irsitu, 'earth'. Cp. Eretz Yisrael. 

amiable, adj. — OF. (= F.), fr. Late L. amicdbilis, 
'friendly', fr. L. amicus, 'friend'. F. amiable was 
influenced in form by aimable, 'lovely', fr. L. 
amdbilis, fr. amdre, 'to love'. See amicable. 
Derivatives: amiabil-ity, n., amiable-ness, n., 
amiabl-y, adv. 

amianthus, n., name of a kind of asbestos. — L. 
amiantus, fr. Gk. d(uavTO<; (scil. Xt&o?), lit. 
'undented (stone)', fr. dc- (see priv. pref. a-), and 
(xiavTo?, 'stained, defiled', verbal adj. of [notivetv, 
'to stain, defile' ; see miasma. The spelling th (for 
/) is prob. due to the influence of Gk. Sv&o?, 

Derivatives: amianth-ine, amianth-oid, amianth- 
oid-al, adjs. 

amicable, adj., friendly. — L. amicdbilis, 'friend- 
ly', fr. amicus, 'friend', fr. amdre, 'to love'. See 
amative and cp. amiable, which is a doublet of 
amicable. Cp. also enemy, inimical. For sense 
development cp. Gk. 91X0?, 'friend', from the 
base of (piXeTv, 'to love', and Heb. ohibh, 
'friend', which is prop. part, of dhdbh, 'he 

Derivatives : amicabil-ity, n., amicable-ness, n., 
amicabl-y, adv. 
amice, n., vestment worn by the celebrant at 
Mass. — ME. amyse, fr. OF. amis, amit, fr. L. 
amictus, 'mantle, cloak', fr. amictus pp. of 
amiciO, amicire, 'to wrap, throw around', which 
is contracted from *am-jaci6, fr. pref. ambi- and 



jacio, 'I throw'. See ambi- and jet, 'to spirt forth'. 

amice, n., hood, headdress. — ME. amisse, fr. 
OF. aumuce (F. aumusse), fr. VL. almucia, 
which is formed fr. Arab, al-, 'the', and mus- 
taqa h , fr. Pers. mushtd, 'fur cloak'. Cp. Sp. al- 
mucio, OProvenc. almussa, MDu. almutse, later 
mutse, muts, Du. muts, 'cap', MHG. mutze, 
miitze, G. Mutze, 'cap', which all derive fr. VL. 
almucia. Cp. also almuce, mozzetta, mutch. For 
sense development cp. cap. 

amid, prep. — ME. amidde, fr. OE. on middan, 
'in the middle', fr. on (see a-, 'on'), and middan, 
dat. sing. masc. of midde, adj. See mid and cp. 

amide, amid, n., a compound obtained by re- 
placing one hydrogen atom in ammonia by an 
element or radical {chem.) — F. amide, coined 
by the French chemist Charles-Adolphe Wurtz 
(1817-84) from the first syllable of ammonia and 
suff. -ide, -id. 

amidin, amidine, n., solution of starch in hot 
water {chem.) — Formed fr. F. amidon, 'starch', 
fr. ML. amidum, fr. L. amylum, fr. Gk. auuXov, 
'starch'. See amyl, 'starch', and chem. suff. 
-ine, -in. 

amido-, combining form meaning 'containing 
the radical NH 2 and an acid radical' {chem.) — 
Fr. amide. 

amidogen, n., the hypothetical univalent radical 
NH 2 {chem.) — Coined fr. amido- and -gen. 

amidst, prep. — Formed with excrescent -/ fr. 
ME. amiddes (which was formed with adv. gen. 
suff. -s fr. amidde, see amid, prep.) For the -t 
cp. against, amongst, betwixt, whilst. 

amine, amin, n., a compound obtained by re- 
placing hydrogen atoms of ammonia by hydro- 
carbon radicals (chem.) — Coined from the first 
syllable of ammonia and chem. suff. -ine. Cp. 
amide and vitamin. Cp. also imine. 

amino-, combining form meaning 'pertaining to, 
or containing, the radical NH 2 ' (chem.) — See 
prec. word and cp. deaminate. 

amir, n. — See ameer. 

amiss, adv. and adj. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and 
miss, 'failure'. 

amity, n., friendship. — F. amitie, fr. OF. amistie, 
fr. VL. *amicitdtem, acc. of *amicitds, corre- 
sponding to L. amicitia, 'friendship', fr. amicus, 
'friend', which is rel. to amdre, 'to love'. See 
amative and cp. enmity. 

ammeter, n., an instrument for measuring the 
strength of electric currents. — Shortened fr. 
ampere-meter. See ampere and meter, 'poetical 

Ammi, n., a genus of plants (bot.) — L. ammi, fr. 
Gk. &u|u, fr. Aram, ammithd, a secondary form 
of hammithd, of s.m. 

ammo-, combining form meaning 'sand', as in 
ammophilous. — Gk. <i\±y.o-, fr.;, 'sand', 
a blend of &\ux&o<;, 'sand', and ij'du.u.oi;, 'sand'; 
which are both cogn. with E. sand (q.v.) 

ammonal, n., a high explosive obtained by a com- 

bination of ammonium nitrate and aluminum. 

— Formed fr. ammonia and the first two letters 
in aluminum. 

ammonia, n. — Contraction of sal ammoniac, fr. 
L. sal ammdniacum, 'ammoniac salt'. See next 

ammoniac, adj. and n. — F., fr. L. ammdniacum, 
fr. Gk. a[Xfi(oviax6v, 'a resinous gum', prob. 
fr. orig. 'ApjxEviaxov, 'Armenian', through the 
intermediate form apfxoviaxov, occurring in the 
works of ancient authors beside du.|icoviax6v; 
so called because first found in Armenia. See 
Pauly-Wissova, Real-Encyclopadie der klas- 
sischen Altertumswissenschaft, I, 1861. 
Derivative: ammoniac-al, adj. 

ammonite, n., a cephalopod mollusk allied to the 
nautilus (paleontol.) — Formed with subst. suff. 
-ite fr. L. cornii Ammdnis, 'the horn of (Zeus) 
Amnion; so called from its shape, which re- 
sembles a ram's horn (Zeus Ammon was rep- 
resented with ram's horns). 

ammonium, n., a basic radical, NH 4 {chem.) — 
ModL., fr. ammonia (q.v.) 

ammophilous, adj., sand-loving {zool. and bot.) 

— Compounded of ammo- and Gk. cpEXog, 
'loving'. See -philous. 

ammotherapy, n., treatment by means of sand 
baths. — Compounded of ammo- and -therapy. 

ammunition, n. — F. amunilion, a dialectal form 
for munition (see munition). Amunition arose 
through a misdivision of la munition intol'amu- 

amnemonic, adj., characterized by loss of me- 
mory. — Formed fr. priv. pref. a- and Gk. 
(xviQfxo'jt.xo?, 'pertaining to memory'. See mne- 

amnesia, n., loss of memory {psychiatry). — 
Medical L., fr. Gk. du-v/jma, 'forgetfulness', fr. 
a- (see priv. pref. a-) and [xvtjctlo^, 'pertaining 
to memory', which is rel. to [xvdo(ioa, 'I remem- 
ber', fr. I.-E. base "men-, 'to think, remember'. 
See mind and cp. next word. Cp. also anam- 
nesis, paramnesia. For the ending see suff. -ia. 

amnesty, n., general pardon. — F. amnestie, fr. 
L. amnestia, fr. Gk. d^v^aTta, 'forgetfulness, 
fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and [ixrpxic,, 'remem- 
brance', which is rel. to fxvdojiai, 'I remember'. 
See prec. word. 

amnic, adj., pertaining to a river. — L. amnicus, 
fr. amnis, 'river', which stands for *ab-nis and 
is cogn. with Olr. abann, ab, W. afon, 'river', fr. 
I.-E. base *ab-, a collateral form of base *ap-, 
'water, river', whence OI. dpah, apdh, Avestic 
df-sh, 'water', Gk. "Airta, a name of the Pelo- 
ponnesus (so called because surrounded by 
water), MeaaSTrta, 'Messapia', a part of Magna 
Graecia in Lower Italy comprising Apulia and 
Calabria, lit. 'the country between two waters', 
L. Ap-ulia, 'Apulia', lit. 'region abounding in 
waters', Lith. iipe, Lett, upe, 'water', OPruss. 
ape, 'a small river', apus, 'spring, fountain, 
well', and prob. also Toch. AB dp-, 'river'. Cp. 



the first element in abdest, abkari, Apsaras and 
the second element in doab and in Messapian. 
For the ending of amnic see suff. -ic. 
amnion, n., the membrane enclosing the embryos 
of mammals, birds and reptiles. — Gk. afxvtov, 
'a bowl in which the blood of victims was 
caught; membrane round foetus', rel. to Ajiao- 
8-ou, 'to draw, gather', «u,y], prop. ap) (whence 
L. hama), 'bucket', and cogn. with Lith. semiii, 
semti, 'to draw', sdmtis, 'scoop, ladle'. These 
words prob. derive fr. I.-E. base *sem-, 'one, 
together', whence also Gk. Sjxa, 'together with'. 
See same and cp. aam. 

amoeba, ameba, n., a microscopic one-celled ani- 
mal. — Gk. afXOi(Wj, 'change', rel. to Ajxetpetv, 
'to change', fr. copul. pref. -a and I.-E. base 
*meig w -, *mig w -, 'to change', whence also L. 
migrate, 'to wander' ; see migrate. Copul. pref. 
a- stands for I.-E. *sni-, a weak gradational form 
of I.-E. base *sem-, 'one, together'; see same. 

amoebean, amebean, adj., interchanging. — 
Formed with suff. -an fr. Gk. au-oipodos, 'in- 
terchanging, alternate', fr. ajioifW). See prec. 

amok, adj. and n. — See amuck. 

Amomum, n., a genus of plants of the ginger fa- 
mily (bot.) — L. amomum, 'a spice plant', fr. 
Gk. afxco^xov, which is of Sem. origin. Cp. Mish- 
naic Heb. hdmdm, of s.m., and Syr. fiamdmd, 
Arab, hamdmd, 'a spice plant', which prob. de- 
rive from stem h-m-m, 'to be warm'. See Imma- 
nuel Low, Aramaische Pfianzennamen, Leipsic, 
1 88 1 , and HeinrichLewy,Die semitischen Fremd- 
worter im Griechischen, Berlin, 1895, p. 37- 

among, prep. — ME., fr. OE. on gemang, 'in a 
crowd, into a crowd', formed fr. prep, on (see a-, 
'on') and a derivative of gemengan, 'to mingle'. 
See mingle and cp. words there referred to. 
amongst, prep. — Formed fr. among with adv. 
gen. suff. -s and excrescent -t. For this latter cp. 
against, amidst, betwixt, whilst. 
amontillado, n., a variety of sherry wine. — Sp., 
formed fr. a (fr. L. ad), 'to', and the name of the 
town Montilla in the province of Cordova in 
Spain. For the pref. see ad-, for the ending see 
suff. -ado. 

amoraim, n. pi., the teachers who expounded the 
Mishna (Jewish literature). — Heb. dmdrd'tm, 
pi. of dmord, lit. 'speaker', fr. Aram, amdr, 'he 
said, he spoke', which is rel. to Heb. amdr, 'he 
said, spoke, commanded', Arab, dmara, 'he 
ordered, commanded'. Cp. ameer, emir, 
amoral, adj., non-moral; ethically indifferent. — 
A hybrid coined fr. Greek a- (see priv. pref. a-) 
and moral, a word of Latin origin; first used by 
Robert Louis Balfour Stephenson (1850-94). 
Derivatives: amoral-ism, n., amoral-ity, n. 
amorist, n., a practicer of gallantry, lover. — 
Formed fr. L. amor, 'love' (see amorous), with 
suflf. -ist. 

Amorite, n., any of an ancient people inhabiting 
Palestine. — Heb. Emdrt, prob. meaning lit. 

'mountain dwellers' (sing, used collectively), 
and rel. to amir, 'top, summit'. Akkadian Amur- 
ru, in mat Amurru, 'land of the West', is a loan 
word whose sense development finds its ex- 
planation in the fact that the Amorites lived to 
the west of Assyria and Babylonia. For the 
ending see subst. suff. -ite. 
Derivatives: Amorite, adj., Amorit-ic, adj. 
amorous, adj. — OF. (whence F. amour eux), fr. 
Late L. amdrdsus, fr. L. amor, 'love', fr. amdre , 
'to love'. See amative and -ous and cp. enamor, 
inamorato, paramour. 

Derivatives: amorous-ly, adv., amorous-ness, n. 

Amorpha, n., a genus of American plants (bot.) — 
ModL., fr. Gk. a^opcpo.;, 'deformed' (see amor- 
phous); so called because of the absence of four 
of the petals. 

amorphism, n., absence of crystallized form. — 
See amorphous and -ism. 

amorpho-, combining form meaning 'shapeless'. 
— Gk. <i[xop<po-, fr. a(jLopcpo<;. See next word. 

amorphous, adj., shapeless. — ModL. amorphus, 
fr. Gk. &!xop90i;, 'without form, shapeless, de- 
formed', fr. &- (see priv. pref. a-) and [XOP97), 
'form, shape'. See morpho-. For E. -ous, as 
equivalent to Gk. -oq, L. -us, see -ous. 

amortize, tr. v., to extinguish (a debt) through a 
sinking fund. — ME. amortisen, fr. OF. (= F.) 
amortiss-, pres. part, stem of amortir, fr. VL. 
*admortire, 'to deaden, extinguish', fr. ad- and 
VL. mortus (L. mortuus), 'dead', fr. L. mors, 
gen. mortis, 'death'. Cp. It. ammortire, OProv- 
enc. amortir, Sp., Port, amortecer, 'to deaden', 
and see mortal. 

Derivatives : amort iz-able, adj . , amortiz-at ion, n . , 
amortizement (q.v.) 
amortizement, n. — F. amortissement, fr. amor- 
tir. See amortize and -ment. 
Amos, masc. PN; in the Bible 1) the third m the 
order of the Twelve Prophets; 2) the Book of 
Amos. — Gk. •Au.*?, fr. Heb. 'Amds, lit. 'borne 
(by God)', fr. 'dmas, 'he bore, carried', which is 
rel. to Phoen. and Ugar. '-m-s, 'to carry', Aram. 
'dmas, 'he compressed', Arab, 'dmisa, '(the day) 
was oppressive'. 5 
amount, intr. v. — ME., fr. OF amonter, 'to raise , 
fr. amont, 'upward', lit. 'up hill', fr. a, 'to' (see 
a), and mont, 'hill, mountain'. See mount and 
cp. paramount, tantamount. 
Derivative : amount, n. 
amour, n., a love affair. - F., 'love', fr. L. amorem, 
acc. of amor, 'love', fr. amdre, 'to love'. See 

amative. . 

eral.) — Named after Ampangabe in Madagas- 
car For the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 
amparo, n., a certificate issued to the claimant of 
land to serve as protection. — Sp., lit. 'protect- 
ion, help, support', fr. amparar, 'to shelter 
protect, help', fr. VL. *ampardre, which isformed 
fr. L. pref. im- and pardre, 'to prepare'. See im-, 
'in', and pare and cp. emperor. 

ampelideous, adj., pertaining to the vine family. — 
Compounded of Gk. S^TteXo;, 'vine', and elSoc,, 
'form, shape'. See ampelo-, -oid and -ous. 

ampelo-, combining form, meaning 'vine'. — Gk. 
a|XTOXo-, fr- &(jmeXoc, 'vine'; of uncertain, pos- 
sibly Mediterranean, origin. 

ampelography, n., description of the vine. — F. 
ampelographie, fr. Gk. SjxtisXck;, 'vine', and 
-ypa<pla, fr. YP« < P Etv > ' to write '- See ampe 10 - 
and -graphy, 

Ampelopsis, n., a genus of plants of the grape 
family (bot) — ModL., lit. 'looking like vine', 
compounded of Gk. ajxTCeXoe, 'vine', and Stjji?, 
'appearance'. See ampelo- and -opsis. 

amperage, n., the strength of an electric current 
given in amperes. — Formed fr. ampere with 
suff. -age. 

ampere, n., unit of force of the electric current. — 
F.,named after the French physicistAndre-Marie 
Amptre (1775-1836). 

ampersand, n., the symbol & (= and). — Cor- 
ruption of the partly English, partly Latin 
phrase 'and per se and', i.e. 'the sign & by it- 
self (equals) and'. 

amphi-, before a vowel amph-, pref. meaning 
'both, on both sides, of both kinds'. — Gk. 
1x^91.-, an<p-,'on both sides, at bothends.around', 
fr. <x[A<pi, 'around ; round about', which is cogn. 
with L. ambi-, amb-, 'around; round about'. 
See ambi- and cp. Amphion. 

Amphibia, n. pi., a class of vertebrates. — ModL. 
See next word. 

Derivatives: amphibian, adj. and n. 

amphibious, adj., living both on land and in water. 
— Gk. au,9t(3io(;, 'living a double life', viz. 'on 
land and in water', fr. 1x5x91- (see amphi-) 
and $ioq, 'life'. See bio-. For E. -ous, as equiv- 
alent to Gk. -oq, see -ous. 

amphibole, n., a silicate of calcium, magnesium, 
etc. — F., fr. L. amphibolus, 'ambiguous, doubt- 
ful', fr. Gk. a(jL9ipoXoi;, of s.m., fr. a^ifiaXXsiv, 
'to throw around; to doubt', fr. 4(x<pi, 'around', 
and fliXXeiv, 'to throw'. See amphi- and bal- 
listic. The name amphibole was given to this 
group of minerals by the French mineralogist 
Rene-Just Haiiy (1743-1822). 
Derivative: amphibol-ic, adj. 

amphibology, n., an ambiguous statement. — F. 
amphibologie, fr. ML. amphibologia, altered (on 
analogy of words ending in -logia), fr. L. amphi- 
bolia, fr. Gk. a[x9i[3oXL5„ 'ambiguity', fr. £5x91- 
3oXo;. See amphibole and -logy. 

amphibolous, adj., ambiguous. — Gk. a[±9i£lo- 
Xos, 'ambiguous, doubtful'. See prec. word. For 
E. -ous, as equivalent to Gk. -05, see -ous. 

amphibrach, n., a metrical foot consisting of three 
syllables, the middle one long and the other two 
short (pros.) — L. amphibrachys, fr. Gk. au.91- 
Ppaxu;, 'short at both ends', fr. (see amphi-) 
and ppax"?. 'short'. See brachy-. 

Ampnicarpa, n., a genus of vines (bot.) — ModL., 
fr. Gk. an9txap7ro!;, 'having fruits on both 

sides', which is compounded of 1*1x91- (see am- 
phi-) and xapTO?, 'fruit'. See carpel. For E. -ous, 
as equivalent to Gk. -0?, see -ous. The genus 
was called Amphicarpa because it has two 
kinds of pods. 

amphictyonic, adj., pertaining to an amphicty- 
ony. — L. amphictyonicus, fr. Gk. d(X9iXTUovt- 
xo<;, fr. &|x9»m>ov(a. See next word and -ic. 

amphictyons, n. pi., deputies to an amphictyonic 
council. — L. amphictyones, fr. Gk. £u,<pi>tTuovEi;. 
See next word. 

amphictyony, n., confederation of states in an- 
cient Greece, established around a common 
center. — Gk. a^ixruovtS, 'the Amphictyonic 
League', fr. <x[x9i.>ctuove<;, 'amphictyons', fr. 
earlier ^ix-novs?, 'they that dwell round 
about'. For the first element see amphi-. The 
second element is rel. to Gk. xt^eiv, 'to create, 
found', xtlot?, 'a founding, settling', xTotva, 
xTotva, 'habitation, township', and cogn. with 
OI. kseti, ksiydti, 'abides, dwells', ksitih, 'dwel- 
ling place', Arm. shen, 'inhabited' (pp.) 

amphigory, amphigouri, n., a nonsense verse. — 
F. amphigouri, of unknown origin. 
Derivative: amphigor-ic, adj. 

amphimixis, n., union of the germ cells of two 
individuals (biol.) — Compounded of amphi- 
and Gk. (xi^i;, 'mixing, mingling, intercourse'. 
See mix. 

Amphion, n., son of Zeus and Antiope, king of 
Thebes and husband of Niobe (Greek mythol.) 

— L. Amphion, fr. Gk. ' A;x9fcov, which is prob. 
a derivative of £^91, 'round about'. See amphi-. 

Amphioxus, n., a genus of marine animals (zool.) 

— ModL., coined by the English zoologist Wil- 
liam Yarrell (1784-1856) in 1836 fr. amphi- 
and aluq, 'pointed, sharp'. See oxy-. Accord- 
ingly Amphioxus lit. means 'tapering at both 

Amphipoda, n. pi., an order of the Crustacea with 
two kinds of feet for swimming, respectively for 
jumping (zool.) — ModL. compounded of am- 
phi- and Gk. ko'k, gen. -086?, 'foot' (see -poda). 
Accordingly Amphipoda lit. means 'having two 
kinds of feet'. 

Derivatives: amphipod-an, amphipod-ous, adjs. 

amphisbaena, n., a serpent having a head at each 
end (Greek mythol.) — L., fr. Gk. i^ia^va, 
'serpent supposed to be able to go both for- 
ward and backward', which is compounded of 
dc[X9t (see amphi-) and patveiv, 'to go'. See base, n. 

Amphisbaena, n., a genus of lizards (zool.) — See 
prec. word. 

amphiscians, also amphiscii, n. pi., the inhabitants 
of the tropic zone. — ML. amphiscii (pi.), fr. 
Gr. a^toxio;, 'throwing a shadow both ways' 
fr. £1x91 (see amphi-) and oxii, 'shade, shadow' 
(see skiagraphy); so called because their shadow 
falls toward north at one time, toward south at 
another. Cp. antiscians. 

amphitheater, amphitheatre, n. — L. amphithed- 
trum, fr. Gk. <xfX9i&saxpov, lit. meaning 'having 



seats for spectators all round'. See amphi- and 

Amphitrite, n., the daughter of Nereus and Doris 
and wife of Poseidon {Greek mythol.) — L., fr. 
Gk. 'AjxipiTpfrn), lit. '(waves of the sea) roaring 
round (the earth)', prob. fr. du-cpt, 'on both 
sides' (see amphi-), and the stem of Tpt^etv, 
'to utter a shrill cry, creak', from the I.-E. imi- 
tative base *(s)trig-; see strident and cp. trismus. 
Cp. W. H. Roscher, Ausfiihrliches Lexikon der 
griechischen Mythologie, Leipzig, 1884-86, I, 

Amphitryon, n., son of Alceus and husband of 
Alcmene in Greek mythology; used figura- 
tively in the sense of host. — Gk. ' Au-cpixpiitov, a 
compound literally meaning 'one who reigns 
far and wide'. For the first element of this com- 
pound see amphi-. The second element is prob. 
rel. to Gk. -rip-awo?, 'lord, master, sovereign, 
tyrant' ; see tyrant. The metaphorical use of this 
PN. to denote a host is due to the circumstance 
that during Amphitryon's absence his wife Alc- 
mene was visited and feasted by Zeus in the 
shape of her husband. See Pauly-Wissova, Real- 
Encyklopadie der klassischen Altertumswissen- 
schaft, I, 1967. 

amphodelite, n., a variety of anorthite (mineral.) 
— Compounded of amph-, and Gk. oSeXo?, a 
variant of ofteXoi;, 'a spit' (see obelus, obelisk); 
so called in allusion to the twin crystals in which 
it occurs. For the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

amphora, n. — L., 'a vessel with two handles or 
ears, a pitcher', fr. Gk. djjicpopeuc, of s.m., which 
is contracted fr. *a|i<pL-<popEU(; (see haplology), 
lit. 'two-handled', fr. dutpi (see amphi-) and 
tpops&q, 'bearer, carrier', fr. cpepetv, 'to bear'. 
See hear, 'to carry', and cp. -phore. Cp. also 

ample, adj., spacious, abundant. — F., fr. L. 
amplus, 'large, spacious', which stands for *am- 
los and lit. means 'comprehensive', from I.-E. 
base *am- 'to seize, hold', whence also L. ampla, 
ansa, 'handle', Lith. -qsd, Lett, uosa, 'loop, 
knot', OPruss. ansis, 'pot hook, trammel', Gk. 
rjvia. Dor. ivii (for *ansia), 'bridle, reins', 
ON. xs, MLG. lese, G. Ose, 'eye, loop', Mir. 
esi (pi.), 'bridle'. Cp. amplify, amplitude. 
Derivatives: ample-ness, n., ampl-y, adv. 

amplification, n. — L. amplificdtid, gen. -dnis, 'a 
widening, enlarging, extending', fr. amplificdtus, 
pp. of amplificare. See next word and -ion. 

amplify, tr. v. — F. amplifier, fr. L. amplificare, 
'to widen, enlarge, extend', fr. amplus (see am- 
ple) and -ficdre, h.facere, 'to make, do'. See -fy. 
Derivative: amplifi-er, n. 

amplitude, n., spaciousness; abundance; extent. 
— F., fr. L. amplitiido, 'wide extent, width', fr. 
amplus. See ample and -tude. 

ampulla, n., a flask with two handles. — L. am- 
pulla (for *ampor-la), 'a globular vessel for hold- 
ing liquids', dimin. of amphora, ampora. See 

Derivatives: ampull-aceous, ampull-ar, ampull- 
ar-y, ampull-ate, ampull-at-ed, adjs. 

ampulliform, adj. — Compounded of ampulla 
and L. forma, 'form, shape'. See form, n. 

amputate, tr. v. — L. amputdtus, pp. of amputdre, 
'to cut off, to prune', compounded of am-, 
shortened form of ambi-, 'around', and putdre, 
'to trim, prune, lop, clean'. See ambi- and puta- 
tive and cp. pave and pit. For the ending see 
verbal suff. -ate. 

Derivatives: amputation (q.v.), amputat-ive, adj., 
amputat-or, n. 
amputation, n. — L. amputdtid, gen. -onis, fr. 
amputdtus, pp. of amputdre. See amputate and 

amrita, amreeta, n., the drink of immortality 
(Hindu mythol.) — OI. amftdh, 'immortal ; drink 
of immortality; immortality', cogn. with Gk. 
&[i.(3poTo?, 'immortal'. See priv. pref. an- and 

amsel, n., 1) the blackbird; 2) the ring ouzel. — 
G. Amsel, fr. MHG. amsel, fr. OHG. amsala, 
amusla. See ouzel and cp. words there referred to. 

Amsonia, n., a genus of herbs (bot.) — ModL., 
named in honor of Charles Amson, physi- 
cian of Gloucester, Virginia (iSth cent.) For 
the ending see suff. -ia. 

amt, n., a territorial division in Denmark and 
Norway. — Dan., fr. G. Amt, 'office', fr. MHG. 
amheht, ammet, fr. OHG. ambaht, ampaht, 
which is of Celtic origin. Cp. Gaulish-Lat. 
ambactus, 'servant', and see embassy. 

amuck, amok, adj., possessed with a murderous 
frenzy; adv., in a murderous frenzy. — Malay 
amoq, 'in a frenzy'. 

amulet, n. — L. amuletum, 'amulet', prob. orig. 
meaning 'food made of amylum (starch flour)', 
fr. amulum, amylum, 'starch flour' (see amy- 
lum); influenced in sense by a confusion with 
dmdliri, 'to carry away, remove'. 
Derivative: amulet-ic, adj. 
amurcous, adj., foul. — Formed with suff. -ous 
fr. L. amurca, 'the dregs of olives', fr. Gk. 
dfXopYT], of s.m., fr. dfiepyeiv, 'to pluck, pull', 
which is perh. related to ofiopyvuvai, 'to wipe 
off', and cogn. with OI. mpdti, 'wipes off', L. 
mergae, 'a two-pronged pitchfork'. For the 
change of Gk. y to c(k) in Latin cp. L. spelunca, 
'cave', fr. Gk. nirrihjyL This change is prob. 
due to Etruscan influence; see K. v. Ettmayer, 
Indogermanische Forschungen, 45, iof., and 
E.Vetter, Glotta, 17, 302. 
amuse, tr. v. — OF. (= F.) amuser, 'to cause to 
muse', lit. 'to cause to gape idly about', fr. a, 
'to' (see a), and muser, 'to muse'. See muse. 
Derivatives: amus-ed, adj., amus-ed-ly, adv., 
amuse-ment, n., amus-ing, adj., amus-ing-ly, adv. 
amus-ing-ness, n., amus-ive, adj., amus-ive-ly, 
adv., amus-ive-ness, n. 
amusia, n., inability for music (med.) — Medical 
L., fr. Gk. txu.oucrt5, 'want of harmony', fr. 
Sixouaoe, 'without song, without harmony', fr. 



d- (see priv. pref. a-) and Moutja,'Muse; music'. 
See Muse and -ia. 

Amy, fern. PN. — OF. Amee, lit. 'beloved', fr. 
OF. amee (corresponding to F. aimee), fem. 
pp. of amer (F. aimer), 'to love', fr. L. amdre, 
of s.m. See amative. 

amyelous, adj., lacking the spinal chord. — Gk. 
dfjiueXo<;, 'without marrow', fr. a- (see priv. 
pref. a-) and (/.osXoi;, 'marrow', which stands 
for mSs-elo-s, and is rel. to u-ocov (gen. (xi36ivo<;), 
'knot of muscles', and to uS? (gen. \jx>6q), 
'muscle'. Seemyo- and cp. amyous. For E. -ous, 
as equivalent to Gk. -oq, see -ous. 

amygdala, n., a tonsil (anat.) — L., fr. Gk. d( 
8<xXtj, 'almond'; see almond. The use of the 
word in its anatomical sense is due to a literal 
translation of Arab, al-lauzatdni, 'the two ton- 
sils', lit. 'the two almonds'. 

Amygdalaceae, n. pi., the almond or peach family 
(bot.) — ModL., formed with suff. -aceae fr. L. 
amygdala, 'almond'. See amygdala. 

amygdalaceous, adj. — Formed fr. amygdala with 
suff. -aceous. 

amygdalate, adj., pertaining to, or resembling, 
almonds. — Formed fr. amygdala with adj. 
suff. -ate. 

amygdalic, adj., pertaining to, or designating, the 
crystalline acid C^H^O;-, (chem.) — See next 
word and -ic; so called because it is formed by 
the decomposition of amygdalin. 

amygdalin, n., a crystalline glucoside C 20 H 27 NO U 
(chem.) — Formed fr. amygdala with chem. suff. 
-in ; so called because it occurs in bitter almonds. 

amygdaline, adj.. 1) pertaining to, or resembling, 
an almond or almonds ; 2) pertaining to a tonsil 
(anat.) — L. amygdalinus, 'of almonds', fr. 
amygdala, 'almond'. See amygdala and -ine (rep- 
resenting L. -inus). 

amyl, n., starch (pbsol.) — L. amylum, fr. Gk. 
£[u>Xov, 'fine meal, starch', prop. neut. of the 
adjective i\xxikaq, 'not ground at the mill', fr. 
d- (see priv. pref. a-) and [iajXtj, 'mill'. See mill 
and cp. amidin. 

amyl, n., a hydrocarbon radical CjH,, (chem.) — 
Coined from the first two letters of L. amylum 
(see prec. word) and suff. -yl. 

amyloid, adj., starchlike; n., a starchlike sub- 
stance. — Compounded of Gk. ajzuXov, 'starch', 
and -oeiSVji;, 'like', fr. eTSo?, 'form, shape'. See 
amyl, 'starch', and -oid. 

amyous, adj., wanting in muscles (med.) — Gk. 
£u.uos, 'without muscle', fr. A- (see priv. pref. 
a-) and \iSjq, gen. \vj6q, 'muscle'. See myo- and 
cp. amyelous. 

Amyris, n., a genus of plants of the rue family 

(bot.) — ModL., fr. priv. pref. a- and Gk. jripov, 

'balsam'. See smear, n. 
an, indef. art. (before a word beginning with a 

vowel). — ME. an, fr. OE. an, 'one*, whence also 

one (q.v.) Cp. a, indef. article, 
an. conj. meaning 'if, and if*. — Shortened fr. 

and (q.v.) 

an-, a-, priv. pref. — Gk. dv-, a-, 'not, without', 
rel. to ve-, vr;-, v-, of s.m. (see nepenthe), and 
cogn. with OI. an-, a-, L. in-, Goth., OE., etc. 
un-, of s.m. See priv. pref. un-. 

an-, form of ana- before a vowel. 

an-, assimilated form of ad- before n. 

-an, suff. meaning 'pertaining to', used in zool- 
ogy, chemistry, biology. — Fr. L. -anus, either 
directly or through the medium of F. -ain, -en. 
Cp. the suffixes -ian and -ain. Cp. also suff. -ana 
and ana. 

ana-, before a vowel an-, pref. meaning: 1) up, 
upward; 2) back, backward, against; 3) again, 
anew; 4) exceedingly; 5) according to. — Gk. 
dvoc-, dv-, 'up to, upward, up, toward; exceed- 
ingly; back, backward; against', fr. ivi, 'up, 
on, upon; throughout; again', rel. to avw, 
'above', and cogn. with Avestic ana, 'on, upon', 
L. an- in anheldre, 'to pant, gasp', Goth, ana, 
OE. on, an, OSlav. na, Lith. nu, OPruss. no, na, 
'on, upon'; fr. I.-E. base *ano-, 'on, upon, 
above'. Cp. on and a-, 'on'. Cp. also the pref. 
in anhelation. 

-ana, pi. suff. meaning 'sayings of, anecdotes of, 
as in Johnsoniana. — L. -ana, neut. pi. of -anus, 
'pertaining to'. See -an and cp. ana. 

ana, n., collection of memorable sayings of 
famous men. — Coined fr. -ana, neut. pi. of 
Latin adjectives ending in the masc. sing, into 
-anus; abstracted from the ending of names like 
Johnsoniana, etc. See -ana. 

Anabaena, n., a genus of algae (bot.) — ModL., 
fr. Gk. dvafSatveiv, 'to go up', fr. dvd (see ana-) 
and (Jouvsiv, 'to go'. See base, n., and cp. ana- 
bas, anabasis. 

anabaptism, n., rebaptism. — ML. anabaptismus, 
fr. Late Gk. dva(3aTTTi,cr[x6i;, 'dipping into water 
again, re-immersion', fr. Gk. dva-, 'again' (see 
ana-) and $xt.t'\C,zvj, 'to dip, baptize'. See bap- 

Anabaptist, n. — ModL. anabaptista, 'one who 
baptizes again', fr. ana- and Gk. f3a7iTicrr/;i:, 
'one that dips, baptizer". See baptist and cp. 
prec. word. 

Derivatives: Anabaptist-ie,Anabaptist-ic-al,ad')S., 
Anabaptist-ic-al-ly, adv. 

anabaptize, tr. v., to rebaptize. — ML. anabap- 
tizdre, fr. Late Gk. ivafiaTrri^Eiv, 'to dip into 
water again'. See anabaptism and -ize. 

Anabas, n., a genus of fishes (ichthyol.) — ModL., 
fr. Gk. dvocfjd:;, gen. &vi r fixvz<jq, aor. part, of 
dvaflaivetv, 'to go up, mount, climb' (see next 
word); so called by the French naturalist baron 
Georges- Leopold - Chretien - Frederic - Dagobert 
Cuvier (1769-1832) because the fKhes of this 
genus are capable of leaving the water and 
climbing trees. 

anabasis, n., a military expedition, esp. that of 
Cyrus the Younger against Artaxerxes, de- 
scribed by Xenophon in his Anabasis. — Gk. 
dvafJaaii;, 'a going up, an expedition up from 
the coast', fr. dva^aivsw, 'to go up', fr. dva 



(ana-) and iSawsiv, 'to go'. See base, n., and cp. 
prec. word and catabasis. 

Anableps, n., a genus of S. and Central American 
fishes with projecting eyes. — Fr. Gk. dvd(3Xe- 
tyiq, 'a looking up', fr. dvd (see ana-) and 
[3Xst:elv, 'to look, see', which is rel. to ^Xsipapov, 
'eyelid'. See blepharo-. 

anabolic, adj., pertaining to anabolism. — Form- 
ed with suff. -ic fr. Gk. dva(3oXir), 'that which is 
thrown up, mound', fr. dva[3dXXEiv, 'to throw 
up', fr. ava (see ana-) and fidXXEiv, 'to throw'. 
See ballistic. 

anabolism, n.,fhe building up process in the living 
protoplasm. — See prec. word and -ism and cp. 

anabrosis, n., corrosion of soft tissues (med.) — 
Medical L., fr. Gk. dvdppoxji?, 'an eating up', 
fr. AvaPiPpuaxsiv, 'to eat up', fr. ava (see ana-) 
and pippwaxsiv, 'to eat, eat up, devour'. See 
broma and -osis. 

anabrotic, adj., corrosive (med.) — Gk. dvappto- 
tix6c, 'corrosive', fr. dvappcoTo;, 'eaten up', 
verbal adj. of dva^pcoaxsiv. See prec. word. 

anacatharsis, n., expectoration (med.) — Medical 
L., fr. Gk. dvaxd&aptm;, 'a clearing away (of 
rubbish), fr. ava (see ana-) and xd&apmq, 'a 
cleansing', fr. xa&aipsiv, 'to cleanse'. See ca- 
tharsis and cp. acatharsia. 

anacathartic, adj., emetic, expectorant. — See 
prec. word and -ic. 

anachronic, adj., marked by anachronism. — See 
anachronism and -ic. 

anachronism, n., an error in chronology. — F. 
anachronisme, fr. Gk. avaxpoviajxi;, 'anachro- 
nism', fr. avaxpovi^eiv, 'to refer to a wrong 
time', fr. ava, 'up, against' (see ana-), and ypovoq 
'time'. See chronic and -ism. 

anachronistic, adj., marked by anachronism. — 
See prec. word and -ic. 

Derivatives: anachronistic-al, adj., anachro- 
nistic-al-ly, adv. 

anaclastic, adj., pertaining to refraction (opt.) — 
Formed with suff. -ic fr. Gk. dvdxXaa-roc;, 
'bent back, broken, reflected' (said of light), 
verbal adj. of dvaxXSv, 'to bend back, break, 
reflect', fr. ava, 'back' (see ana-), and xXdv, 'to 
break'. See clastic. 

anacoluthon, n., a lack in grammatical sequence. 
— Gk. dvaxoXouftov, neut. of avay.6Xou0o;, 
'inconsequent, inconsistent', fr. dv- (see priv. 
pref. an-) and dxoXou&o;, 'following, attending 
on', which is formed fr. copul. pref. d- and 
xeXe'j&o;, 'way, road, path, track'. Copul. pref. 
d- stands for I.-E. *sm-, a weak gradational 
form of base *sem-° 'one, together'; see 
same. For the etymology of Gk. xsXeu&oq see 

anaconda, n., orig. a name given to a python of 
Ceylon; (zool.) any large snake of the boa fam- 
ily. _ Perhaps of Singhalese origin. 

Anacreontic, adj., written in the style of Ana- 
creon; n., a poem written in the style of Ana- 

creon. — L. Anacreonticus, fr. Anacredn, fr. Gk. 
' Avaxpewv, a celebrated Greek lyrical poet born 
at Teos in Ionia (560-478 B.C.E.). 

anacrusis, n., unstressed syllable before a stressed 
syllable at the beginning of a verse. — Gk. 
dvdxpouai?, 'a pushing back', fr. dvaxpoueiv, 
'to push back', fr. ava, 'back' (see ana-), and 
xpoiieiv (for *xpouaew), 'to knock, strike, 
push', which is rel. to Homeric xpoaivew (prob. 
for *xpouaav-teiv), 'to stamp, strike with the 
hoof, and cogn. with OSlav. su-kruso, su-kru- 
siti, Russ. krusit', Lith. krusil, kritsti, 'to smash, 
shatter', OSlav. kruchu, 'piece, bit of food'. 

anadem, n., a wreath, garland. — L. anadema, fr. 
Gk. dvdSijua, 'band, headband', fr. dvaSstv, 
'to bind up', fr. ava (see ana-) and SeTv, 'to 
bind'. See diadem. 

anadiplosis, n., repetition of an initial word (rhet.) 
— Gk. avaStTtXwai?, 'repetition, duplication', 
fr. ava8i7rXouv, 'to double, fold', fr. ava, 'again' 
(see ana-), and SmXoOv, 'to fold, repeat', fr. 
SmX6o?, SittXou?, 'double'. See diplo- and cp. 

anadromous, adj., going up rivers to spawn. — 
Gk. avaSpoiio?, 'running upward', fr. ava (see 
ana-) and Spojio?, course, race, running'. See 
dromedary and cp. catadromous. For E. -ous, as 
equivalent to Gk. -0;, see -ous. 

Anadyomene, n., an epithet of Aphrodite (Greek 
mythol.) — L., fr. Gk. 'AvccS-jouIvt;, lit. 'she 
that emerges (out of the sea)', fem. pres. part, of 
avaSuea^ai, fr. ava (see ana-) and middle voice 
of 8'ieiv, 'to put on (clothes), to enter, pene- 
trate, dive'. See adytum and cp. ecdysis, en- 

anaemia. — See anemia. 

anaerobic, adj., capable of living without oxygen 
(biol.) — Coined by the French chemist and 
bacteriologist Louis Pasteur (1822-95) in 1863 
from priv. pref. an- and aerobic. 

Anagallis, n., a genus of herbs of the primrose 
family (hot.) — L. anagallis, 'pimpernel', fr. Gk. 
dvayaXXi;, a word of uncertain origin. 

anaglyph, n., an embossed ornament. — Gk. 
avayX^tpov, 'wrought in relief, fr. avayX'^civ, 
'to carve in relief, fr. ava (see ana-) and yX'jtpeiv, 
'to carve', which is cogn. with L. glubere, 'to 
peel', and E. cleave, to split (q.v.) Cp. the second 
element in hieroglyph, triglyph. 
anaglyptic, adj., pertaining to anaglyphs. — Gk. 
avaYX'jTT-Lx6 ; , fr. dvayXuTTToc, 'wrought in re- 
lief, verbal adj. of avayX'ipsLv. See prec. word 
and -ic. 

anagogy, n., mystical interpretation of Scrip- 
tures. — Gk. dvaycoyr;, 'a leading up', fr. 
dvayeiv, 'to lead up', fr. dvd (see ana-) and ayav, 
'to lead'; cp. dycoyr), 'a leading'. See agent and 
cp. -agogue, apagoge, pedagogue, synagogue. 
Derivatives: anagog-ic, anagog-ic-al, adjs., ana- 
gog-ic-al-ly, adv. 

anagram, n., transposition of the letters of a 
word or phrase so as to form another. — ModL. 

anagramma, fr. Gk. txvaypa(j.(xaTia(x6;, 'a trans- 
position of letters', fr. avaypajxixaxt^eiv, 'to 
transpose the letters of a word', which is 
formed fr. ava, 'back' (see ana-), and ypduu-a, 
gen. ypau.[iaTo?, 'written character, letter'. See 
-graph and cp. grammar. 

Derivatives : anagrammat-ic, anagrammat-ic-al, 
adjs., anagrammat-i-cal-ly, &dv.,anagrammalism 
(q.v.), anagrammat-ist,n., anagrammatize (q.v.) 

anagrammatism, n., the making of anagrams. — 
ModL. anagrammatismus, fr. Gk. dvaypau.u.a- 
Tia^o?. See anagram and -ism. 

anagrammatize, tr. v., to make an anagram of; 
intr. v., to make anagrams. — Gk. 
tL£sw. See anagram and -ize. 

anal, adj., pertaining to, or connected with, the 
anus. See anus and adj. suff. -al. 

analcite, n., a white zeolite (mineral) — Formed 
with subst. suff. -ite fr. Gk. dvaXxr)?, 'weak, 
feeble', fr. dv- (see priv. pref. an-) and dXxr), 
'protection, help, strength' ; so called in allusion 
to the weak electricity it acquires when rubbed. 
Gk. dXxr) is rel. to dXsxeiv, 'to ward off, 
whence the desiderative verb dXsSUiv, 'to ward 
off, keep off, turn away, defend, protect'. See 

analectic, adj., relating to analects. — See next 
word and -ic. 

analects, also analecta, n. pi., collected writings; 
literary gleanings. — Gk. dvaXsxxa, 'things, 
chosen', neut. pi. of dvdXex-rot;, 'select, choice', 
verbal adj. of dvaXeysiv, 'to pick up, gather 
up, collect', fr. avd (see ana-) and Xsyciv, 'to 
speak', prop, 'to choose (words)', which is cogn. 
with L. legere, 'to read'. See lecture. 

analemma, n., an orthographical projection of the 
sphere on the plane of the meridional (geom.) — 
L., 'a sundial showing the meridian and latitude 
of a place', fr. Gk. dvdXv)' t j(j.a, 'sundial', fr. 
dvaXajipdveiv, 'to receive, take up, restore', 
fr. dvd (see ana-) and Xafjfidveiv, 'to receive'. 
See lemma and cp. words there referred to. 

analeptic, adj., restorative, tonic (said of a medi- 
cine); n., a restorative medicine, a tonic. — Gk. 
dvaX'/jTTTix'jC, 'restorative', fr. dvaXafxfidveiv, 'to 
receive', take up, restore', fr. dvd (see ana-) and 
Xa|i.j3dv£iv, 'to take, grasp, seize; to receive'. 
See prec. word. 

analgesia, n., absence of pain. — Medical L., 
fr. Gk. dvaXyyjtiia, 'want of feeling, insensibility', 
fr. dvaXyT,TO?, 'without pain'. See next word. 
Derivatives: analges-ic, adj., and n., analges- 
ics, n. 

analgetic, adj., producing analgesia; n., a drug 
producing analgesia. — Formed with suff. -ic 
fr. Gk. dvaXyvjTo?, 'without pain', fr. dv- (see 
priv. pref. a-) and dXyelv, 'to feel pain', fr. 
SXyoc, 'pain'. See -algia. 

analogical, adj. — Formed with adj. suff. -al fr. 
L. analogicus, fr. Gk. dvaXoyixo?, fr. dvaXoyia. 
See analogy and -ic 
Derivative: analogical-ly, adv. 

analogize, tr. v., to explain by analogy; intr. v., 
to reason by analogy or to use analogies. — Gk. 
dvaXoyi^scr»ai, 'to reckon up, sum up', fr. 
dvaXoyia. See analogy and -ize. 

analogous, adj. — L. analogus, fr. Gk. dvdXo- 
yot;, 'according to a due proportion, propor- 
tionate', fr. dvd (see ana-) and Xoyo?, 'word, 
speech, reckoning, proportion'. See logos and 
-ous. Derivatives: analogous-ly, adv., analogous- 
ness, n. 

analogue, n., an analogous thing. — F., fr. Gk. 
dvdXoyov, neut. of dvdXoyo?. See prec. word. 

analogy, n., similarity. — F. analogie, fr. L. ana- 
logia, fr. Gk. dvaXoyia, 'proportion, analogy', 
fr. dvdXoyo?. See analogous and -y (represent- 
ing Gk. -td). 

Derivatives: analogical (q.v.), analog-ist, n., 
analog-ist-ic, adj., analogize (q.v.) 

analphabetic, adj., not alphabetic. — Formed fr. 
privative pref. an- and alphabetic. 

analysis, n., separation of a whole into its com- 
ponent parts. — Gk. dvdXum?, 'a loosing, re- 
leasing', fr. dvaX'kiv, 'to unloose, release, set 
free', fr. dvd, 'up, on, throughout' (see ana-), and 
Xueiv, 'to unfasten, loosen, slacken'. See lysis. 

analyste, n., a person who analyzes. — F., formed 
fr. analyser, on analogy of nouns in -iste (E. 
-ist) fr. verbs in -iser (E. -ize). See prec. word 
and cp. analyze. 

analytic, analytical, adj. — ML. analylicus, fr. 
Gk. dcvaXvmxo;, 'analytical', fr. dvaX-jci;. See 
analysis and -ic, resp. also -al. 
Derivative: analytic-al-ly, adv. 

analyze, analyse, tr. v. — F. analyser, formed fr. 
analyse, 'analysis', on analogy of verbs in -iser. 
See analysis and -ize. 

Derivatives : analyz-ation (analys-ation), n., ana- 
lyzed (analys-ed), adj., analyzer (analys-er), n. 
anamnesis, n., recollection, remembrance. — Gk. 
dvdavritju;, 'a calling to mind, reminiscence', 
fr. dvaiju^vvjaxsiv, 'to remind, recall to mem- 
ory', fr. dvd (see ana-) and fuixvir;ax£iv, 'to 
remind', which is rel. to (ivacs^at, 'to remem- 
ber', uijxova, 'I remember', fr. I.-E. base "men-, 
'to think, remember'. See mind and cp. mnesic, 
amnesia, paramnesia. 

anamorphosis, n., a distorted image; a gradual 
change in form (biol.) — ModL., fr. dvx;aop- 
cpucm, 'a forming anew', fr. dv*u.op(poOv, 'to 
form anew, transform', fr. dvd, 'again' (see 
ana-), and uopcpouv, 'to give form to, form, 
shape', fr. (xop^, 'form, shape'. Sec morpho- 
and cp. metamorphosis, amorphous. 

ananas, n. — Sp. ananas, fr. Peruv. nanas, 

ananda, n., bliss, one of the three qualities of 
Brahma (Hindu mythol.) — OI. ananda-, 'joy, 
happiness, bliss', formed from the particle d- 
and the stem of ndndoti, 'he rejoices'. For the 
etymology of the particle a- see agama and cp. 
words there referred to. OI. ndndati is of un- 
certain origin. 



anandrous, adj., having no stamens. — Gk. avav 
Spog, 'husbandless; unmanly', fr. dv- (see priv. 
pref. an-) and avyjp, gen. dvSpot;, 'man'. See 

Ananke, n., the personification of necessity in 
Greek mythology. — Gk. dvdyx7), 'necessity', 
of uncertain origin ; perhaps standing for *an- 
ank- and cogn. with Olr. ecen, W. angen, 'ne- 
cessity, fate', Ir. echt (for *anktu-), 'manslaugh- 
ter', OE. dht, MDu. aht, OHG. ahta, MHG. 
ahte, aht, G. Acht, 'hostile persecution', Hitt. 
henkan, 'destiny, death'. 

Ananta, n., the endless, an epithet of the serpent 
Shesha in Hindu mythology. — OI. andntah, 
'endless', fr. OI. priv. pref. an- (see priv. pref. 
an-) and dntah- 'end, boundary, edge', which 
is rel. to OI. anti, 'opposite', and cogn. with 
Gk. dv-n, 'over against, opposite, before', L. 
ante, 'before, in front of. See ante- and cp. 

anapaest, n., a metrical foot consisting of two 
short syllables followed by a long one, a reversed 
dactyl (pros.) — L. anapuestus, fr. Gk. dvd- 
raitTTo?, 'struck back, rebounding', verbal adj. 
of dva7ra(eiv, 'to strike back', fr. dvd, 'back' 
(see ana-), and r.aieiv, 'to strike', which prob. 
stands for ""ndfieiv and is cogn. with L.pavire, 
'to beat, ram, tread down'. See pave. 

anapaestic, anapaestical, adj. — L. anapaesticus, 
fr. Gk. avaTtaioTixo;, fr. avdroxioTOi;. See prec. 
word and -ic, resp. also -al. 
Derivative: anapaestic-al-ly, adv. 

anapaite, n., a hydrous ferrous calcium phosphate 
(mineral.) — Named after Anapa on the Black 
Sea. For the ending see subst. surf. -ite. 

Anaphalis, n., a genus of plants (hot.) — ModL., 
of uncertain origin. 

Anaphe, n., a genus of moths (zool) — ModL., 
fr. Gk. ava^T;;, 'impalpable', fr. av- (see priv. 
pref. an-) and atpy;, 'touch, grip', from the stem 
of cxttteiv, 'to fasten, usually in the middle 
voice axTEaO-ai, 'to touch'. See apsis and cp. 
words there referred to. 

anaphora, n., repetition of the same word or 
phrase in successive clauses, (rhet.) — Gk. dva- 
9op5, 'a carrying back', fr. dvaipspsiv, 'to carry 
back', fr. dvd, 'back' (see ana-), and tptpeiv, 'to 
bear, carry'. See bear, 'to carry', and cp. -phore. 

anaphrodisiac, adj., that which reduces sexual 
desire; n., a drug reducing sexual desire. — 
Formed fr. priv. pref. an- and Gk. dcppoSima- 
v/jc,, 'sexual, venereal'. See aphrodisiac. 

anaphylaxis, n., exaggerated susceptibility, es- 
pecially to protein (med. and biol.) — Coined 
by the French physiologist Charles Richet 
( 1 850-1935) in 1893 on analogy of prophylaxis 
(q.v.) Anaphylaxis accordingly means the op- 
posite of what is expressed by prophylaxis; it is 
formed fr. ana- and Gk. <puXa!;ic;, 'a watching, 
guarding'. See phylaxis. 

anaplasty, n., plastic surgery. — F. anaplastie, fr. 
Gk. dva7tXatjT0i;, 'made anew', verbal adj. of 

avx7TAaaaeiv, 'to make anew, remodel', fr. dvd, 
'again' (see ana-), and rcXdaaeiv, 'to mold, form'. 
See plasma. 

anaptotic, adj., of languages: characterized — as 
English — by a tendency to lose declensional 
forms. — Formed fr. Gk. avd, 'back' (see ana-), 
and 7tTWTi>t6t;, 'pertaining to cases', fr. tttcoto?, 
'fallen', verbal adj. of 7uf7rrciv, 'to fall', which 
stands for *m-jrreiv, fr. *pt-, zero degree of 
I.-E. base "pet-, 'to fly, to fall'. See feather and 
cp. symptom and words there referred to. For 
the ending see suff. -ic. 

anarch, n., leader in anarchy. — Gk. avapxoc, 
'without chief, fr. dvd (see priv. pref. an-) and 
dpx<k, 'chief, leader, ruler'. See arch-. 

anarchy, n. — F. anarchie, fr. Gk. avocpxidt, 'lack 
of a leader, state of being without any leader', 
fr. fivapxoq 'without chief. See anarch and -y 
(representing Gk. -id.). 

Derivatives: anarch-ic, anarch-ic-al, adjs., an- 
arch-ic-al-ly, adv., anarch-ism, n., anarch-ist, n., 
anarch-ize, tr. v. 

anarthria, n., inability to articulate words (med.) 

— Medical L., coined by the French neurologist 
Pierre Marie (1853-1940) fr. Gk. avap&po?, 
'without joints' (see next word). For the ending 
see suff. -ia. 

anarthrous, adj., unarticulated. — Gk. avapftpo;, 
'without joints', fr. dv- (see priv. pref. an-) and 
ap#pov, 'joint, limb, organ'. See arthritis. For 
E. -ous, as equivalent to Gk. -o?, see -ous. 

Anas, n., the genus of ducks (zool.) — L. anas, 
'duck', cogn. with Lith. dntis, OPruss. antis, 
OSlav. oty, ORuss. utovi, Serb, utva (fr. *ot-), 
ON. bnd, OF. sened, MDu. xnt, OHG. anut, 
MHG. ant, G. Ente, and prob. also with Gk. 
v^aaa, Att. vjj-rTa, Boeot. vaaaa, 'duck', OI. 
atih, 'waterfowl'. Cp. Anatidae, Nesonetta. Cp. 
also smew. 

anasarca, n., a form of subcutaneous dropsy. 
(med.) — Medical L., fr. Gk. ava adpxa, ab- 
breviation of uSpcoi}' °™<* C! *pxa, 'dropsy through- 
out the flesh' ; fr. dvd, 'throughout' (see ana-), 
and aap5, gen. aapxo?, 'flesh'. See sarco-. 

anaspadias, n., a condition in which the urethra 
opens on the upper surface of the penis (med.) 

— Medical fr. ana- and the stem of <i7rav, 'to 
draw'. See spasm and cp. words there referred to. 

Anastasia, fern. PN. — Late L., fern, of Anasta- 
sius (q.v.). 

anastasis, n., convalescence (med.) — Medical L., 
fr. Gk. avdaTocCTiq, 'a standing up', ft. dvtordvai, 
'to make to stand up', fr. dva (see ana-) and 
ictTavai, 'to make to stand'. See state and cp. 
apocatastasis, catastasis, hypostasis, metastasis. 

Anastasius, masc. PN. — Late L. Anastasius, fr. 
Gk. 'Avaoxdaiot;, fr. avdaxaau;, 'resurrection', 
lit. a rising up', See prec. word and cp. Ana- 

anastomose, tr. v., to communicate by anasto- 
mosis. — F. anastomoser, fr. anastomose, fr. Gk. 
dvaax6(jiojais. See next word. 



anastomosis, n., intercommunication of vessels in 
the animal body or of parts in any branching 
system (anat.) — Gk. dvaaT6(j.G>m;;, 'outlet, 
opening', fr. dvaoxotxouv, 'to furnish with a 
mouth', fr. dvd (see ana-) and ar6fia, 'mouth'. 
See stoma, stomach. 

anastomotic, adj. — See prec. word and -otic. 

anastrophe, n., inversion of the usual order of 
words (rhet.) — L., fr. Gk. dvaaTpo<pY), 'a turning 
upside down; a turning up or back, inversion', 
fr. dvaaTp£<p£iv, 'to turn up or back', fr. dvd 
(see ana-) and a-rpetpeLv, 'to turn'. See strophe 
and cp. antistrophe, apostrophe, catastrophe. 

anathema, n., curse, malediction; a thing or per- 
son accursed. — L. anathema, fr. Gk. dvd£teu,a, 
'anything devoted', later used in the sense of 
'anything devoted to evil, an accursed thing', 
a later variant of dvdS-»)(j.a, 'an offering', lit. 
'that which is set up', fr. dva-uSivai, 'to lay 
upon', which is formed fr. dvd (see ana-) and 
Tt^svai, 'to put, place'. See thesis and cp. words 
there referred to. 

Derivatives : anathemat-ic, anathemat-ic-al,a.dss., 
anathemat-ic-al-ly, adv., anathemat-ism, n., ana- 
themat-ize (q.v.) 
anathematize, tr. v. to pronounce an anathema 
against; intr. v., to curse. — F. anathematiser, 
fr. L. anthematizare, fr. Gk. dva-9-eu.a-rfCsiv, 'to 
devote to evil', fr. dvd&eu.a, gen. -S>su.<xtos. See 
anathema and -ize. 

Derivative: anathemat-iz-ation, n., anathemat- 
iz-er, n. 

Anatidae, n. pi., a family of birds, the ducks (or- 
nithol.) — ModL., formed with suff. -idae fr. 
L. anas, gen. anatis, 'duck'. See Anas. 

anatocism, n., compound interest (law). — L. ana- 
tocismus, fr. Gk. dvaToxtti^O!;,, fr. dvd, 'again' 
(see ana-), and toxl£eiv, 'to lend on interest', 
which is rel. to toxoc. 'childbirth', -roxeus, 
'father', in pi. 'parents', and in gradational re- 
lationship to texvov, 'child', tixteiv (for *n- 
txeiv), 'to bring forth, bear'. See thane and cp. 
tecno-, toco-, atocia. For the ending see suff. 

Anatolia, n., ancient name of Asia Minor. — ML. 
Anatolia, fr. Gk. dvaToXr), 'sunrise, east', lit. 'a 
rising above (the horizon)', fr. dvaxcXXeiv, 'to 
rise', fr. dvd (see ana-) and teXXsiv, 'to ac- 
complish, perform; to rise', which is rel. to 
xsXoi;, 'end'. See tele- and cp. words there re- 
ferred to. 

Derivatives: Anatoli-an, adj. and n., Anatol-ic, 

anatomic, anatomical, adj. — F. anatomique, fr. 
L. aiatomicus, fr. Gk.{x'.y.6<i, 'relating to 
anatomy, skilled in anatomy', fr. 
See next word and -ic, resp. also -al. 
Derivative: anatomic-al-ly, adv. 

anatomy, n. — F. anatomic, fr. L. anatomia, fr. 
Gk. dvaTou.15, ava-rou.7), 'dissection', which is 
related to AvaTeu,veiv, 'to cut up', fr. dvd (see 

■ ana-) and xeu,veiv 'to cut'. See tome and cp. 

acrotomous, atom. For the ending see suff. -y 
(representing Gk. -is). 

Derivatives: anatom-ism, n., anatom-ist , n., ana- 
tom-ize, tr. v., anatom-iz-ation, n., anatom-iz- 
er, n. 

anbury, ambury, n., a soft tumor or wart on the 
neck of a horse or an ox. — A compound prob. 
meaning lit. 'a painful berry like tumor'. For the 
first element see the first element in agnail. For 
the second element see berry. 

-ance, suff. — Fr. L. -antia, either directly or 
through the medium of F. -ance. L. -antia de- 
rives fr. -dns, gen. -antis, pres. part. suff. of the 
verbs of the first Latin conjugation, and forms 
abstract nouns denoting action, process, state or 
quality. See -ant and -ce and cp. -ence. Cp. also 

ancestor, n. — A blend of ME. ancestre and an- 
cessour. ME. ancestre, derives fr. OF. ancestre 
(F. ancetre), fr. L. antecessor, 'predecessor', lit. 
'foregoer', fr. antecessus, pp. of antecedere, 'to 
go before', fr. ante- and cedere, 'to go'. ME. an- 
cessour, 'ancestor', comes fr. OF. ancessor, fr. 
L. antecessdrem, acc. of antecessor. See cede 
and cp. antecessor. 

ancestral, adj. — OF. ancestrel, fr. ancestre. See 
ancestor and adj. suff. -al. 
Derivative: ancestral-ly, adv. 

ancestry, n. — OF. ancesserie; refashioned after 
OF. ancestre. See prec. word and -y (represent- 
ing OF. ie). 

Anchises, n., the father of Aeneas; see Aeneas. — 
L. Anchises, fr. Gk. 'Ayx^O?. a name of un ~ 
certain origin. 

Anchistea, n., a genus of ferns (hot.) — ModL., 
fr. Gk. dfX^Teii?, 'next of kin', fr. &yyiatoQ, 
'nearest', superl. of a-fyj., 'near', which is rel. to 
aYx £tv > ' to squeeze, throttle'. "Ayxt prop, 
means 'pressed together'. See anger, anxious. 
For the sense development of Gk. dyx 1 . 'near', 
fr. dYX Etv > ' to squeeze', cp. F. pris, 'near, by', 
fr. L. pressus, 'compressed'. The genus was 
called Anchistea to intimate that it is related to 
another genus of plants called Woodwardia. For 
the Greek superl. suff. -lcjtoi; in ay/taxo;; see 
-est and cp. Callisto and words there referred 

anchor, n. — ME. anker, fr. OE. ancor, fr. L. an- 
cora, fr. Gk. dyxupa, 'anchor', which is rel. to 
Gk. dyxdiv, 'a bend', Avx-iXo;, 'crooked, 
curved'. See angle, 'corner', and cp. ancon, 
ankylosis. Cp. also angora. 
Derivatives: anchor, tr. and intr. v., anchor-age, 
a., anchor-ed, adj., anchor-er, n. 

anchoress, n., a female anchorite. — See next 
word and -ess. 

anchorite, also anchoret, n., hermit, recluse. — 
Anchoret is the earlier form. It is a contraction 
of still earlier anachoret, fr. L. anachoreta, fr. Gk. 
dvax&>pr)t"f)i;, 'anchorite', lit. 'one who has re- 
tired', fr. dvaxeopeiv, 'to go back, retire', fr. 
Avd, 'back' (see ana-), and x"P s ' v > ' to 8ive 



place, withdraw', fr. y&poc,, 'free space, room'. 
See chori-. 

anchovy, n., a small, herringlike fish. — Sp. an- 
chova, fr. Basque anchu, prop, 'dried fish', fr. 
anchua, anchuva, 'dry'. 

Anchusa, n., a genus of plants of the borage fa- 
mily. — L. anchusa, fr. Gk. ayxouaa, 'alkanet', 
which is of uncertain origin. 

anchylose, n. — See ankylose. 

anchylosis, n. — See ankylosis. 

anchylotic, adj. — See ankylotic. 

ancient, adj., old. — F. ancien, fr. VL. *antidnus, 
'former', fr. ante, 'before' ; see ante-. The -t in 
ancient is excrescent and is due to a confusion 
of the ending of F. ancien with -en/, the English 
equivalent of L. -ens (gen. -entis), the pres. part, 
suff. of the 1I-IV. Latin conjugations. Cp. pag- 
eant, peasant, pheasant, tyrant. 
Derivatives : ancient, n., ancient-ly, adv., ancient- 
ness, n., ancient-ry, n. 

ancient, n. ensign. — Corruption of ensign. 

ancile, n., the sacred shield of Rome. — L. ancile, 
'the sacred shield of Rome', said to have fallen 
from heaven. — The word prop, means 'cut in 
on both sides', and stands for *am(bi)-caid-sli, 
from ambi-, 'round about', and caedere, 'to cut, 
hew, fell'. See ambi- and cement. 

ancillary, adj., pertaining to a maid servant; sec- 
ondary, auxiliary. — L. ancilldris, 'relating to 
female servants', fr. ancilla, 'a female servant', 
dimin. fr. anculus, 'a man servant', which was 
misdivided into anc-ulus. In reality, however, 
anculus stands for an-culus and is compounded 
of pref. am(b)- (see ambi-) and the base of L. 
colere, 'to till (the ground), cultivate, dwell, in- 
habit'. Sec colony and -ary. Cp. Gk. d|A<pt7roXoi;, 
'handmaid of gods, priestess, attendant priest', 
which is cogn with L. anculus. 

ancipital, ancipitous, adj., having two edges. — 
Formed with adj. suff. -al, resp. -ous, fr. L. an- 
ceps, gen. ancipitis, 'having two heads', fr. an-, 
a short form of ambi-, 'on both sides', and caput, 
gen. capitis, 'head'. See ambi-, and capital, adj. 
For the change of Latin a (in caput) to i (in an- 
cipitis) see abigeat and cp. words there referred 

ancon, n., i) the elbow (anat.); 2) a projection 
supporting a cornice; console (archit) — L., fr. 
Gk. xvxwv. 'elbow', lit. 'bend (of the arm)'. 
See angle, 'corner', and cp. anchor, ankylosis. 

-ancy, suff. denoting quality or state. — Fr. L. 
-antia, either directly or through the medium of 
F. -ance, hence derivatively identical with -ance 
(q.v.) Cp. -ency. 

ancylostomiasis, n., hookworm disease (med.) — 
Medical L., compounded of Gk. dyxuXo;, 
'crooked, curved', and axofia, 'mouth'. See 
ankylosis, stoma and -iasis. 

Ancylus, n., a genus of snails (entomol.) — ModL., 
fr. Gk. dyxuXoi;, 'crooked, curved'. See an- 

and, conj. — ME., fr. OE. and, rel. to OS. endi. 

ande, OFris. and(a), ande, MDu. ende, enn, Du. 
en, OHG. enti, anti, later unta, unti, MHG. unde, 
und, G. und, 'and', ON. enn, en, 'and, but', prob. 
fr. I.-E. *i}thd-, whence also OI. dthfi, 'then, 
and'. Cp. an, 'if, and ampersand. 

anadabata, n., a Roman gladiator whose helmet 
had no opening for the eyes. — L., a word of 
Gaulish origin. The first element of this word 
means 'blind', and is cogn. with OI. andhdh, 
Avestic anda, of s.m. The second element is of 
the same origin and meaning as L. battuere, 'to 
beat, strike'. See batter, 'to beat', and cp. words 
there referred to. 

Andalusia, n., a former province of southern 
Spain. — Andalusia (= Sp. Andalucia), fr. Arab. 
Andalus, a name denoting the whole peninsula, 
fr. Late L. *Vandalicia, prop, 'the country 
occupied by the Vandals'. See Vandal. 

andalusite, n., a hard silicate of aluminum (Al 2 - 
SiO s ) {mineral) — Formed with subst. suff. 
-ite fr. Andalusia (see prec. word); so called be- 
cause it was first found in Andalusia. 

andante, adj., moderately slow; adv., in andante 
tempo; n., an andante movement (musical 
direction). — It., pres. part, of andare, 'to go', 
rel. to Sp. and Port, andar, 'to go'; fr. VL. am- 
bitdre, 'to go round', fr. L. ambitus, pp. of am- 
bire, 'to go round'. See ambient. 

andantino, adj., somewhat quicker (sometimes, 
slower) than andante;adv.,in andantino tempo; 
n., an andantino movement (musical direction). — 
It., dimin. of andante. 

andesine, n., a mineral of the group of feldspars. 

— Coined by the German geologist Wilhelm 
Hermann Abich (1806-86) from the name of the 
Andes Mountains. For the ending see chem. 
suff. -ine. 

andesite, n., name of a family of rocks (petrogr.) 

— Coined by the German geologist Baton Chris- 
tian Leopold von Buch (1774- 1853) from the 
name of the Andes Mountains. For the ending 
see subst. suff. -ite. 

Derivative: andesit-ic, adj. 

andiron, n., either of a pair of metal supports for 
logs in a fireplace. — ME. anderne, aundirne, 
aundiren, fr. OF. andier (F. landier), fr. Gaul. 
*andero-, 'a young bull' (cp. Ir. ainder, 'a young 
woman', W. anner, 'heifer'); so called because 
andirons were frequently adorned with the 
heads of animals. Andiron was influenced in 
form by, but is not related to, iron. Cp. gridiron. 

andouille, n., a kind of sausage. — F., fr. VL. 
*inductile, neut. of the adjective *inductilis, used 
as a noun, fr. L. inductus, pp. of inducere, 'to 
introduce'; see induce. Andouille must have de- 
noted originally the filling that was 'introduced' 
into the sausage. 

andr-, form of andro- before a vowel. 

Andrew, masc. PN. — OF. Andreu, Andrieu (F. 
Andre), fr. L. Andreas, fr. Gk. 'AvSpeS;, which 
is rel. to dvSpeioi;, 'manly', fr. dvrjp, gen. avSpo?, 
'man*. See andro- and cp. dandy. 



andrewsite, n., a hydrous phosphate (mineral) — 
Named after the Irish physicist and chemist 
Thomas Andrew (1813-58). For the ending see 
subst. suff. -ite. 

Andrias, n., a genus of fossil salamanders (zool.) 
— ModL., fr. Gr. ivSpidi;, 'image of a man', 
diminutive formed fr. dvrjp, gen. dv8p6<;, 'man'; 
see andro-. For the diminutive character of the 
-«/-formative element see Kretschmerin Glotta, 
14, 8 4 f. 

andro-, before a vowel andr-, combining form 
meaning 'man'. — Gk. dvSpo-, dvSp-, fr. dvrjp, 
gen. dvSpo;, 'man', which is cogn. with OI. 
ndram (ace), 'man', ndryah, 'virile', Arm. ayr, 
gen.-dat. arn, 'man', Alb. n'er, 'man', Umbr. 
nerus (pi. acc.), 'men', Sabine-L. Nero, PN., lit. 
'strong', W. ner, 'hero', Olr. nert, W., Co. nerth, 
'virility'. Cp. Andrew, Andrias, andron, dandy, 
'a fop', and the second element in Alexander, 
Ardhanari, Dianira, Leander, philander, sundari. 
Cp. also the first element in anthropo-. 

androcracy, n., rule or supremacy of men. — 
Compounded of andro- and -xpatia, fr. xpd-roi;, 
'strength, power, rule'. See -cracy. 

androecium, n., the stamens of a flower taken 
collectively (bot.) — ModL., compounded of 
andro- and Gk. otxtov, dimin. of olxo?, 'house'. 
See economy. 

androgen, n., a male sex hormone (biochem.) — 
Coined fr. andro- and -gen. 

androgynous, adj., hermaphrodite. — Gk. dvSpo- 
yuvog, 'man-woman, hermaphrodite', fr. dvrjp, 
gen. avSpo;;, 'man', and yuvrj, 'woman'. See 
andro- and gynaeco-, and cp. gynandrous. For 
E. -ous, as equivalent to Gk. -oc,, see suff. 

Andromache, n., the wife of Hector (Greek my- 
thol.) — L., fr. Gk. ' Av§po;], lit- 'whose hus- 
band excells in the fight', fr. dvr,p, gen. avSpo?, 
'man', husband', and (la/r,, 'fight'. See andro- 
and -machy. 

Andromeda, n., 1) the daughter of Cepheus and 
Cassiopeia (Creek mythol.) — Gk. 'AvSpouiSa, 
Ion. 'AvSpopisST), lit. 'mindful of her husband', 
compounded of dvrjp, gen. dvSpog, 'man' (see 
andro-), and uiSeoftai, 'to be mindful of, give 
heed to, think on', which is rel. to [^eSwv, aeSs- 
cov, 'guardian, ruler' (prop. pres. part, of the 
ancient verb (jieSeiv, 'to protect, rule over'), 
Lnr,Sca&ai, 'to devise, resolve, advise', jj.r,S£a (pi. 
neut.), 'counsels, plans, device, cunning', uiSiu.- 
voc, 'ameasure', fr.I.-E.base *mid-, 'to measure, 
limit, consider', which is a -^-enlargement of 
base 'me-, 'to measure'. See meditate and cp. 
Medea, Medusa and the second element in auto- 
medon, Diomedes, Ganymede. Cp. also medical. 

Andromeda, n., 1) name of a constellation in the 
northern hemisphere; 2) name of a genus of 
plants of the heath family (bot.) — From prec. 

andron, n., men's apartment in a house (Greek 
antiq.) — Gk. dvSpoiv, a collateral form of 

dvSpcoviTLi;, 'men's apartment', fr . dvrjp, gen. 
dvSpo?, 'man'. See andro-. 

androphobia, n., morbid dread of the male sex. — 
ModL., compounded of Gk. dvif)p, gen. dv8p6<;, 
'man', and -cpopia, 'fear of, fr. 96^01;, 'fear'. 
See andro- and -phobia. 

Andropogon, n., the beard grass (bot.) — ModL., 
compounded of andro- and Gk. 7ro>Y (dV > 'beard'. 
See Pogonia. 

Androsace, n., a genus of herbs of the primrose 
family (bot) — L. androsaces, name of a zoo- 
phyte, fr. Gk. dvSpoaocxe?, of s.m., lit. 'man's 
remedy', compounded of dvrjp, gen. avSpo?, 
'man', and axo;, 'remedy'. See andro-, and 

androsterone, n., a male sex hormone (biochem) 

— Coined fr. andro-, ster(ol) and -one. 
-androus, combining form used in botany in the 

sense of 'having (a certain number or form) of 
stamens (prop, male organs)', as in monandrous, 
gynandrous. — Gk. -avSpo;,fr. dvrjp, gen. dvSpoi;, 
'man'. See andro-. 

-ane, suff., a variant of -an, fr. L. -anus, gener- 
ally with differentiation of meaning. Cp. human, 
humane, and urban, urbane. 

-ane, suff. used to form names of saturated hydro- 
carbons (chem); derivatively identical with 
prec. suff. 

anear, prep, and adv. (poetic). — Formed fr. a-, 
'on', and near. 

anecdote, n. — F., fr. Gk. dvsxSoTa (neut. pi. of 
dvexSoTo;, 'not published'), used as a noun in 
the sense of 'unpublished things', fr. dv- (see 
priv. pref. an-) and sxSoxa, 'things given out', 
neut. pi. of gxSoToi; verbal adj. of Ex§t§o>(zi, 
'I give out' (fr. sx, 'out', and reduplication of 
base *dd-, 'to give'). See ec- and date, 'point 
of time'. 

Derivatives: anecdot-age, n., anecdot-al, anec- 
dot-ic, adjs., anecdotic-al-ly, adv., anecdot-ist, n. 
anele, tr. v., to anoint (archaic). — ME. anelien, 
'to anoint with oil', fr. OE. an, 'on', and ME. 
ele (fr. OE. ale), 'oil', fr. L. oleum. See a-, 'on', 
and oil. 

anemia, anaemia, n., deficiency of blood (med) 

— Gk. avails, 'want of blood, bloodlessness', 
fr. dv- (see priv. pref. an-) and al^oc, 'blood'. 
See hemal. 

Derivatives: anemi-al (anaemi-al), anem-ic (an- 
aem-ic), adjs. 

Anemia, n., a genus of plants of the climbing- 
fern family (bot) — ModL., fr. Gk. dvEipicov, 
'unclad', fr. dv- (see priv. pref. an-) and etu.oc, 
which corresponds to Dor. fr^a, 'a dress, gar- 
ment', and is cogn. with Gk. iaH^for *rza$-r l *), 
'clothing', evvuvca ('for *f£avjvai), 'to clothe', 
and cogn. with L. vestis, 'covering for the body, 
clothes'. See vest and cp. himation. 

anemo-, before a vowel anem-, combining form 
meaning 'wind'. — Gk. dveuo-, dveu.-, fr. 
dvE(xo;, 'wind', which is cogn. with L. anima, 
'breath of air, air, breath, soul, life', animus, 



'soul, spirit, mind, courage, wish, desire'. See 

anemology, n., the science of wind. — Com- 
pounded of anemo- and Gk. -Xoyta, fr. -Xoyo?, 
'one who speaks (in a certain manner) ; one who 
deals (with a certain topic)'. See -logy. 
Derivative: anemolog-ic-al, adj. 

anemometer, n., an instrument for measuring the 
velocity of the wind. — Compounded of anemo- 
and Gk. [xsxpov, 'measure'. See meter, 'poet- 
ical rhythm.' 

Derivatives: anemometr-y, n., anemometr-ic, 

anemone, n. — Gk. dvcu-tovr), 'the wind flower', 
which prob. derives fr. Heb. ndam&n in nite 
na'dmantm (Is. 17:10), lit. 'plants of pleasant- 
ness', fr. na'em, 'was pleasant'. See Paul de La- 
garde in Abhandlungen der Gesellschaft der 
Wissenschaften zu Gottingen, XXXV, p. 205, 
and Heinrich Lewy, Die semitischen Fremd- 
worter im Griechischen, Berlin, 1895, p. 49- For 
the etymology of Heb. na'em, 'was pleasant', see 
Naaman and cp. words there referred to. Gk. 
avsficdvr] was influenced in form by Sveu-o?, 
'wind'. For the ending -covy] in dvE[«iv7) cp. 
dpyeixtov?), ' a kind of P°PPy'' fr - Heb ' ar Sdm&n, 
'purple' (see Argemone). 
Anemonella, n., a genus of herbs of the family 
Ranunculaceae (hot.) — ModL., dimin. of ane- 
mone (q.v.) For the ending see suff. -ella. 
anencephalic, adj., having no brain (zool.) — Gk. 
dvEyx^aXo?, coined by Galen from dv- (see 
priv. pref. -an) and Gk. syxeepaXo!;, 'brain'. See 

anent, prep., concerning, about. — ME. anent, 
anentis, fr. OE. onefen, onemn, 'near to, close 
by', orig. 'on a level with', fr. an-, on-, 'on', and 
efe'n, 'even, equal'. Cp. OHG. (MHG., G.) ne- 
ben, 'near to, by the side of, shortened fr. in- 
eben, fr. in, 'in', and ebani, 'equality'. See on and 
even, 'straight'. The final t in anent is excrescent. 
Cp. foment. 

-aneous, adj. suff. — L. -aneus. See -an and -ous. 

anergy, n., lack of energy (med.) — Medical L. 
anergia, 'lack of energy', formed on analogy of 
energy fr. priv. pref. an- andGk. spyov, 'work'. 
See ergon. 

Derivative: anerg-ic, adj. 
aneroid, adj., containing no liquid (said of a kind 
of barometer); n., an aneroid barometer. — F. 
aneroide, lit. 'without liquid', compounded of 
priv. pref. a- and Gk. vapog, wjpoq, 'flowing, 
liquid' (which is rel. to vaetv, 'to flow'), and 
-oei8t)c, 'like', fr. elSoe, 'form, shape'. See 
Nereid and -oid. 
anesthesia, anaesthesia, n., insensibility. — Gk. 
dvaio^aia, 'lack of sensation', fr. dcvaiaS7)T£tv, 
'to be without sense of something, lack sen- 
sation', fr. dtv- (see priv. pref. an-) and ixkj#t)t6<;, 
'sensible, perceptible', verbal adj. of <xta*avea- 
0ai, 'to perceive'. See esthete and cp. esthesia. 
anesthetic, anaesthetic, adj., producing insen- 

sibility; n., substance producing anesthesia. — 
Formed with suff. -ic fr. Gk. dvaCaJhj-ro;, 'with- 
out feeling', fr. dv- (see priv. pref. an-) and 
ald-ShjToi;, 'sensible, perceptible'. See prec. 

Derivatives: anesthet-ist, n., anesthet-ize, tr. v. 

anet, n., dill. — F. anet, aneth, fr. L. anethum, 
fr. Gk. fivrj&ov, 'dill, anise'. Cp. Gk. Svtaov, 
L. anlsum, and see anise. 

aneurysm, n., a morbid dilatation of the coat of 
an artery (med.) — Gk. dvsopoeJu.6c;, 'dilatation', 
fr. dvEupuvstv, 'to dilate', fr. dvd (see ana-), and 
Eupiiveiv, 'to widen', fr. eup'i?, 'wide', which is 
cogn. with OI. uru(i, 'wide'. The spelling 
aneurism (with ( instead of y) is due to a con- 
fusion with words ending in -ism. 
Derivatives: aneurysm-al, adj., aneurysm-al-ly, 
adv., aneurysm-at-ic, adj. 

anfractuosiry, n., circuitousness. — F. anfractu- 
osite, fr. L. anfractus. See anfractuous and -ity. 
anfractuous, adj., circuitous. — F. anfractueux 
(fem. anfractueuse), fr. L. anfrdctudsus, fr. am- 
frdctus, anfractus, 'a breaking round; a turning, 
winding', fr. am-, shortened form of ambi-, 
amb-, 'about, around', and frdctus, pp. of 
frangere, 'to break'. See ambi- and fraction. 
Derivatives : anfractuous-ness, n. 
anew, adv. — Formed fr. a-, 'of, and new. 
angaralite, n., a magnesium aluminum iron sili- 
cate (mineral.) — Named after Angara River in 
Siberia. For the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 
angaria, n., a system of relays of couriers for dis- 
patching official letters in ancient Persia, later 
also in the Roman empire. — L., 'service to a 
lord', fr. Gk. dyyapEta, 'impressment for the 
public service', fr. ayyapoc;, 'mounted courier, 
messenger', of Persian, ult. Semitic, origin. See 

angary, n., the right of a warring nation to use 
or destroy the property of neutrals. — F. an- 
garie, fr. L. angaria. See prec. word. 

angel, n. — ME., fr. OF. angele (F. ange), fr. L. 
angelus, fr. Gk. ayyeXog, 'messenger, divine 
messenger, angel' (whence the verb dyyEXXeiv, 
'to bear a message, report, tell'), which is rel. to 
&T(aLpoQ, 'mounted courier, messenger'; of 
Persian, ult. of Sem. origin. Cp. Akkad. agarru, 
'hireling, hired laborer', fr. agdru, 'to hire', 
which is rel. to Aram, agar, eggdr, 'he hired', 
(whence Arab, djara, of s.m.), Heb. iggereth, 
Aram, igg'ri, iggartd, 'letter', prop, 'message' 
Cp. angaria, the first element in Ingrain and the 
second element in evangel. The sense develop- 
ment of Gk. ayyapoi;, resp. 6cyyeXo<;, from a 
Sem. noun meaning 'hireling', may be illustrated 
by the phases: 'hireling, hired messenger, mes- 
senger'. Gk. ccyyeXoi; m tne xnsc o{ ' an S el '> ^ 
a loan translation of. Heb. mal'&kh, 'messenger, 
divine messenger, angel', fr. base l-'-k, 'to send'. 
Derivatives: angel-ic, adj., angelica (q.v.), angel- 
ic-al, adj., angel-ic-al-ly, adv., angel-ic-ize, tr. v., 
angel-ize, tr. v. 



Angela, fem. PN. — Fem. of L. angelus, 'angel'. 
See prec. word and cp. angelica, Angelina. 

angelrish, n. — The name is prob. due to the mis- 
reading of the Dutch name of this fish zeeegel, 
lit. 'sea urchin', as zeeengel, 'sea angel' (cp. its 
French name ange de mer), a mistake suggested 
by the winglike fins of this fish. 

angelic, adj. — V.angelique, fr. L. angelicus, fr. Gk. 
dyycXixcK;, 'angelic', fr. ayysXos. See angel and 

Angelica, fem. PN. — Fem. of L. angelicus, 'an- 
gelic'. See prec. word and cp. Angela, Angelina. 

Angelica, n., a genus of plants (bot.) — ModL., 
lit. 'the angelic (herb)', fr. L. (herba) angelica, 
fem. of angelicus (see prec. word); so called 
because of its medicinal properties. 

Angelina, fem. PN. — Dimin. of Angela (q.v.). 

angelo-, combining form meaning 'angel'. See 

angelolatry, n., the worship of angels. — Com- 
pounded of angelo- and Gk. -Xaxpsta, -XaTpta, 
fr. XaTpeta, 'hired labor, worship'. See -latry. 

angelot, n., 1) a gold coin; 2) a sort of cheese made 
in Normandy; 3) a musical instrument. — 
OF., dimin. of angele, 'angel'. See angel. 

anger, n. — ME., fr. ON. angr, 'sorrow, afflic- 
tion', rel. to ON. ongr, OE. enge, 'narrow, pain- 
ful', OS. engi, MDu. enghe, Du. eng, OHG. an- 
gi, engi, MHG. enge, G. eng, Goth, aggwus, 
'narrow', and cogn. with OI. amhu-, 'narrow', 
dmhah, 'anguish, need, anxiety', Avestic qzah-, 
'distress, oppression', Gk. ayyeiv, 'to squeeze' 
(esp. the throat), 'strangle, throttle, hang', 
ayyovy], 'strangling, hanging; rope', &fX}> 
dy^ou, 'near' (lit. 'narrow'), cttraov (for *&yx-io^), 
'nearer', L. angere, 'to press together, throttle, 
torment', angustus, 'narrow', Arm. anjuk, 'nar- 
row', OSlav. qzp, qziti, 'to narrow, compress', 
qzota, 'narrowness', 'qzosti, 'a narrowing, nar- 
rowness', qzuku, 'narrow', Lith. ankstas, 'nar- 
row', fr. I.-E. base *angh-, 'to narrow, com- 
press' ; the corresponding Celtic base is *engh-, 
*ngh-, whence Bret, enk, 'narrow', Ir. cumung, 
'narrow', Ir., W. ing, 'distress'. Cp. agnail, an- 
gina, anguish, anxious, and the second element 
in cynanche, quinsy, squinancy, Orobanche. 
Derivatives: angr-y, adj., angr-i-ly, adv. 

anger, tr. v. — ON. angra, fr. angr, 'anger'. See 
anger, n. 

angina, n., inflammation of the throat; quinsy. — 
L. angina, 'quinsy', prob. a loan word fr. Gk. 
dvyovrj, 'a throttling, strangling, hanging'. The 
form angina (instead of *ancina) is due to the 
influence of angere, 'to throttle'. See anger, 
r.., and cp. words there referred to. 
Derivative: angin-al, adj. 

angio- before a vowel angi-, combining form 
meaning 'covered by a seed or blood vessel', as 
'n angiosperm. — Gk. dyyEio-, fr. dyyEiov, 
'vessel', fr. (Syyos, 'vessel', a word of uncertain 
origin. Cp. the second element in Hydrangea, 
sporangium, synangium. 

angiology, n., that branch of anatomy which 
deals with the blood vessels. — Compounded 
of angio-, and Gk. -Xoyioc, fr. -Xoyoc;, 'one who 
speaks (in a certain manner); one who deals 
(with a certain topic). See -logy. 

angioma, n., a tumor consisting of dilated blood 
vessels (med.) — Medical L., formed with suff. 
-oma fr. Gk. dyyeTov, 'vessel'. See angio-. 

angiosperm, n., name of a large class of plants 
which has its seeds inclosed in an ovary. — 
Coined (in the Modern Latin form Angiosper- 
mae) by Paul Hermann in 1 690 fr. Gk. dyyeiov, 
'vessel, receptacle' and cmepiAa, 'seed'. See 
angio- and sperm. 

Derivatives : angiosperm-al, angiosperm-atous, 
angiosperm-ic, angiosperm-ous, adjs. 
angle, n., corner. — F., fr. L. angulus, 'angle, 
corner', which is cogn. with Arm. angiun, anki- 
un, OSlav. qg(u)lu, 'corner', OSlav. qkotu, 
'hook', Lith. anka, 'loop', OI. dngam, 'limb', 
angulih, angurih, 'finger, toe', angusfhdh, 'big 
toe, thumb', Avestic angushta-, 'toe, finger', OI. 
ankdh, 'hook; bent', dncati, 'bends, curves', Gk. 
ayxo?, 'a bend, hollow', dy>«ov, 'elbow', dyxuXo?, 
'crooked, curved', SyxOpa, 'anchor', L. ancus, 
'crooked, curved', OE. ancleo, ancleow, 'ankle', 
OE. anga, OHG. ango, 'hook'. All these words 
derive fr. I.-E. base *ang-, resp. *anq-, 'to bend'. 
Cp. angle, 'fishhook', Angle, anchor, ancon, 
angula, angular, ankle, ankylosis, and the second 
element in triangle. Cp. also the second element 
in sarangousty. The above I.-E. words stand in 
gradational relationship to Gk. oyxo?, L. un- 
cus, 'hook', Mir. ecath, 'fishhook'; cp. Uncaria, 
unciferous, uncinal, uncinate, uncinus, uncus, 
aduncus, Redunca. 

angle, n., a fishhook. — OE. angel, fr. anga, 
'hook', rel. to ON. ongull, OHG. angul (MHG., 
G. angel), 'fishhook', and cogn. with L. ancus, 
'crooked, curved', uncus, 'hook'. See angle, 

Derivatives: angle, tr. and intr. v., angl-er, n., 
angl-ing, n. 

Angle, n., member of a Teutonic tribe that came in 
the 5th century from what is now known as 
Schleswig-Holstein to Britain and conquered it. 
— L. Anglus, pi. Angli, of Teut. origin. Cp. OE. 
Angle, Engle, prop, 'the people coming from 
Angul (= ON. Ongull), 'a hookshaped district 
in Schleswig', fr. angul (= ON. ongull), 'fish- 
hook, angle', which is rel. to anga, OHG. ango, 
'hook'. See angle, 'fishhook', and angle, 'corner', 
and cp. English, Anglican, Anglo-Saxon. 

anglesite, n., a mineral containing lead sulfate. — 
Coined by the French mineralogist and physi- 
cist Francois Sulpice Beudant in 1832; so called 
by him in allusion to the fact that it was dis- 
covered by Withering in Anglesey (in 1783). 
For the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

Anglican, adj. and n. — ML. Anglicdnus, fr. An- 
glicus, 'English', fr. Late L. Anglus. See Angle 
and -an. 



anglice, adv., in English. — ML. Anglice, fr. Ang- 

licus. See prec. word. 
Anglicism, anglicism, n. — Formed with suff. 

-ism fr. ML. Anglicus. See Anglican. 
Anglicize, anglicize, tr. and intr. v. — Formed 

with suff. -ize, fr. ML. Anglicus. See Anglican. 

Derivative: angliciz-ation, n. 
Anglo-, combining form meaning 'English'. — 

Fr. Late L. Angli, 'the English'. See Angle, 


Anglomania, n., a mania for what is English. — 
Compounded of Anglo- and Gk. ujxvla, 'mad- 
ness, frenzy'. See mania. 
Derivative: Anglomani-ac, adj. 
Anglophile, Anglophil, n., a friend of England or 
the English; adj., friendly to England or the 
English. — Compounded of Anglo- and Gk. 
<plXos, 'friend'. See -phile, -phil. 
Anglophobe, n., one who fears or hates England 
or the English. — Compounded of Anglo- and 
Gk. -yofioQ, fr. tp6po?, 'fear'. See -phobe. 
Derivative: Anglophob-ic, adj. 
Anglophobia, n., fear or hatred of England or the 
English. — Compounded of Anglo- and Gk. 
-rpopta, 'fear of, fr. <po(3o(;, 'fear'. See -phobia. 
Derivative: Anglophob-ic, adj. 
Anglo-Saxon, n. — ML. Anglo-Saxdnes, fr. ear- 
lier Angli Saxdnes, 'the English', fr. L. Angli, 
'the Angles', in Late L. 'the English', and L. 
Saxdnes, 'the Saxons', in Late L. 'the English'. 
Accordingly the term Anglo-Saxon is tautolog- 
ical, inasmuch as both elements of this com- 
pound denote 'the English'. See Angle and 

angola, n. — Corruption of angora. 

angora, n., 1) an Angora cat; 2) Angora wool or 
anything made of it. — Named from the town 
Angora (now Ankara) in Asia Minor, fr. L. An- 
cyra, fr. Gk."Avxupa, fr. ayxopa, 'anchor'. See 

angostura, n., a bitter aromatic bark. — Short- 
ened fr. angostura bark, lit. 'bark of the tree 
growing at Angostura', now Ciudad Bolivar, in 
Venezuela, on the narrows of the Orinoco River; 
so called fr. Sp. angostura, 'a narrow pass', fr. 
angosto, fr. L. angustus, 'narrow'. See anguish, 
n., and -ure. 

angrite, n., a meteorite stone. — Named after 
Angra dos Reis in Brazil. For the ending see 
subst. suff. -ite. 

angry, adj. — Formed fr. anger with suff. -y (re- 
presenting OE. -ig). 

Derivatives: angri-ly, adv., angri-ness, n. 

angstrom unit, angstrom, n., unit of length equal 
to one hundred-millionth of a centimeter; used 
to measure the wavelengths of light. — Named 
after the Swedish physicist Anders Jonas Ang- 
strom (1814-1874). 

Anguidae, n. pi., a family of lizards (zool.) — 
ModL., formed with suff. -idae fr. L. anguis, 
'serpent, snake'. See anguine. 

Anguilla, n., a genus of fishes, the common eel 

(ichthyol.) — L. anguilla, 'eel', prop, 'the snake- 
like fish', fr. anguis, 'snake' ; see next word. Cp 
the cognate Gk. SyxeXus ( see Encelia), OPruss. 
angurgis, Lith. ungurys, OSlav. *qgori (appear- 
ing in Russ. ugori, Pol. wegorz), 'eel', which all 
mean derivatively 'the snakelike fish'. It. an- 
guilla, F. anguille, Sp. anguila, Port, enguia and 
prob. also OSlav. qgulja, jegulja, 'eel', derive fr. 
L. anguilla. 

anguine, adj., pertaining to a serpent. — L. an- 
guinus, fr. anguis, 'serpent, snake', which is cogn. 
with Arm. auj, dj, Lith. angis, OPruss. angis, 
Lett, iiodze, Russ. az, Pol. wqz, and prob. also 
with OI. dhih, Avestic azish, 'snake', Gk. ir/ic,, 
'viper'. See echidna and cp. Anguidae, Anguilla, 
Anguis. Cp. also Ahi, Encelia, ask, 'water newt'. 
For the ending see suff. -ine (representing L. 

anguineous, adj., serpentlike. — L. anguineus, fr. 
anguis, 'serpent' ; see prec. word. For E. -ous, as 
equivalent to L. -us, see suff. -ous. 

Anguis, n., a genus of lizards, the blindworm 
(zool.) — L. anguis, 'serpent, snake'. See an- 

anguish, n. — ME. anguise, angoise, fr. OF. an- 
guisse, angoisse (F. angoisse), fr. L. angustia (in 
classical Latin used mostly in the pi.), 'narrow- 
ness, deficiency', fr. angustus, 'narrow', fr. an- 
gere, 'to throttle, torment'. See anger and words 
there referred to and cp. esp. angostura. 

anguish, tr. and intr. v. — OF. anguissier, an- 
goissier (F. angoisser), fr. anguisse, angoisse. See 
prec. word. 

Derivative: anguish-ed, adj. 
anguishous, adj., causing anguish; anguished; 
anxious, (obsol.) — OF. angoissos, fr. VL. *an- 
gustidsus, fr. L. angustus, 'narrow'. See an- 
guish, n. 

Derivative: anguishous-ly, avd. 

angula, n., a measure in ancient India, corre- 
sponding to 1.05 inches, lit., 'finger'. — OI. 
angulah, 'finger', rel. to angulih, ahgurih, 'finger, 
toe; angusthdh, 'big toe, thumb', dhcati, 'he 
bends, curves', and cogn. with Gk. ayxcov, 'el- 
bow', L. ancus, 'crooked, curved', angulus, 
'angle, corner'. See angle, 'corner'. 

angular, adj. — L. anguldris, 'having corners or 
angles', fr. angulus. See angle, 'corner', and -ar. 
Derivatives: angular-ity, n., angular-ly, adv., 
angular-ness, n. 

angulate, adj. — L. anguldtus, pp. of anguldre, 
'to make angular', fr. angulus. See angle, 'cor- 
ner', and adj. suff. -ate. 

angaria, n., the gourd ; the watermelon. — ModL., 
fr. Late Gk. ayyoipiov, 'watermelon', which 
derives fr. Pers. angdrah. See gherkin. 

Angus, masc. PN. — Scot., rel. to Ir. Aonghus, 
a compound whose two elements are cognate 
with E. one, resp. choice. 

anhelation, n., panting, asthma (archaic). — F. 
anhelation, fr. L. anhelatidnem, acc oianheldtio, 
'difficulty of breathing, panting', fr anhelatus. 



pp. of anheldre, 'to breathe with difficulty' , which 
is prob. compounded of pref. an-, 'up, upward' 
(see ana-), and heldre, 'to breathe', which prob. 
stands for *anslare, fr. I.-E. base "an-, 'to blow, 
breathe'. See animus and cp. exhale, inhale. For 
the ending see suff. -ation. 

anhistous, adj., with no recognizable structure 
(biol.) — Formed with suff. -ous fr. priv. pref. 
an- and Gk. Jcrro?, 'tissue', which stands for 
*<riaT6i; and lit. means 'that which makes to 
stand', from the stem of Mrr/jfju (for *almr\\n), 
'I make to stand'. See histo- and cp. the second 
element in Actinistia. 

anhydride, anhydrid, n., an oxide which is capable 
of forming an acid, if added to water (chem.) — 
Formed with suff. -ide resp. -id, fr. Gk. avuSpoi;, 
'waterless'. See anhydrous. 

anhydrite, n. , anhydrous calcium sulfate (mineral.) 
— Formed with subst. suff. -ite fr. Gk. otvuSpo;, 
'waterless'. See next word and cp. prec. word. 

anhydrous, adj., containing no water (chem.) — 
Gk. avuSpo?, 'waterless', fr. iv- (see priv. pref. 
an-) and (iSup, 'water'. See hydro-. For E. 
-ous, as equivalent to Gk. -0$, see suff. -ous. 

ani, n., any of certain black birds of the cuckoo 
family. — Sp. ani, Port, ani, fr. Tupi ani. 

anicut, annicut, n., a dam (Anglo-Ind.) — Tamil 
anai kattu, 'dam building'. 

anigh, adv., new (pseudo-archaic). — Formed 
on analogy of afar, etc., fr. a-, 'on', and 

anights, adv. (archaic) — Formed fr. OE. on 
nihte; see a-, 'on', night, and the adv. suff. -s. 

anil, n., 1) a West Indian shrub, from which in- 
digo is made; 2) indigo. — Port, anil, fr. Arab. 
an-nil, assimilated fr. al-ntl, fr. al-, 'the', and 
nil, 'indigo', fr. Pers. nila, ult. fr. OI. nill, 'indi- 
go', fr. nilah, 'dark blue'. Cp. lilac. 
Derivatives: anil-ic, adj., anil-ide, n., aniline 

anile, adj., like an old woman. — L. anilis, 'per- 
taining to an old woman', fr. anus, gen. anus, 
'old woman', from the I.-E. imitative base "an-, 
whence also Hitt. annash, 'mother', hannash, 
'grandmother', Gk. iwi:, 'grandmother', 
Lith. anyta, 'mother-in-law', OPruss. ane, 'old 
mother', OHG. ano, MHG. ane, an, 'grand- 
father, great grandfather', OHG. ana, 'grand- 
mother, great grandmother', G. Ahnen, 'ances- 
tors', OHG. eninchili (whence MHG. eninkel, 
enenkel, G. Enkel), 'grandson', prop, dimin. 
of OHG. ano, 'great grandfather'. Cp. the first 
element in Olaf. 
Derivative: anile-ness, n. 

aniline, also anilin, n., an oily, poisonous liquid, 
QH S NA 2 (chem.) — Coined by C. J. Fritzsche 
in 1 84 1 fr. anil and chem. suff. -ine, resp. -in. 
Derivative: aniline, anilin, adj. 

anility, n., quality of being anile. — L. anilitds, 
'the old age of a woman, anility', fr. anilis. See 
anile and -ity. 

animadversion, n., criticism; blame. — L. ani- 

madversid, gen. -dnis, 'perception, observation, 
attention', fr. animadversus, pp. of animadver- 
tere. See animadvert and -ion. 
Derivative: animadversion-al, adj. 

animadversive, adj., percipient. — Formed with 
suff. -ive fr. L. animadversus, pp. of animadver- 
tere. See next word. 
Derivative: animadversive-ness, n. 

animadvert, intr. v., to criticize, blame, censure. 
— L. animadvertere, contraction of animum ad- 
verlere, 'to direct one's mind, attend', fr. ani- 
mum, acc. of animus, 'mind', and advertere, 'to 
turn toward'. See animus and advert. 

animal, n. — L., lit. 'a living being', fr. animdle, 
neut. of animdlis, 'of air, living', fr. anima, 
'breath of air, air, breath, soul, life' ; see animus 
and adj. suff. -al. For sense development cp. Gk. 
££>ov, 'animal, which is rel. to ^oyj, 'life', and 
OE. deor, 'a wild animal', lit. 'a breathing being', 
which is cogn. with OSlav. duchu, 'breath, 
spirit', dusa, 'soul'. Cp. also Heb. hayyd", 'wild 
animal, beast', which is rel. to hdyd", 'he lived', 
hayyim, 'life'. 

animal, adj. — L. animdlis, 'of air, living, ani- 
mate'. See animal, n. 

animalcular, adj. — Formed with suff. -ar fr. L. 
animalculum. See next word. 

animalcule, n., a very small animal, esp. one per- 
ceptible only by a microscope. — Late L. ani- 
malculum, dimin. of L. animal. See animal, n., 
and -cule. 

animalism, n., animal character; the doctrine that 
man is a mere animal. — See animal and -ism. 

animalist, n., 1) one who believes in animalism; 
2) an artist representing animals. — See animal 
and -ist. 

annualize, tr. v., to make like an animal. — See 

animal and -ize. 

Derivative: animaliz-ation, n. 
animate, tr. v., to give life to, to enliven. — L. 

animdtus, pp. of animate, 'to fill with air or 

breath, to animate', fr. anima. See animus and 

verbal suff. -ate. 

Derivatives: animat-cd, adj. animat-ed-ly, adv., 
animat-er, n., animat-ing, adj., animat-ing-ly , 
adv., animation, animatism (qq.v.) 
animate, adj., living. — L. animdtus, pp. of ani- 
mdre. See animate, v. 

Derivatives: animate-ly, adv., animate-ness, n. 

animation, n., life; vivacity. — L. animdtid, gen. 
-dnis, 'an animating', fr. animdtus, pp. of ani- 
mdre. See animate and -ion. 

animatism, n., the primitive belief that the inani- 
mate is regarded as if it were animated. — 
Coined by Maretti in 1899 in contradistinction 
to animism. See animate, adj. and -ism. 

animatistic, adj. — See prec. word and -istic. 

anime, n., any of various resin?. - - F fr. Sp. 
anime, which is a Tupi loan word. 

animism, n., a word of many meanings, but used 
esp. in the sense of 'theory of the universal ani- 
mation of nature' (Sir Edward Burnett Tylor's 



definition in Primitive Culture, chapter ii). — 
Coined by the German physicist and chemist 
Georg Ernst Stahl (1660- 17 34) and re-intro- 
duced by E. B. Tylor in 1 87 1 . See animus and -ism 
and cp. animatism. 

animist, n., one who believes in animism. — See 
animism and -ist. 
Derivative: animist-ic, adj. 

animosity, n., ill will; enmity. — F. animosite, fr. 
L. animdsitdtem, acc. of animdsitds, 'boldness, 
vehemence', fr. animdsus, 'bold, vehement', fr. 
animus. See next word, adj. suff. -ose and suff. 

animus, n., 1) intention; 2) animosity. — L., 
'soul, spirit, mind, courage, wish, desire', rel. to 
anima, 'breath of air, air, breath, soul, life', and 
cogn. with Gk. avsiAo?, 'wind', fr. I.-E. base 
*an-, 'to blow, breathe', whence also OI. dni-ti, 
dna-ti, 'breathes', dni-lah, 'breath', Olr. anal, W. 
anadl, MBret. (with metathesis) alazn, 'breath', 
Olr. animm, Co., Bret, eneff, 'soul', Goth, uz- 
anan, 'to exhale', ON. anda, 'to breathe', andi, 
6nd, 'breath, soul, spirit', OE. edian (for *an- 
pjan), 'to breathe', OSlav. vonja, 'smell', Alb. 
Gheg a j, Tosk In, 'I swell', Toch. A anrna, Arm. 
anjn, 'soul'. Cp. animadvert, animal, animal- 
cule, animate, animosity, equanimity, exanimate, 
exhale, inhale, longanimity, magnanimous, mag- 
nanimity, pusillanimous, pusillanimity, unani- 
mous, unanimity. Cp. also ahura, anemo-, an- 
helation, asthma, asura, prana. 

anion, n., a negatively charged ion (physical 
chem.) — Gk. aviov, neut. of avtaw, pres. 
part, of dcviivai, 'to go up', fr. ava (see ana-) 
and Uvea, 'to go', which is cogn. with L. ire, 
'to go'. See itinerate. The word anion was in- 
troduced into electricity by the English physi- 
cist and chemist Michael Faraday (1791-1867); 
cp. ion, cation. 
Derivative: anion-ic, adj. 

anis-, combining form. See aniso-. 

anise, n. — F., fr. L. anisum, fr. Gk. ecvlaov, 
'anise, dill'. Cp. Gk. ivYj&ov, L. anethum, and 
see anet. 

Derivative: anis-ic, adj. 

aniseed, n. — Contraction of anise-seed. 

anisette, n., liqueur flavored with aniseed. — F., 
dimin. of anise. For the ending see suff. -ette. 

aniso-, anis-, combining form meaning 'a deri- 
vative of anise' (chem.) — Gk. dcvlo-, avI<ro-, 
fr. fivtaov, 'anise'. See anise. 

aniso-, anis-, combining form meaning 'unequal, 
unsymmetrical'. — Gk. iviao-, fr. ivi/jo?, 'un- 
equal', fr. ctv- (see priv. pref. an-) and Igoq, 
'equal'. See iso-. 

anisomerous, adj., not isomerous (bot.) — Formed 
fr. priv. pref. an- and isomerous. 

anisotropic, adj., not isotropic (physics). — Form- 
ed fr. priv. pref. an- and isotropic. 

anker, n., a liquid measure. — Du., rel. to G. 
Anker, Swed. ankare, fr. ML. anceria, ancheria, 
'keg, vat', which is of uncertain origin. 

ankh, n., a tau cross (T) with an oval at the top, 
the Egypt, symbol of life. — Egypt, ankh, 'life'. 

anklet, n., a ring for the ankle. — Contraction of 
ankle and dimin. suff. -let. 

ankle, n. — ME. ancle, ankle, prob. of Scand. 
origin ; cp. ON. bkkla (for *ankula), Dan., Swed. 
ankle. The collateral ME. form anclowe derives 
fr. OE. ancleo, ancleow. Cp. MDu. anclau, enkel, 
Du. enkel, OHG. anchldo, anchal, enchil, MHG., 
G. enkel, 'ankle'. All these words are diminu- 
tives formed with suff. -el, -/(see dimin. suff. -le), 
from the Teut. stem appearing in MHG. anke, 
'joint', G. Enke, 'ankle'. OI. ahgam, 'limb', 
angulih, 'finger', and L. angulus, 'angle, corner', 
are cogn. with these Teut. words; see angle, 
'corner', and cp. angula. 

ankus, n., an elephant goad. — Hind., fr. OI. 
ahkusah, rel. to OI. dhcati, 'bends, curves', and 
cogn. with L. ancus, 'curved, crooked', angulus, 
'angle, corner'. See angle, 'corner', and cp. 
prec. word. 

ankylo-, before a vowel ankyl-, combining form 
meaning 'crooked'. — Gk. afxuXo-, arpcSk-, 
fr. ayxuXo;, 'crooked, curved'. See ankylosis. 

ankylose. anchylose. tr. v., to affect with anky- 
losis; intr. v., to be affected with ankylosis. — 
Back formation fr. ankylosis. 

ankylosis, anchylosis, n., stiffening of the joints. 
— Medical L., fr. Gk. ocyxuXoxju;, fr. ayxuXouv, 
'to crook, bend', fr. ayxuXoc;, 'crooked, curved', 
which is rel. to ayxo?, 'bend, hollow; mountain 
glen'. See angle, 'corner', and cp. anchor, ancon, 
Ancylus, ankus. 

ankylotic, anchylotic,adj. — See prec. word and -ic. 

anlace, n., a dagger with tapering blade. — Meta- 
thesis of OF. alenas, alesne (F. alene), 'dagger', 
fr. OHG. alansa, a derivative of dla, 'awl'. 
See awl. 

anlaut, n., initial sound. — G. Anlaut, fr. an, 'on, 
at', and Laut, 'sound, tone', G. an is rel. to E. 
on (q.v.) G. Laut, 'sound, tone', derives fr. taut, 
loud'; see loud. Cp. ablaut, auslaut, inlaut, 

Ann, Anna, Anne, fern. PN. — L. Anna, fr. Gk. 
"Awx, fr. Heb. Hann6 h , lit. 'grace', from the 
base of hdndn, 'he was gracious, showed favor'. 
See Hannah. 

anna, n., an Indian penny. — Hind. and. 

Annabel, Annabella, fern. PN. — The name is 
usually interpreted as a compound of Anna and 
Bella. It is more probable, however, that it arose 
from a misreading of the name Amabel for Ana- 
bel. Cp. Arabel, Arabella. 

annabergite, n., a hydrous nickel arsenate (min- 
eral) — Named after Aimaberg in Saxony. For 
the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

annalist, n., a writer of annals. — F. annaliste, fr. 
annates, 'annals - , fr. L. annates. See next word 
and -ist. 

annals, n. pi. — L. annates (scil. li'jri), 'chroni- 
cles', lit. 'yearly (books)', pi. of anndlis, 'per- 
taining to a year', fr. annus, 'year'. See annual. 



annates, n. pi., first fruits of an ecclesiastical 
benefice payable to the Pope. — ML. annata, 
'income of a year', fr. L. annus, 'year'. See 

anneal, tr. v., to temper by heat; to temper. — 
ME. anelen, fr. OE. anielan, 'to burn, kindle', 
fr. an, 'on (see a- 'on'), and Stan, 'to kindle, 
burn', which is rel. to OE. at, 'fire', Sled, 'fire, 
firebrand'. ME. anelen and E. anneal were in- 
fluenced in form by an erroneous association 
with OF. neeler (whence F. nieller), fr. VL. *ni- 
gelldre, 'to blacken', fr. L. nigellus, dimin. of 
niger, 'black'. 

annelid, adj., pertaining to the Annelida; n., one 
of the Annelida. — See next word. 

Annelida, n. pi., a phylum of segmented worms 
(zool.) — ModL., fr. F. annelide, a hybrid 
coined by the French naturalist, J. B. P. Lamarck 
(1744-1829), fr. L. dnellus, dimin. of dnutus, 'a 
little ring', and Gk. elSo;, 'form, shape'. See 
annular and oid. 

annerodite, n., a pyroniobate of uranium, yttrium, 
etc. (mineral.) — Named after Annerod in Nor- 
way. For the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

annex, tr. v. — F. annexer, fr. L. annexus, pp. of 
annectere, 'to bind to, tie on, annex', fr. ad- 
and nectere, 'to bind, join, fasten'. See nexus. 
Derivatives: annex-ive, adj., annex-ment, n. 

annex, n. — F. annexe, fr. L. annexus, pp. of an- 
nectere. See annex, v. 

annexation, n. — ML. annexdtid, gen. -onis, 'the 
act of annexing', fr. annexdtus, pp. of annexdre, 
which is formed fr. L. annexus, pp. of annectere. 
See annex, v., and -ation. 
Derivative: annexation-al, adj. 

annexion, n. — F., fr. L. annexidnem, acc. of an- 
nexid, 'a binding to', fr. annexus, pp. of annec- 
tere. See annex, v., and -ion. 

annihilate, tr. v. — L. annihildtus, pp. of anni- 
hildre, 'to bring to nothing, annihilate', fr. ad- 
and nihil, 'nothing'. Sec nihil and verbal suff. -ate. 

annihilation, n. — F., fr. annihiler, 'to annihilate', 
fr. L. annihildre. See prec. word and -ion. 

annihilationism, n., the doctrine that the wicked 
will be annihilated at the end of this life (theol.). 

— A hybrid coined by Edward White in Eng- 
land fr. prec. word and suff. -ism. 

annihilationist, v., a believer in annihilationism. 

— Coined fr. annihilation and suff. -ist. 
anniversary, n. and adj. — L. anniversdrius, 're- 
turning every year', compounded of annus, gen. 
anni, 'year', and versus, pp. of vertere, 'to turn'. 
See annual, version and -ary. 

annona, n., the yearly produce (Roman antiq.) — 
L.annona, fr. onrwt, 'year'; see annular. For the 
suff. cp. pomona, 'fruit trees, fruit', fr. pdmum, 
'fruit', and mdtrdna, 'a married woman', fr. 
mater, 'mother' (see Pomona and matron). 

annotate, tr. v. — L. anno tat us, pp. of annotdre, 
'to note down', fr. ad- and notare, 'to mark, 
note*, fr. nota, 'mark, sign'. See note, n., and 
verbal suff. -ate and cp. connotate. 

Derivatives: annotation (q.v.), annotat-ive, adj., 
annotator (q.v.), annotat-ory, adj. 

annotation, n. — L. annotdtid, gen. -onis, fr. an- 
notdtus, pp. of annotdre. See prec. word and 
-ion and cp. connotation. 

annotator, n. — L., fr. annotatus, pp. of anno- 
tdre. See annotate and agential suff. -or. 

announce, tr. v. — ME. anounce, fr. OF. anoncer 
(F. annoncer), fr. L. annuntidre, 'to announce, 
relate', fr. ad- and nuntidre, 'to relate, report', 
fr. nuntius, 'messenger'. See nuncio and cp. 

Derivatives: announce-ment, n., announc-er, n. 

annoy, n. — ME. anoi, anui, fr. OF. enui (F. en- 
nui), 'worry', back formation fr. enuier, 'to 
worry, vex, annoy'. See annoy, v. 

annoy, tr. v. — ME. anuien, fr, OF. anoier, en- 
noier (F. ennuyer), fr. VL. inodidre, 'to hate', 
fr. L. in odid, 'in hate, in aversion'. See in, prep., 
and odium and cp. ennui, noisome. Cp. also It. 
annoiare, OProvenc. enojar (whence Sp. enojar), 
'to vex, annoy', which also derive fr. VL. 

Derivatives: annoy-ance, n., annoy-er, n., annoy- 
ing, adj., annoy-ing-ly , adv., annoy-ing-ness, n., 
annoy -ous, adj. 

annual, adj. — OF. annuel, fr. Late L. annudlem, 
acc. of annudlis, corresponding to L. anndlis, 
'continuing a year, annual', fr. annus, 'year', 
which stands for *at-nos and is cogn. with Goth. 
apnam (pi. dat.), 'to the years', and with OI. 
dtati, 'goes, moves on, wanders'; cp. also Osco- 
Umbr. akno, 'year, holiday time'. Cp. annalist, 
annals, annate, and the second element in bien- 
nial, triennial, quinquennial, septennial, centen- 
nial, millennium, perennial, solemn. 
Derivatives: annual, n., annual-ly, adv. 

annuitant, n., one who receives an annuity. — 
Formed fr. annuity with suff. -ant. 

annuity, n. — F. annuite, fr. ML. annuitdtem, acc. 
of annuitds, fr. L. annus, 'year'. See annual 
and -ity. 

annul, tr. v. — ME. annullen, fr. OF. anuller (F. 
annuler), fr. Late L. annulldre, fr. ad- and L. 
nullum, 'nothing', neut. of nullus, 'none'. See null. 
Derivatives: annull-er, n., annul-ment, n. 

annular, adj., 1) pertaining to a ring; 2) ring- 
shaped. — L. annularis, correctly dnuldris, 'per- 
taining to a ring', fr. annulus, correctly dnutus, 
'ring', dimin. of anus, 'ring, iron ring for the feet, 
anus'. See anus, -ule and -ar and cp. Annelida. 

annulary, adj., annular; n., the ring finger. — L. 
annuldrius, correctly dnuldrius, 'pertaining to a 
ring', fr. dnuldris. See prec. word and adj. suff. 

annulate, adj., furnished with rings. — L. annu- 

Idtus, correctly dnutdtus, fr. dnutus, 'ring'. See 

annular and adj. suff. -ate. 

Derivative: annulat-ed, adj. 
annulation, n., a ringlike formation. — Formed 

with suff. -ation, fr. L. annulus, correctly dnutus, 

'ring'. See annular. 



annulet, n., a little ring. — Formed with dimin. 
suff. -et fr. L. annulus, correctly anulus, 'ring'. 
See annular. 

annuloid, adj., ring-shaped. — A hybrid coined 
fr. L. annulus, correctly anulus, 'ring', and Gk. 
-oEiSri?, 'like', fr. elSoq, 'form, shape'. See annu- 
lar and -oid. 

annulose, adj., ringlike. — Formed with adj. suff. 
-ose, fr. L. annulus, correctly anulus, 'ring'. See 

annunciate, tr. v., to announce. — L. annuntiatus, 
pp. of annuntiare. See announce and verbal 
suff. -ate. 

annunciation, n., announcement. — F. annon- 
ciation, fr. L. annuntiatidnem, acc. of annuntidtid, 
fr. annuntiatus, pp. of annuntiare. See announce 
and -ation and cp. prec. word. 

ano-, combining form meaning 'upward'. — Fr. 
Gk. ocvto, 'upward', which is rel. to dvd, 'up, 
on'. See ana-. 

anode, n., positive electric pole. — Gk. avoSo;, 
'way up', fr. dvd (see ana-) and 6S6<;, 'way'. 
See odograph and cp. words there referred to. 
The term anode was introduced into electricity 
by the English physicist and chemist Michael 
Faraday (i 791 -1867); cp. cathode, electrode. 
Derivatives: anod-al, anod-ic, adjs., anod-ic- 
al-ly, adv. 

Anodonta, n., a genus of mussels (zool.) — ModL., 
lit. 'the toothless ones', formed fr. priv. pref. an- 
and Gk. oScov, gen. 686vto<;, 'tooth'. Seeodonto-. 
anodyne, adj., relieving pain (med.) — L. ano- 
dynus, fr. Gk. avtoSuvo?, 'free from pain, al- 
laying pain', fr. dv- (see priv. pref. an-) and 
08'ivrj, 'pain', which prob. meant orig. 'that 
which eats up, devours, bites', and is cogn. with 
OI. -advan-, 'eating', Lith. edzioti, 'to devour, 
bite', edzidtis, 'to suffer pain', Arm. erkn, gen. 
erkan (for *edwon or *edwen), 'labor pains', fr. 
I.-E. base *ed-, 'to eat', whence also L. edere, 
'to eat'. See eat and cp. odonto-. 
anodyne, n., anything that relieves pain. — Gk. 
dvcoS'jvov, neut. of the adjective dvcoSuvo?. See 
anodyne, adj. 
anoetic, adj., unthinkable. — Formed with suff. 
-ic. fr. Gk. avo'OTo?, 'not thought on, unheard 
of, fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) and vor,To;, 'per- 
ceptible by the mind, mental', verbal adj. of 
voeiv, 'to perceive', fr. vooc, voG?, 'mind'. See 
nous and cp. noetic, 
anoint, tr. v. — OF. enoint, pp. of enoindre, fr. L. 
inunguere, 'to anoint', fr. in-, 'in, on', and un- 
guere, to smear'. See unguent and cp. ointment. 
Derivatives: anoint-ed, adj., anoint-er, n., anoint- 
ing, n., anoint-ment, n. 
anomalo-, before a vowel anomal-, combining 
form meaning 'anomalous'. — Gk. dvwixaXo-, 
avfo;jueX-, fr. dvojiaaXo;;, 'uneven, unequal, irreg- 
ular*, fr. dv- (see priv. pref. an-) and oujxXos, 
'even', fr. 6[x6?, 'one and the same', which 
derives fr. I.-E. base *sem-, 'one, together'. See 
same and cp. words there referred to. 

anomalous, adj. — L. andmatusjr. Gk. dv<V a> -°?> 
'uneven, irregular'. See anomalo-. For E. -ous, as 
equivalent to Gk. -o?, see -ous. Derivatives: 
anomalous-ly, adv., anomalous-ness, n. 
anomaly, n. — L. anomalia, fr. Gk. dvco(J.aXla, 
'inequality', fr. dvwiiaXo?, 'unequal'. See ano- 
malo- and -y (representing Gk. -la). 
Derivatives: anomal-ism, n., anomal-ist, n., ano- 
mal-ist-ic, anomal-ist-ic-al, adjs., anomal-ist-ic- 
al-ly, adv. 

anomo-, combining form meaning 'irregular'. — 
Fr. Gk. ocvofxo.;, 'without law', fr. d- (see priv. 
pref. a-), and vojxo?, 'law'. See nomo-. 
anomy, n., lawlessness. — Gk. dvo(xlS, fr. avo^o?. 
See anomo- and -y (representing Gk. -IS), 
anon, adv., soon. — ME. , fr. OE. on an, ME. anoon, 
anon, lit. 'in one (instant)'. Sec on and one. 
anonym, n. — F. anonyme, fr. L. andnymus, fr. 
Gk. dvcovu^oq, 'without a name', fr. dv- (see 
priv. pref. an-) and 6vu(xa, dial, form of ovo[j.a, 
'name'. See name and cp. onomato-. Cp. also 
antonym, autonym, homonym, synonym. 
Derivatives: anonym-ity, n., anonymous (q.v.) 
anonymous, adj. — Gk. dvuvj^oi;. See prec. 
word. For E. -ous, as equivalent to Gk. -oq, 
see -ous. Derivatives: anonymous-ly, adv., anon- 
ymous-ness, n. 

Anopheles, n., a genus of mosquitoes (entomol.) 

ModL., fr. Gk. dvcocpsXr)*;, 'useless, hurtful, 

harmful', fr. dv- (see priv. pref. an-) and ScpeXoc, 
'use, help, advantage', whence otpeXXeiv (for 
♦otpeXiEiv), 'to increase, enlarge', oq>eX|xa, 'ad- 
vantage'. "OtpeXo; prob. meant orig. 'increase', 
and stands for o-<peXo;, fr. pref. 6- (see agama) 
and *<peXo!;, which together with OI. phdlam, 
'gain, success", derives fr. I.-E. base *phel-, 'to 
swell'. This base is a collateral form of base 
*bhel-, 'to swell', whence L.follis, 'bellows'. See 
follicle and cp. Aphelandra, Aphelinus. 
anorexia, n., loss of appetite (med.) — Medical 
L., formed fr. priv. pref. -an and Gk. ope£i;, 
'appetite', from the stem of ope-yeiv, 'to stretch 
oneself, reach, reach after, long for, desire', 
which is cogn. with L. regere, 'to keep straight, 
guide, lead, rule'. See regent, adj., and cp. 
words there referred to. For the ending see suff. 

anormal, adj., not normal. — ML. anormdlis. 
See abnormal, 
anorthoclase, n., a triclinic potash-soda feld- 
spar. _ Coined by the German mineralogist 
Harry Rosenbusch (1836-1914) in 1885 fr. priv. 
pref. -an and orthoclase (q.v.) 
anosmia, n., lack of the sense of smell (med.) — 
Medical L., fr. priv. pref. an- and Gk. oiur;. 
'smell, odor'. See osmium and -ia. 
another, adj. and pron. — Formed fr. the indef. 

article an and other, 
anoxemia, anoxaemia, n., abnormal condition of 
the body due to the lack of oxygen in the blood 
(med.) — Medical L., formed fr. priv. pref. an-, 
the first two letters of oxygen, Gk. alyut, 'blood' 

(see hemal), and suff. -ia. Accordingly the word 
anoxemia lit. means 'the lack of oxygen in the 
blood'. Derivative: anoxem-ic, anoxaemic, adj. 
anoxia, n., oxygen deficiency. — Medical L., 
coined fr. priv. pref. an-, the first two letters of 
oxygen and suff. -ia. 

Anselm, Ansel, masc. PN. — L. Anselmus, fr. 
OHG. Ansehelm, lit. 'having a divine helmet', 
compounded oiansi, 'god', and helm, 'helmet', 
For the first element cp. Astrid, for the second 
see helmet. 

Anser, n., a genus of birds, the goose (ornithol.) 
— L. anser, 'goose', for *hanser. See goose and 
cp. the second element in merganser. 

anserine, adj., 1) pertaining to, or resembling, a 
goose; 2) stupid. — L. dnserinus, fr. anser. See 
prec. word and -ine (representing L. -Inus). 

answer, n. — ME. andsware, answere, fr. OE. 
andswaru, 'a reply', lit. 'a swearing against', fr. 
and-, 'against', and swerian, 'to swear' ; cp. OS. 
antswdr, ON. andsvar (Dan., Swed. ansvar), 
OFris. ondser. The first element is cogn. with 
Gk. dvrl, 'against', L. ante, 'before'. See ante- 
and cp. anti-. For the second element see 

answer, tr. and intr. v. — ME. andswerien, fr. OE. 
andswarian, andswerian, fr. andswaru. See 
answer, n. Derivatives: answer-able, adj., an- 
swer-er, n., answer-ing, adj. 

ant, n. — ME. amete, ante, fr. OE. xmete, xmette, 
rel. to OHG. amei^a, MHG. amei^e, G. Ameise, 
'ant', lit. 'the animal that cuts (i.e. bites) off', 
fr. Teut. a, 'off', and *maitan, 'to cut' (whence 
Goth, maitan, ON. meita, OHG. mei^an, 'to 
cut', ON. meitill, OHG. meisil, MHG. meisel, 
G. Meifiel, 'chisel'). Cp. emmet. Cp. also mite, 
'a small arachnid'. 

ant-, form of anti- before a vowel. 

-ant, adj. and subst. suff. denoting an agent or 
an instrument. — OF. and F. -ant, fr. L. -an- 
tem or -entem, acc. of -ans, resp. -ens, pres. part, 
suff. of verbs pertaining to the I., resp. II. or III. 
conjugation. This Latin suffix is cogn. with OI. 
-ant, Gk. -cjv (fem. -ouaoc, neut. -ov). Cp. the 
ending of Gk. yepwv, 'old man' (see geronto-). 
Cp. also -ent, -ance, -ancy, -ence, -ency, and 
pres. part. suff. -ing. Cp. also tooth. 

anta, n., pillar, pilaster (archit.) — Sing, of L. 
antae, gen. -drum, 'pillars, pilasters' (in Latin 
the word is used in pi. only); cogn. with OI. 
dtdh (pi. of dta), 'doorframe, enclosure', ON. 
bnd, 'ante-room', and Arm. dr-and, 'doorpost, 
threshold' (see Hiibschmann, Armenische Stu- 
dien, 1,19). 

antacid, adj., counteracting an acid (med.) — A 
hybrid coined fr. Gk. dvrl, 'against', and L. 
acidus, 'sour'. See ant- and acid. 
Derivative: antacid, n. 

Antaeus, n., a giant of Libya, slain by Heracles 
(Greek mythol.) — L., fr. Gk. 'Avraios, fr. 
dvraToi;, 'opposite, opposed to, hostile', fr. aVra, 
'face to face', which is rel. to dvrl, 'opposite, 

against'. See anti-. 
antagonism, n., opposition, hostility. — Gk. dv- 

TaY<oviCT(i.a, fr. dvTaytovlSea&ai, 'to struggle 

against'. See antagonize and -ism. 
antagonist, opponent, enemy. — L. antagdnista, 

fr. Gk. dvTaY&)viCT-n/)<;, 'competitor, opponent, 

rival', fr. dvrixYoavlCsa&ai, 'to struggle against'. 

See next word and -ist and cp. deuteragonist, 


Derivatives : antagonist-ic, antagonist-ic-al, adjs., 
antagonist-ic-al-ly, adv. 

antagonize, tr. v., to oppose, bring into opposition. 
— Gk. dvTaY<avl?e<J$ai, 'to struggle against', 
fr. dvxl (see anti-), and dYMvlCsa&ai, ' to struggle', 
fr. dY"v, 'contest'. See agony and -ize. 
Derivatives: antagoniz-ation, n., antagoniz-er,n. 

antalkali, n., a substance that neutralizes alkali- 
nity. _ Formed fr. ant- and alkali. 
Derivatives: antalkal-ine, adj. and n. 

antaphrodisiac, adj., counteracting sexual desire; 
n., a drug counteracting sexual desire. — Form- 
ed fr. ant- and aphrodisiac. 

antarctic, adj., pertaining to the South Pole or 
regions near the South Pole. — Prop, 'opposite 
to the north', fr. Gk. dv-rt, 'opposite' (see anti-), 
and fipxTos, 'bear ; the constellation of the Great 
Bear'. See arctic. 

Antares, n., a large red star, the brightest in the 
Constellation Scorpio. — Gk. ' Av-rdp?]?, lit. 'op- 
posite (the planet) Mars', fr. dv-rl, 'opposite', 
and "Ap»]<;, 'Mars'. See anti- and Ares. 

ante-, pref. — Fr. L. ante, 'before, in front of, 
which is cogn. with OI. anti, 'opposite', Toch. 
B ente, 'opposed to', Arm. e nd, 'opposite', Gk. 
Svtoc, av-rrjv, 'opposite', dvrl, 'over against, 
opposite, before', OLith. anta, Lith. ant, 'on 
to', Goth, and, anda, 'along', ON., OS., OE. 
and- 'against', OHG., MHG., G. ant-, OHG. 
int-, MHG., G. ent-, 'along, against', Hitt. hanti, 
'opposite', hantezzish, 'the first'. Cp. anti-. Cp. 
also Ananta, antiae, enantio-, the first ele- 
ment in ancestor, antique, antiquity, and the 
second element in Rosinante and in Vedanta. 
Cp. also end, un-, pref. expressing reversal, and 
the first element in along and in answer. 

antecede, tr. and intr. v. — L. antecedere, 'to go 
before', fr. ante- and cedere, 'to go'. See cede 
and cp. precede. 

antecedence, n. — L. antecedentia, fr. antecedens, 

gen. -entis. See next word and -ce. 
antecedent, adj. and n. — F. antecedent, fr. L. 

antecedentem, acc. of antecedens pres. part, of 

antecedere. See antecede and -ent. 

Derivative: antecedent-al, adj. 
antecessor, n., a predecessor. — L. See ancestor, 
antechamber, n. — F. antichambre, formed on 

analogy of It. anticamera, which is compounded 

of anti, 'before' and camera, 'chamber', fr. L. 

ante, 'before', and camera, 'vault, arch". See 

ante- and chamber. 

antechapel, n. — Formed fr. ante- and chapel, 
antedate, n. (rare), — Formed fr. ante- and date, 



'point of time'. Derivative: antedate, tr. v. 

antediluvian, adj., relating to the time before the 
Deluge. — Coined by the English physician 
Sir Thomas Browne (1605-82) fr. ante- and L. 
diluvium, 'flood, deluge', fr. diluere, 'to wash 
away'. See dilute and cp. diluvial, deluge. For 
the ending see suff. -ian. 
Derivative: antediluvian, n. 

antefixa, n. pi., small ornaments concealing the 
ends of the tiles at the eaves of the roofs {class, 
archit.) — L., neut. pi. of antefixus, 'fixed in 
front', formally corresponding to the pp. of 
*antefigere, fr. ante- an&fixus, pp. of figere,' to 
fix'. See fix, 'to attach'. 

antelope, n. — OF. antelop, fr. ML. ant(h)alopus, 
fr. MGk. avdoXo^, name of a fabulous 
animal, which prob. means 'flower eye', fr. 
Gk. avSoc,, 'flower', and odj, 'eye'. See anther 
and optic. F. antilope has been reborrowed fr. 
E. antelope. 

antemeridian, adj., pertaining to the forenoon. 

— L. antemerididnus, 'in the forenoon', fr. ante 

meridiem. See next entry and -an. 
ante meridiem, before noon. — L., fr. ante, 'be- 
fore', and acc. of meridies, 'midday, noon'. See 

ante- and meridian and cp. post meridiem, 
antemundane, adj., existing or happening before 

the creation of the world. — Formed fr. ante- 

and mundane. Cp. premundane. 
antenatal, adj., previous to birth. — Formed fr. 

ante- and L. ndtus, 'born', pp. of ndsci, 'to be 

born'. See natal, 
antenati, n. pi., persons born before a certain 

event (law). — Formed fr. ante- and L. ndti, pi. 
of ndtus, 'born'. See prec. word, 
antenna, n. — ModL., feeler or horn of an in- 
sect', fr. L. antemna, antenna, 'sail yard' .which is 
of uncertain origin. It is perh. a contraction of 
*an(a)tempnd, 'that which is stretched, extend- 
ed', fr. l.-E. base *temp-, 'to stretch, extend'. See 
temple, 'place of worship', and cp. next word. 
Derivative: antenn-al, adj. 

Antennaria, n., a genus of herbs, plants of the 
thistle family (bot.) — ModL., fr. antenna; so 
called because the pappus resembles the anten- 
nae of insects. 

antenuptial, adj., prior to marriage. — Formed 
fr. ante- and nuptial. Cp. postnuptial. 

antepenult, n. — Abbreviation of next word. 

antepenultima, n., the last syllable but two. — 
L. antepaenultima (scil. syllaba). See ante- and 
penultima. Derivative: antepenultim-ate, adj. 

anteprandial, adj., before dinner. — Formed fr. 
ante- and prandial. Cp. postprandial. 

anterior, adj. — L., 'former", compar. of ante, 
'before'. Cp. F. anterieur and see ante- and -ior. 
Derivatives: anterior-ly, adv., anterior-ness, n. 

anteroom, n., A hybrid coined fr. L. ante, 'be- 
fore' (see ante-), and room. The word lit. means 
'a room in front'. 

antetype, n., a prototype. — A hybrid coined fr. 
L. ante, 'before' (see ante-), and Gk. -nj7to<;, *a 

blow, a stamp'; see type. The correct form is 
prototype, in which both elements are of Greek 

anth-, form of anti- before an aspirate. 

anthelion, n., a kind of halo. — ModL., fr. Gk. 
avJWjXiov, neut. of dcvS-TjXioi;, 'opposite the sun', 
fr. avTi- (see anti-), and i]Xioq, 'sun'. See helio-. 

anthelmintic, adj., destroying or expelling intest- 
inal worms. — Formed fr. Gk. dv-rf, 'against' 
(see anti-), and eXjxiv?, also £Xu.k;, gen. eXu.iv-ro;, 
'worm'. See helminthic. 

anthem, n. — ME. antefne, antem, fr. OE. antefn 
(orig. identical in meaning with antiphony), fr. 
ML. antiphona, fr. Gk. dcvTi9tova, neut. pi. of 
avxttpcovo;, 'sounding in answer to', which was 
mistaken for fern. sing. See antiphon. 
Derivative : anthem, tr. v. 

Anthemis, n., a genus of plants of the thistle 
family; the camomile (bot.) — ModL., fr. Gk. 
av&euii;, 'a flower resembling the camomile', 
fr. Sv&os, 'flower'. See next word, 
anther, n., that part of the stamen which contains 
the pollen. — F. anthire, fr. ModL. anthera, 'a 
medicine extracted from flower', fr. Gk. av- 
*h)pa, fem. of avfty]p6<;, 'flowery', fr. Srj&oq, 
'flower', which is cogn. with OI. dndhas, 'herb'. 
Cp. antho-, Anthus, -anthus, antheridium, Anthyl- 
lis, the first element in antelope, Anthemis, 
Anthesterion, anthology, Anthrenus, Anthurium, 
and the second element in Chrysanthemum, 
clinanthium, colcothar, enanthema, exanthema, 
hydranth, isanthous, perianth, polyanthus. 
Anthericum, n., a genus of plants of the lily family 
(bot.) — ModL., fr. Gk. dcvftepixo?, 'the as- 
phodel', which is rel. to ocv&epi!;, 'blade', a^Hjp, 
'chaff, barb of a weapon' ; of unknown etymo- 
logy. Cp. Anthriscus, atherine, atheroma, and 
the first element in Atherosperma. 
antheridium, n., the male organ in ferns, mosses, 
etc . _ ModL., formed with the Greek dimin. 
suff. -tSiov fr. dtv^poi;, 'flowery', fr. &\i§oq, 
'flower'. See anther and -idium. 
Anthesterion, n., name of the 8th month of the 
Attic calendar (corresponding to the second 
half of February and the first half of March). — 
Gk. 'Av&eaTr,pi.<jv, lit. 'the month in which 
Av&ea-rrjpia, "the Feast of the Flowers", was 
celebrated', fr. Sv&o;, 'flower'. See anther, 
antho-, before a vowel anth-, combining form 
meaning 'flower'. — Gk. ocv£o-, av-9-, fr. av^o?, 
'flower'. See anther, 
anthodium, n., the head of a composite plant 
( oot ) _ ModL., fr. Gk. av»(dSr ;! ;, 'flowerlike', 
which is formed fr. fiv&o?, 'flower', with suff. 
-ciSr^, 'like'. See anther, -ode, 'like', and 1st 

antholite, n., a fossil flower. — Lit. 'flower stone'. 
See antho- and -lite. 

anthology, n. — Gk. av^oXoyii, 'a flower gath- 
ering', fr. (xv&oX6yo<;, 'gathering flowers', fr. 
fiv&os, 'flower', and Xiyeiv, 'to gather'. See 
anther and -logy. 



Derivative: antholog-ic-al, adj., antholog-ic-al- 
ly, adv., antholog-ist, n., antholog-ize, tr. v. 
anthophyllite, n., a magnesium and iron silicate 
(mineral) — Formed with subst. suff. -ite fr. 
ModL. anthophyllum, 'clove', fr. Gk. dcv&oi;, 
'flower', and <puXXov, 'leaf (see antho- and 
phyllo-); so called in allusion to its clove-brown 

Anthoxanthum, n., a genus of grasses of the 
family Poaceae (bot.) — ModL., lit. 'the yellow 
flower', fr. fiv&os, 'flower', and £avMs, 'yellow'. 
See antho- and xantho-. 

Anthozoa, n. pi., a group of Coelenterata (zool.) 
— ModL., fr. Gk. &v&oq, 'flower', and £cpa, pi. 
of ££>ov, 'animal', hence Anthozoa lit. means 
'flower animals'. See anther and -zoa and cp. 
Zoanthus. Derivatives: anthozo-an, adj. and n., 
anthozo-ic, adj., anthozo-id, n. 

anthracene, n., a hydrocarbon C 14 H, (chem.) — 
Formed with suff. -ene fr. Gk. Sv&pa^, 'coal'. 
See next word. 

anthracite, n., a kind of hard coal. — L. anthra- 
cites, 'a kind of bloodstone', fr. Gk. avSpaxt-rrjc, 
'a gem', prop, subst. use of an adj. meaning 're- 
sembling coal', fr. Sv&pa^, gen. SvOpaxo?, 'coal'. 
See anthrax and subst. suff. -ite. 
Derivatives: anthracite, tr. v., anthracit-ic, adj., 
anthracit-ism, n. 

anthraconite, n., a coal-black marble of limestone 
(mineral.) — Formed with subst. suff. -ite fr. 
Gk. av&pa^, 'coal', and xovia, 'dust, ashes; 
lye, soap powder; lime'. For the first element 
see anthrax. Gk. xovia derives fr. xovt?, 'dust', 
which is cogn. with L. cinis, 'ashes'; see cine- 

anthracosis, n., coal-miner's disease (med.) — 
Medical L. lit. 'disease caused by coal', formed 
with suff. -osis, fr. Gk. av&pa^, gen. 4v{^paxoc, 
'coal'. See anthrax. 

anthrax, n., a malignant disease of cattle and 
sheep. — L., fr. Gk. Svftpoc^, 'coal; carbuncle, 
malignant pustule', which is of uncertain origin. 
Cp. Arm. ant'el, 'a glowing coal'. — Coal is 
first mentioned about 370 B.C.E. by Theo- 
phrastus in his treatise 'On Stones', under the 
name XtStx; Sv&paxo? (i.e. 'coal stone'). 

Anthrenus, n., a genus of insects (entomol.) — 
ModL., fr. Gk. £v&pT)vir], 'wild bee, hornet', 
contraction of *&v&o-&pr l vr l (see haplology), lit. 
'flower bee'. For the first element see antho-. 
The second element is rel. to Tcvftprjvy;, 'bee, 
wasp', *ptivS5, 'drone'. See drone. 

Anthriscus, n., a genus of plants of the family Am- 
miaceae (bot.) — L. anthriscus, 'the wild chervil', 
fr. Gk. Av&pioxos, which is possibly rel. to a&ifjp, 
'chaff'. See Anthericum. 

anthrop-, form of anthropo- before a vowel. 

■■thronic, adj., pertaining to man. — Gk. dtv- 
*P<i>7nx6c., fr. Sv&ptoTroc., 'man'. See anthropo- 
and -tc. 

anthropo-, before a vowel anthrop-, combining 
form meaning 'of man, pertaining to man'. — 

Gk. av#po>7ra-, avftpa>Tt-, fr. av&po>7to<;, 'man', 
which is perh. a dialectical variant of *av8p- 
(07toi;, a compound of dvrjp, gen. avSpo;, 
'man', and 641, gen. dynoc,, 'eye, face', and lit. 
means 'he who has the face of a man'. See 
andro- and -ops and cp. the second element in 
cynanthropy, Eoanthropus, lycanthrope, mis- 
anthrope, philanthrope, Pithecanthropus, theri- 

anthropocenrric, adj., regarding man as the 
center. — Compounded of anthropo- and centric. 

anthropogeography, n., the study of the geo- 
graphical distribution of man. — G. Anthropo- 
geographie, coined by the German geographer 
Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904) m 1882 fr. anthro- 
po- and G. Geographie, fr. L. geographia (see 

anthropography, n., that part of anthropology 
which deals with the physical characteristics of 
the human race. — Lit. 'the description of man'. 
See anthropo- and -graphy. 

anthropoid, adj., manlike; n., an anthropoid ape. 

— Gk. av&poitoEtSrji;, 'like a man, resembling 
a man', compounded of avOponot;, 'man', and 
-oeiSifc, 'like', fr. elSo?, 'form, shape'. See an- 
thropo- and -oid. 

Derivatives: anthropoid-al, anthropoid-an, adjs. 
anthropolatry, n., the worship of a human being. 

— Compounded of Gk. av&pomo;, 'man', and 
-Xaxpeia, -Xaxpia, fr. XotTpeia, 'hired labor; 
worship'. See anthropo- and -latry. 

anthropology, n., the science of the natural his- 
tory of man. — The word lit. means 'the science 
of man' ; it is compounded of anthropo- and Gk. 
-Xoyia, fr- -Xoyoq, 'one who speaks (in a cer- 
tain manner); one who deals (with a certain 
topic)'. See anthropo- and -logy. 
Derivatives: anthropolog-ic-al, adj., anthropo- 
log-ic-al-ly, adv., anthropolog-ist , n. 

anthropometry, n., measurement of the human 
body. — Compounded of anthropo- and Gk. 
-(isxpia, 'measuring of, fr. ^erpov, 'measure'. 
See -metry. Derivatives: anthropometr-ic, an- 
thropometr-ic-al, adjs., anthropometr-ist, n. 

anthropomorphic, adj., pertaining to or having 
the nature of anthropomorphism. — Formed 
with suff. -ic fr. Gk. av&pojTropiopcpo;, 'of a hu- 
man form'. See anthropomorphous. 
Derivative: anthropomorphic-al-ly, adv. 

anthropomorphism, n., conception of God under 
a human form. — Formed with suff. -ism fr. Gk. 
av^poTCOfiopcpo!;, 'of a human form'. See anthro- 

anthropomorphist, n. — See prec. word and -ist. 

anthromorphize, tr. and intr. v. — See next word 
and -ize. 

anthropomorphous, adj., having the form of a 
man. — Gk. avftp<i)7r6fj.opcpoc, 'of a human 
form', compounded of jtv&poTtcx;, 'man', and 
u.op<p7], 'form, shape'. See anthropo- and mor- 
pho-. For E. -ous, as equivalent to Gk. -oq, see 
suff. -ous. 



anthropopathy, n., ascription of human feelings to 
God. — Gk. av^pco7to7ta9£ia, 'humanity', lit. 
'human feelings' fr. avfl-pcoTuoi;, 'man', and 
-Tra&sia, fr. 7ra&eTv, 'to suffer'. See anthropo- 
and -pathy. 

Derivatives: anthropopath-ic, ,anthropopath- 
ic-al-ly, adv. 
anthropophagi, n. pi., cannibals. — L., pi. of 
anthrdpophagus, fr. Gk. dv9-p&>7ra9dyo<;, 'man- 
eater, cannibal', fr. av#pco7to<;, 'man', and the 
stem of rfwytiv, 'to eat'. See anthropo- and 

anthropophagous, adj., cannibalistic, Gk. dv&pto- 
TTOtpayoi;, 'man-eater, cannibal'. See next word. 
For E. -ous, as equivalent to Gk. -o?, see -ous. 

anthropophagy, n., cannibalism. — F. anthropo- 
phagie, fr. Gk. dvDpco7ra9ayta, fr. dv&ptoTratpd- 
yoc. See prec. word and -y (representing Gk. 

Derivatives: anthropophag-ic, adj., anthropo- 
phag-ist, n., anthropophagous (q.v.) 
Anthurium,n., a genus of plants of the arum fam- 
ily (hot.) — ModL., compounded of Gk. av- 
#o;, 'flower', and oupd, 'tail'. See anther and 
uro-, 'tail-'. 

Anthus, n., a genus of birds, the pipit; the titlark 
(ornithol.) — ModL., fr. Gk. om&oc;, 'flower'. 
See anther. 

-anthus, suff. used in botany to form generic 
names as in Dianthus, Galanthus. — ModL., lit. 
'flower', fr. Gk. av9o;. The masculine form of 
this suff. is based on the erroneous supposition 
that Gk. avSk)? is masculine, whereas it is of 
the neuter gender. This error was suggested by 
the fact that the overwhelming majority of 
Greek nouns ending in -o; are masculine. 

Anthyllis, n., a genus of plants (hot.) — ModL., 
fr. Gk. dwS-uXXts, a plant name derived fr. 
iv&oq, 'flower' ; see anther. The name dvS-oWi; 
was first used by Dioscorides. 

anthypophora, n., reply to a supposed objection 
(rhet.) — Gk. a\i&u7T0<popa, formed fr. dvxi, 
opposite, against' and Wxpops, 'allegation', 
lit. 'a carrying down' fr. ur:otpepeiv, 'to carry 
down', fr. utto, 'under, below', and (pspeiv, 'to 
carry'. See anti-, hypo- and -phore. 

anti-, before a vowel ant-, pref. meaning 'op- 
posite, against, instead'. — Gk. dvxi-, dvx-, 
fr. dvxt, 'over against, opposite, before, in- 
stead of, which is cogn. with L. ante, 'before, 
in front of. See ante-. 

antiae, n. pi., forelocks (zool.) — L. antiae (gen. 
antidrum), rel. to ante , 'before, in front of, and 
cogn. with OHG. andi, endi, ON. enni, 'fore- 
head'. See ante- and cp. anti-, end. 

antiar, n., poison from the resin of the Upas tree. 

— Jav. antjar. 

antibiotic, adj.. tending to destroy life; n., a sub- 
stance that inhibits or destroys microorganisms. 

— Medical L. antibioticus, coined fr. anti-, Gk. 
pios, 'life', and suff. -ic (see biotic); first used 
by the physician Selman Abraham Waksman 

(1888- ), the discoverer of streptomycin, in 

Derivative: antibiotic-al-ly, adv. 
antibody, n., substance developed in the blood as 

an antitoxin {Immunol.) — A hybrid coined fr. 

Gk. dvxi, 'against (see anti-), and E. body, 
antic, adj., odd, grotesque. — It. antico, 'ancient', 

fr. L. antiquus, 'old'. See antique. 

Derivatives: antic, n., a trick, antic-ly, adv., 

antic-ness, n. 

antichrist, n. — Late L. antichristus, fr. Gk.[yji\.aTOQ, fr. dvxi, 'against', and Xpta-ro;, 

'Christ'. See anti- and Christ, 
antichristian, adj. — Formed fr. anti- and 


anticipant, adj. and n. — L. anticipdns, gen. -an- 
tis, pres. part, of anticipdre. See next word 
and -ant. 

anticipate, tr. v. — L. anticipdtus, pp. of anti- 
cipdre, 'to take beforehand, anticipate', fr. ante, 
'before', and -cipdre, fr. capere, 'to take'. See 
ante-, captive and verbal suff. -ate. For the 
change of Latin a (in capere) to i (in anti-clpdre) 
see abigeat and cp. words there referred to. 
Derivatives: anticipation (q.v.), anticipat-ive, 
adj., anticipat-ive-ly, adv., anticipat-or, n. ( anti- 
cipat-ory, adj. 

anticipation, n. — L. anticipdtid, gen. -onis, fr. 
anticipdtus, pp. of anticipdre. See prec. word 
and -ion. 

anticlerical, adj. — Formed fr. anti- and clerical 

Derivative: anticlerical-ism, n. 
anticlimax, n., the opposite of climax {rhet?) — 
Coined by Alexander Pope (1688-1744) fr. anti- 
and climax. 

anticlinal, adj., leaning in opposite directions. — 

Formed fr. anti- and Gk. y.Xfveiv, 'to cause to 

slope'. See clinical, 
anticline, n., a fold of rock in which the layers 

slope down from the axis in opposite directions 

(geol.) — See prec. word. 

anticyclone, n. — Coined by the English scientist 
Sir Francis Galton (1 822-191 1) fr. anti- and 

Derivative: anticyclon-ic, adj. 
antidote, n., a remedy counteracting poison. — 
L. antidotum, fr. Gk. dvxiSoxov, 'a remedy', 
lit. 'given against', fr. av-ri (see anti-) and Soxov, 
neut. of Soto?, 'given', verbal adj. of SiSovai, 
'to give'. See donation and cp. dose. Cp. also 

Derivatives: antidote, tr. v., antidot-al, adj., 
antidot-al-ly, adv., antidot-ic-al, adj., antidot-ic- 
al-ly, adv. 

antifebrile, adj., reducing fever; n., a remedy re- 
ducing fever. — A hybrid coined fr. Gk. dvxi, 
'against' (see anti-), and Late L. febrilis, 'per- 
taining to fever', fr. h.febris, 'fever' (see febrile). 
The correct form is antipyretic (q.v.), in which 
both elements are of Greek origin. 

antigen, n., a substance that causes the produc- 
tion of an antibody {immunology). — Coined fr. 


anti- and Gk. yevvav, 'to produce'; see -gen. 
Accordingly antigen lit. means 'something pro- 
duced against something'. 
Antigone, n., daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta 
{Greek mythol.) — L., fr. Gk. 'AvxiyovY), lit. 
prob. meaning 'in place of a mother', fr. av-u, 
'opposite, in place of (see anti-), and yovrj, 
'womb' ; childbirth, generation', which is rel. to 
yovsu?, 'father' (in the pi. yoveT?, 'parents'). See 

antigorite, n., a variety of serpentine {mineral.) — 
Named after the Antigorio valley in Piedmont. 
For the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

antihelix, n., the rounded piece of cartilage inside 
and in front of the outer rim (helix) of the ear, 
{anat.) — Erroneous formation instead of *an- 
thelix, for Gk. dv-9iXi£, 'inner curvature of the 
ear' (first used by Rufus Ephesius in this sense) ; 
formed fr. dvxi, 'before' (see anti-), and eXii;, 
'coil, spiral'. See helix. 

antilobium, n., the tragus {anat.) — Medical L., 
fr. Gk. dvxiXo|3iov, 'the upper edge of the ear', 
fr. dvxi, 'opposite, in front of (see anti-), and 
Xo|36<;, 'lobe of the ear'. See lobe. 

antilogarithm, n., the number corresponding to a 
logarithm (math.) — Formed fr. anti- and lo- 

antilogous, adj., contradictory. — Gk. dvxUoyo;. 
See next word. For B.-ous, as equivalent to Gk. 
-0;, see -ous. 

antilogy, n., contradiction. — Gk. dvxiAoyia, 
'contradiction', fr. dvxiXoyoi;, 'contradictory', 
fr. dvxUeyav, 'to contradict', fr. dvxi- (see 
anti-) and >iyav, 'to say, tell, speak', which is 
cogn. with L. legere, 'to read'. See lecture. 

antimacassar, n. — Orig. 'cloth used for protecting 
backs of chairs from macassar oil'. See anti- 
and macassar. 

antimony, n., a brittle metallic element {chem.) — 
ML. antimonium, prob. fr. Arab, al-uthmud, 
al-ithmid, from al-, 'the', and uthmud, ithmid, 
'stibium', which prob., derives fr. Gk. oti[X(xi, 
'stibium'. See stibium and -y (representing L. 

antinomian, n. — See next word. 

antinomianism, n. (Eccles. hist.) — A term in- 
troduced by Martin Luther. See antinomy, -ian 
and -ism. 

antinomy, n. — L. antinomia, fr. Gk. dvxtvou.ia, 
'ambiguity in the law', fr. dvxi (see anti-) and 
v6u.o;, 'law'. See nomo- and -y (representing 
Gk. -ii). 

Derivatives : antinom-ic, antinom-ic-al, adjs. 

Antiope, n., the mother of Amphion and Zethus 
(Greek mythol.) — Gk. 'Avxi67T7j, lit. 'oppo- 
site, facing', fr. dvri (see anti-) and 6^, gen. 
otto;, 'eye, face'. See optical. 

antipathy, n. — L. antipathia, fr. Gk. dvxiTtd&Eta, 
fr. dcvTiraxTWji;, 'having opposite feelings', fr. 
ivri (see anti-) and 7td&o;, 'a feeling, suffer- 
ing'. See -pathy and cp. apathy, empathy, 

Derivatives: antipath-etic, adj., antipath-etic-al- 
ly, adv. 

antiphlogistic, adj., tending to counteract inflam- 
mation (med.) — Formed fr. anti- and phlo- 

Derivative: antiphlogistic, n. 
antiphon, n., a versicle sung responsively. — F. 
antiphone, fr. ML. antiphdna, fr. Gk. dvxitpfova, 
neut. pi. of dvxiepcovo.;, 'sounding in answer 
to', mistaken for fem. sing.; fr. dvxi, 'over 
against, in response to' (see anti-), and 9covr;, 
'voice, sound' ; see phone, n. Cp. anthem, which 
is a doublet of antiphon. 

Derivatives: antiphon-al, adj., antiphon-al-ly, 
adv., antiphonary (q.v.), antiphon-et-ic, adj., an- 
tiphon-ic, antiphon-ic-al, adjs., aniiphonon (q.v.), 
antiphon-y, n. 
antiphonary, n. — A collection of antiphons. — 
ML. antiphdndrium. See antiphon and subst. 
suff. -ary. 

antiphonon, n., an antiphon. — Gk. dvxiipuvov, 
neut. of dvxiqjcovo?, 'sounding in answer to'. 
See antiphon. 

antipodal, adj., pertaining to the antipodes. - - 
Formed fr. antipodes with adj. suff. -al. 

antipodes, n. pi., opposite places of the earth. — 
L. antipodes, fr. Gk. dvxircoSet;, pi. of dvxircout;, 
'having the feet opposite', fr. dvxi (see anti-) 
and 7TOUC, gen. noSoc, 'foot'. See foot and cp. 

antipope, n. — A hybrid coined fr. Gk. dvxi, 
'against', and ME. pope, 'pope'. See anti- and 

antipyretic, adj., reducing fever; n., a remedy 
reducing fever. — Formed fr. anti- and pyretic. 

antipyrine, antipyrin, n., a crystalline compound 
used as an antipyretic. — G. Antipyrin, coined 
by the German chemist Ludwig Knorr (1859- 
1921) fr. antipyretic and chem. suff. -in. 

antiquarian, adj. and n. — Formed with suff. -an 
fr. L. antiqudrius. See next word. 

antiquary, n. — L. antiqudrius, 'pertaining to an- 
tiquity; an antiquarian', fr. antiquus, 'old'. See 
antique and -ary. 

antiquate, tr. v., to make old or obsolete. — L. 
antiquatus, pp. of antiqudre, 'to render obso- 
lete', fr. antiquus, 'old'. See antique and verbal 
suff. -ate. 

Derivatives: antiquat-ed, adj., antiquat-ed-ness, 
n., antiquation (q.v.) 

antiquation, n. — Late L. antiqudtid, gen. -onis, 
fr. L. antiquatus, pp. of antiqudre. Sec anti- 
quate and -ion. 

antique, adj. — F., fr. L. antiquus, amicus, 'old', 

fr. ante, 'before'. See ante-. 

Derivatives: antique, n. (q.v.), antique, tr. v., 

antique-ly, adv., antique-ness, n., antiquity (q.v.) 
antique, n. — F., fr. antique, adj. See antique, 


antiquity, n. — F. antiquite, fr. L. antiquitdtem, 
acc. of antiquitds, 'ancient times, antiquity', fr. 
antiquus. See antique and -ity. 



Antirrhinum, n., a genus of plants of the flgwort 
family ; the snapdragon (bot.) — ModL., fr. Gk. 
dvxLppTvov, 'snapdragon', fr. dvxi, 'opposite; 
like', and pic, gen. pivoq, 'nose'. See anti- and 

antiscians, also antiscii, n. pi., those who live on 
the same meridian, but on opposite sides of the 
equator. — L. antiscii, fr. Gk. dvxicrccioi, pi. of 
dvxtaxtoc., 'throwing a shadow the opposite 
way', fr. dvxt (see and-) and <m&, 'shade, 
shadow'. See skiagraphy and cp. amphiscians. 

anti-Semitism, n. — G. Antisemitismus (see and-, 
Semite and -ism). The word Antisemitismus was 
first used by Wilhelm Marr (in 1880). 

antiseptic, adj. and n. — Formed fr. anti- and 

Derivatives: antiseptic-al-ly, adv., antiseptic- 
ism, n., antiseptic-ist, n., antiseptic-ize, tr. v. 

antiserum, n. — A hybrid coined fr. Gk. dvxi, 
'against', and L. serum, 'whey'. See anti- and 
serum. The correct form would be antiorus, fr. 
Gk. dvxi, 'against', and opo;, 'whey'. 

antisocial, adj. — A hybrid coined fr. Gk. dvxi, 
'against', and L. socidlis, fr. socius, 'companion'. 
Sec anti- and social. 

antistrophe, n. — L., fr. Gk. dvxi<rxpo<pr), 'a turn- 
ing back', fr. avxiaxpscpELv 'to turn back or 
against', fr. dvxi (see anti-) and axpEtpstv, 'to 
turn'. See strophe. 

antithesis, n. — L., fr. Gk. avxl-Semc., 'opposi- 
tion', lit. 'a placing against', fr. dvxmflivat,, 'to 
set one thing against another, to oppose', fr. 
dvxi (see anti-) and xiOivoci, 'to place'. See 

antithetic, antithetical, containing an antithesis. 
— Gk. dvxii>£XLx6c., 'setting in opposition', fr. 
dvxifl-exoc,, 'opposed', verbal adj. of dvxm#evat. 
See prec. word and -etic, resp. also -al. 
Derivative: antithetical-ly, adv. 

antitoxic, adj., pertaining to an antitoxin. — 
Formed fr. anti- and toxic. 

antitoxin, n., a substance neutralizing poisonous 
substances {immunology). — Coined by the Ger- 
man bacteriologist Emil von Behring (1854- 
1917) in 1890 fr. anti- and toxin. Cp. autotoxin. 

antitragus, n., the eminence of the external ear 
(anal.) — Medical L., fr. Gk. dvxtxpayo?., ut - 
'the part opposite the tragus'. See anti- and 

Derivatives: antitrag-al, antitrag-ic, adjs. 

antitype, n. — Gk. dvxix-jTroc., 'corresponding 
in form', lit. 'struck back', fr. dvxi (see anti-) 
and -r'moc,, 'a blow, a mark'. See type and cp. 
antetype and prototype. 

antler, n. — ME. uuntelere, fr. OF. antoillier (F. 
andouiller), fr. VL. * anteoculare , neut. adj. used 
as a noun and lit. meaning '(the horn) growing 
before the eyes', fr. L. ante oculos, 'before the 
eyes'. See ante- and ocular. For sense develop- 
ment cp. G. Augensprossen, 'antlers', lit. 'eye 

Derivative: antler-ed, adj. 

antlerite, n., a copper sulfate (mineral) — Named 
after the Antler mine in Arizona. For the ending 
see subst. suff. -ite. 

Antonia, fem. PN. — L. Antdnia, fern, of An- 
tonius. See Antony. 

antonomasia, n., use of an epithet for a proper 
name or vice versa (rhet.) — L., fr. Gk. dvxo- 
vou.ama, fr. dvxovou-d^eiv, 'to name instead, to 
call by a new name', fr. dvxi, 'instead of (see 
anti-), and ovofid^siv, 'to name', fr. Svouoc, 
'name'. See antonym. 

Antony, also Anthony, masc. PN. — L. Antdnius, 
name of a Roman gens. The spelling Anthony 
was suggested by the numerous Greek loan 
words beginning with antho-, fr. (Sv&oc, 'flower'. 
Cp. Antonia. 

antonym, n., opposite in meaning to another 
word. — Formed fr. Gk. dvx<ovu[iia, 'a word 
used for another, a pronoun', fr. dvxi, 'instead 
of (see anti-), and ovuua, dialectal form of 
ovo[A0t, 'noun'. See name and cp. anonym and 
words there referred to. 

antro-, before a vowel antr-, combining form 
meaning 'antrum, cavity' (anat.) — Gk. dvxpo-, 
dvxp-, fr. Svxpov. See next word. 

antrum, n., a cave or cavity. — L., fr. Gk. Svxpov, 
'cave, cavern', which is prob. cogn. with Arm. 
ayr, 'cave'. 

antrustion, n., a voluntary follower of Frankish 
princes — F., fr. ML. antrustidnem, acc. of an- 
trustid, lit. 'in fidelity', which is formed fr. pref. 
an-, en, 'in' (see in-, 'in, on'), OHG. trost, 
'fidelity', Latinized into trust is, and suff. -ion. 
See trust. 

Derivative : antrustion-ship, n. 
Anubis, n., a jackal god, son of Osiris (Egypt, 
mythol.) — L. Anubis, fr. Gk. "Avoupic, fr. 
Egypt. Anepu, Anpu. 

anus, n., inferior opening of the alimentary canal. 
— L. anus, 'a ring, an iron ring for the feet; 
anus (so called because of its form)'. For sense 
development cp. Gk. SaxxtiAioc, 'ring, signet; 
felloe of a wheel; anus', fr. Sdx-ruXoc., 'finger'. 
L. anus is cogn. with Olr. dnne, dinne, 'ring, 
rump'. See annular. 

anusim, n. pi., Jews converted to another faith 
by force; specif, the marranos. — Heb. dnustm, 
'those compelled (to give up their faith)', pi. of 
anas, pass. part, of anas, 'he compelled, con- 
strained', which is rel. to Aram, dnds, Syr. e~nas, 
of s.m. 

anvil, ME. anvelt, anfilt, fr. OE. anfilte, 'anvil', 
rel. to MDu. anvilt, anevilte, aenbelt, dnebelt, 
Du. aanbeeld, aambeeld, OHG. anafalz, Dan. 
ambolt, 'anvil', G. falzen, 'to fold' (whence 
Falz, 'groove, furrow'), OHG. vilz, OE. felt, 
'felt' ; see felt L. pellere, 'to strike', is prob. not 
cognate with the above Teut. words. 
Derivative: anvil, tr. v. 

anxiety, n. — L. anxietds, gen. -at is, 'anguish, 
anxiety', fr. anxius. See next word and -ity. 
anxious, adj. — L. anxius, 'solicitous, uneasy', fr. 



angere, 'to press together, throttle'. See anger and 
cp. words there referred to. For E.-ous, as equi- 
valent to L. -us, see suff. -ous. 
Derivatives: anxious-ly, adv., anxious-ness, n. 

any, adj. and pron. — ME. mniy, ami, any, eny, 
ony, fr. OE. xnig, which is formed fr. OE. an, 
'one', with suff. -ig; rel. to OS. enig, enag (fr. en, 
'one'), ON. einigr (fr. einn, 'one'), Du. enig (fr. een, 
'one'), OHG. einag, MHG. einec, G, einig (fr. 
ein, 'one'). See one and -y (representing OE. -ig). 

Anychia, n., a genus of plants of the whitlowwort 
family, the forked chickweed (bot.) — ModL., 
aphetic for Gk. Ttxpcovuxia, 'whitlowwort'. See 

Anzac, n., a member of the Australian and New 
Zealand Army corps. — Acrostic formed from 
the initials of the words Australian (and) New 
Zealand Army Corps. 

Derivative: Anzac, adj., pertaining to the An- 

aorist, n., a past tense of Greek verbs. — Gk. 
dopiaxoc., 'indefinite' (short for dopiaxoc. xpovoc., 
'the aorist, i.e. indefinite tense'), fr. d- (see priv. 
pref. a-) and opiaxoc,, 'limited, defined', verbal 
adj. of opi^siv, 'to limit, define', fr. opo?, 'bound- 
ary, limit, border'. See horizon. As a grammatic- 
al term dipiaxoc, was introduced by Dionysius 

aorta, n. — ModL., fr. Gk. aopxr), 'the great 
artery', fr. deipEiv, 'to lift, raise up, bear', 
which is rel. to the second element in ixeTTjopo?, 
Att. |x£xea>po<;, 'raised from the ground, high', 
of uncertain etymology. Cp. artery and the 
second element in endaortic and in meteor. Cp. 
also air, 'atmosphere'. 
Derivatives: aort-al, aort-ic, adjs. 

aortico-, combining form meaning 'aortic'. — 
See aorta and -ic. 

aosmic, adj., having no smell (med.) — Formed 
with suff. -ic fr. Gk. &oay.o<;, 'having no smell', 
fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) and 6au.-r], 'smell, odor'. 
See osmium. 

Aotus, n., a genus of American monkeys, the 
night ape (zool.) — ModL., fr. Gk. Stoxoc, 'ear- 
less', fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) and ou<;, gen. wx6?, 
'ear'. See oto-. 

ap-, form of apo- before a vowel. 

ap-, assimilated form of ad- before p. 

apace, adv. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and pace. 

apache, n., a Parisian gangster. — F., from the 
name of the North American Indian Apaches. 

apagoge, n., reductio ad absurdum (logic). — Gk. 
dbraYWYT), 'a leading away', fr. d7rdyeiv, 'to 
lead away', fr. &no (see apo-) and Syeiv, 'to 
lead', which is cogn. with L. agere, 'to set in 
motion, lead'. See agent, adj., and cp. -agogue, 
anagogy, pedagogue, synagogue. 

apanage, n. — See appanage. 

•parithmesis, n., enumeration (rhet.) — ModL., 
fr. Gk. draxpU*u,T)<jK;, fr. A7tapi&(jusTv, 'to count 
over', fr. dm6 (see apo-) and dpi$u£iv, 'to 
count', fr. ipi*(x6c, 'number'. See arithmetic. 

apart, adv. — F. a part, fr. L. ad partem, 'to the 
one side or part', fr. ad, 'to' (see ad-) and par- 
tem, acc. of pars, 'part'. See part, n., and cp. 
next word and apartment. 

apartheid, n., the policy of racial segregation and 
discrimination against the native Negroes and 
other colored peoples in South Africa. — S. 
African Dutch, 'apartness', formed fr. Du. apart, 
'separate' [fr. F. d part (see apart)], with Du. 
suff. -heid, which corresponds to E. -hood (q.v.) 

apartment, n. — F. appartement, fr. It. apparta- 
mento, prop, 'a separated place', fr. appartare, 
'to separate', fr. a (fr. L. ad), 'to', and parte (fr. 
L. partem, acc. of pars), 'part'. See apart and 

A pa tela, n., a genus of moths (zool.) — ModL., 
fr. Gk. d7rax7jX6c., 'illusory', fr. a7taxav, 'to 
cheat, deceive', fr. Andnrrj, 'deceit', which is of 
uncertain origin. Cp. apatite. 

apathic, adj. — F. apathique, fr. apathie. See next 
word and -ic. 

apathy, n. — F. apathie, fr. L. apathia, fr. Gk. 
drat-ft-sia, 'freedom from suffering, impassibil- 
ity', fr. dTtaS-rjc,, 'without suffering, impassible', 
fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) and tox&oc, 'feeling, suf- 
fering'. See -pathy and cp. antipathy, empathy, 

Derivatives: apath-ism, n., apath-ist, n., apath- 
ist-ic-al, adj. 

apatite, n., calcium phosphate fluoride (mineral.) 
— Formed with subst. suff. -ite fr. Gk. drcdxY), 
'deceit' (see Apatela); so called because it has 
been mistaken for other minerals. 

ape, n. — ME., fr. OE. apa, rel. to OS. apo, ON. 
api, Du. aap, OHG. affo, MHG., G. affe; ac- 
cording to O. Schrader borrowed fr. OCelt. 
dppavac,, a word glossed by Hesychius. It is more 
probable, however, that OE. apa, etc., are Slav- 
onic loan words. Cp. ORuss. opica, Czech 
opice, 'ape'. 

Derivatives: ape, tr. v., ape-ry, n. 

apeak, adv., in a vertical position (naut.) — F. 
d pic, 'vertically', fr. d, 'to' (see a), and pic, 'ver- 
tex'. See peak, 'sharp point', and cp. peak, 'to 
raise vertically'. 

apeiron, n., the boundless mass postulated by 
Anaximander as the first principle. — Gk. 
6t7reipov, neut. of aTiEipoc., 'boundless, infinite', 
fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) and 7t£tpxp (gen. 
7tEipaxo<;), 'completion, achievement', which is 
rel. to 7reipEiv, 'to pierce, run through', nopo<i, 
'ford, ferry', prop, 'means of passing a river', 
and is cogn. with L. porta, 'gate', portus, 'har- 
bor'. See port, 'harbor', and cp. words there 
referred to. 

apepsia, apepsy, n., indigestion (med.) — Medical 
L., fr. Gk. anemia, fr. foe7rxoc, 'undigested', 
fr. d- (see pref. a-) and tce-xoc., 'cooked', ver- 
bal adj. of 7re7xxEiv, 'to cook'. See pepsin. 

aper, n., the wild boar. — L., rel. to Umbr. apruf, 
abrof, 'the boars' (acc.), and cogn. with OE. 
eofor, 'wild boar', OHG. ebur, MHG., G. eber, 



of s.m., ON. jdfurr, 'prince', and with OSlav. 
vepri, Lett, vepris, 'wild boar'. The a in L. aper 
(inst. of *eper) is prob. due to dissimilation un- 
der the influence of caper, 'he-goat'. Cp. the 
first element in Everard. 

apercu, n., sketch, rapid survey. — F., prop. pp. 
of apercevoir, 'to perceive', used as a noun, fr. 
a, 'to' (see a), and percevoir 'to perceive', fr. L. 
percipere. See perceive and cp. apperception. 

aperient, adj., laxative. — L. aperiens, gen. -entis, 
pres. part, of aperire, 'to uncover, open', which 
stands for *ap-werlre and is rel. to operire (for 
*op-werire), 'to cover, close', and cogn. with 
OI. apa-vj-nSti, 'uncovers, opens', api-vfttdti, 
'closes, covers', fr. I.-E. base *wer-, 'to enclose, 
cover'. See weir and cp. words there referred to. 
The word aperient was first used by Bacon in 

Derivative: aperient, n., a laxative drug. 

aperiodic, adj., not periodic. — Formed fr. priv. 
pref. a- and periodic. 
Derivative: aperiodic-al-fy, adv. 

aperitif, n., appetizer. — F. See next word. 

aperitive, adj. aperient. — F. aperitif (fern, ape- 
ritive), 'opening' (said of a drug), fr. L. aperi- 
tivus, fr. aperire, 'to open'. See aperient and -ive. 

apert, adj., open. — OF., fr. L. apertus, pp. of 
aperire, 'to open'. See aperient and cp. pert, 

aperture, n., an opening. — L. apertura, 'an ope- 
ning', fr. apertus, pp. of aperire. See aperient and 

Derivatives: apertur-al, apertur-ed, adjs. 

apetalous, adj., having no petals (bot.) — Formed 
fr. priv. pref. a- and Gk. 7t£xaXov, 'thin plate 
of metal; leaf. See petalon and -ous. 
Derivative: apetalous-ness, n. 

apex, n., the highest point of something, top, 
summit. — L., 'top, summit, the extreme end of 
a thing; the small rod at the flamen's cap', lit. 
'something joined or fastened to', formed with 
suff. -ex fr. apio, apere, 'to join, fasten' ; see apt 
For the formation of apex fr. apere, cp. vertex, 
'top, summit', fr. vertere, 'to turn'. Cp. peri- 

aph-, form of apo- before an aspirated vowel. 

aphaeresis, n., loss of a letter or syllable at the 
beginning of a word (gram.) — L., fr. Gk. 
a9<xip£(j!.?, 'a taking away', fr. d^ocipeiv, 'to 
take away', fr. drcS (see apo-) and aipelv, 'to 
take'. The word aphaeresis was introduced into 
English by Sir James Murray (1837-1915). See 
heresy and cp. diaeresis, synaeresis. 

Aphanes, n., a genus of plants of the rose family 
(bot.) — ModL., fr. Gk. a^airfj?, 'unseen, un- 
noticed', fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) and the base 
of qjatveiv, 'to make visible'. See phantasm. 

aphanite, n., name of certain dark rocks (petrogr.) 
— Lit. 'unseen', fr. Gk. &<pavr)<;. See prec. word 
and subst. suff. -ite. 

Derivatives: aphanit-ic, adj., aphanit-ism, n. 
aphano-, before a vowel aphan-, combining form 

meaning 'invisible'. — Fr. Gk. aipav^?. See 

aphasia, n., loss of the faculty of speech (med.) — 
Medical L., fr. priv. pref. a- and tpaai?, 'speech', 
from the base of ipavai, 'to speak', which is rel. 
to <pr\\xr\, 'voice, report, rumor', and cogn. with 
L. fama, 'talk, report, rumor'. See fame and 
-ia and cp. aphemia. 

Derivatives: aphasi-ac, adj. and n., aphas-ic, 
adj. and n. 

Aphelandra, n. 1 genus of plants of the acanthus 
family (bot.) — ModL., compounded of Gk. 
AtpsX-rji;, 'even, simple', and the stem of dvr]p, 
gen. dvSpiii;, 'man'. Gk. dttpsXT)? prob. means 
lit. 'without protuberances' and is formed fr. 
a- (see priv. pref. a-) and *tp£Xoi;, 'swelling, 
protuberance' (whence also 9eXXeii<;, 'stony 
ground'). See Anopheles and cp. next word and 
Aphelinus. For the second element in Aphelandra 
see andro-. The genus was called Aphelandra in 
allusion to the one-celled anthers. 

Aphelenchus, n., a genus of nematode worms 
(zool.) — ModL., compounded of Gk. afpeXif]?, 
'even, simple' (see prec. word), and 8yX°?> 
'spear', a word of uncertain origin. 

Aphelinus, n., a genus of small flies (zool.) — 
ModL., fr. Gk. dcpeXT)?, 'even, simple'. See 

aphelion, n., that point of the orbit of a celestial 
body which is farthest from the sun (astron.) — 
Grecized fr. ModL. aphelium, which was coined 
by Kepler on analogy of apogaeum (see apogee) 
fr. Gk. drc6 (see apo-) and -^Xto?, 'sun'. See 

apheliotropic, adj., turning away from the sun 
(said of certain plants). — Formed fr. Gk. draS 
(see apo-), 15X10;, 'sun', and -rpomxiS;, 'turning, 
relating to a turn'. See apo- and heliotropic. 

aphemia, n., a kind of aphasia (med.) — Medical 
L., coined by the French surgeon and anthro- 
pologist Paul Broca (1824-80) in i860 fr. priv. 
pref. a- and Gk. fruii], 'voice', which is rel. to 
9<xvai, 'to say, speak'. See fame and -ia and cp. 

aphesis, n., gradual aphaeresis (gram.) — Gk. 
&peoi(;, 'a letting go', fr. d<pi£vou, 'to send 
forth, let go', fr. fibr6 (see apo-) and Uvea, 'to 
send', which stands for *yi-ye-nai and is cogn. 
with L.jacire, 'to throw'. See jet, 'to spirt forth', 
and cp. diesis. The word aphesis was introduced 
into English by Sir James Murray (1837-1915)- 

aphetic, adj., pertaining to, or resulting from, 
aphesis. — Gk. dhperocis, 'letting go', fr. ficpe- 
to;, 'let loose', verbal adj. of dt(pi£vai, 'to let go'. 
See prec. word and -etic 

-aphia, combining form meaning 'touch', and 
referring to a specified condition of the sense of 
touch (med.) — Medical L. -aphia, fr. Gk. &tfn, 
'touch'. See apsis and cp. words there referred to. 

aphid, n., a plant louse. — See next word. 

Aphis, n., a genus of plant lice (zool.) — ModL., of 
uncertain origin. 



aphlogistic, adj., flameless. — Formed with suff. 
-ic fr. Gk. (&9X6yi(jto<;, 'not inflammable, flame- 
less', fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-), and 9X0YWT6;, 'in- 
flammable'. See phlogiston. 

aphonia, n., the loss of voice (med.) — Medical L., 
fr. Gk. dtpoivta, 'speechlessness', fr. a9<ovo<;, 
'voiceless, speechless', fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) 
and 9cavr), 'sound, voice'. See phone and -ia. 

aphonic, adj., having no sound, voiceless. — See 
prec. word and -ic. 

aphorism, n., 1) a short definition; 2) a maxim. — 
F. aphorisme, fr. ML. aphorismus, fr. Gk. £90- 
piafxo;, 'definition', fr. d9opt^Eiv, 'to define', 
fr. &n6 (see apo-) and opt^ew, 'to bound, limit', 
fr. opoq, 'boundary'. See horizon and -ism and 
cp. aorist. 

aphorist, n., a writer of aphorisms. — See prec. 
word and -ist. 

aphoristic, aphoristical, adj. — Gk. d9opi<mx6i;, 
'delimiting, aphoristic', fr. d90pi£etv. See aphor- 
ism and -ic, resp. also -al. 

aphotic, adj., lightless. — Formed with suff. -ic fr. 
Gk. &<f>cnQ, gen. i&p&iToi;, 'without light', fr. d- 
(see priv. pref. a-) and <p&>c;, gen. 9COT65, 'light'. 
See phosphorus. 

Aphra, fem. PN. — The name arose from a mis- 
understanding of Vbheth 'Aphrd h , 'in the house 
of Aphrah' (Mi. 1 : 10), 'Aphrah having been mis- 
taken for a feminine personal name. In reality 
'Aphrd h , in the above verse is the name of a 
town which was identified by most commen- 
tators with 'Ophrd h in Benjamin (see Josh. 18:23). 
The name prob. means 'hind'. 

aphrite, n., a variety of calcite (mineral.) — Form- 
ed with subst. suff. -ite fr. Gk. d9p6;, 'foam', 
(see aphro-) ; so called from its appearance. 

aphrizite, n., a variety of tourmaline. — Formed 
with subst. suff. -ite from the stem of Gk. d9pi- 
^Etv, 'to foam', fr. 4<pp6i;, 'foam' (see next word) ; 
so called from its appearance when heated. 

aphro-, before a vowel aphr- combining form 
meaning 'foam'. — Gk. d9po-, d9p-, fr. d9p6;, 
'foam'; of uncertain origin. Cp. the prec. two 

aphrodisia, n., sexual passion. — ModL., from 
the fem. of Gk. ' Aypo&taioc,, 'pertaining to 
Aphrodite', fr. ' A9po8fnf], the Greek goddess of 
love. See Aphrodite. 

aphrodisiac, adj., producing or increasing sexual 
desire. — Gk. d9poSTmax6i;, 'sexual, venereal', 
fr. 'A9poSf<Jtoi;. See prec. word. 
Derivative: aphrodisiac, n., an aphrodisiac drug. 

Aphrodite, n., name of the goddess of love in 
Greek mythology (corresponding to Venus in 
Roman mythology). — Gk. ' A<ppoStrr\, prob. 
a popular alteration of *'A9&op7){b], *'Atto- 
PtjSt) (a change due to the influence of Gk.d9p6<;, 
'foam'), fr. Heb.-Phoen. 'AshtSreth, 'the god- 
dess of love', which is rel. to Akkad. Ashtarte, 
Ishtar; cp. Frisk, GEW., I, pp. I96f. s.v. ' A9P0- 
8fTr).Theexplanationofthename'A9po8fnri by 
Hesiod as '(the goddess) born of the foam (of 

the sea)' is folk etymology. For the change of sh 
to 9, cp. Heb. shum, Arab, thum, VArab. 
fum, 'garlic', Heb. gddtsh, Arab, jddath, VArab. 
jddaf, 'mound, tumulus', and the Russian PN. 
Feodor, which derives fr. Gk. ©s68<opo; (see 
Theodore). Cp. Ashtoreth, Astarte, Ishtar. Cp. 
also April. 

aphtha, n., a children's disease, also called 
'thrush'. — L., fr. Gk. &p&<x, 'inflammation, 
eruption', fr. 'to fasten; to kindle'. See 


aphthous, adj., caused by aphthae. — See prec. 
word and -ous. 

aphyllous, adj. having no leaves (bot.) — Gk. 
&9uXXoq, 'leafless', fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) and 
9iiXXov, 'leaf. See phyllo-. 

aphthitalite, n., a potassium sodium sulfate (min- 
eral.) — Formed with subst. suff. -ite fr. Gk. 
£9*kT0<;, 'undecaying, imperishable; unchange- 
able', and otX;, 'salt' ; so called because it is un- 
changeable in air. Gk. is formed fr. 
d- (see priv. pref. a-) and verbal adj. of 9<Mveiv, 
'to decay'; see phthisis. For the etymology ofdX; 
see halieutic. 

apiarian, adj., pertaining to bees or beekeep- 
ing; n., an apiarist. — • Formed with suff. -an 
fr. L. apidrius, 'relating to bees', fr. apis. See 
Apis, a genus of bees. 

apiarist, n., one who keeps bees. — Formed fr. 

next word with suff. -ist. 
apiary, n., a place where bees are kept. — L. api- 

drium, 'beehouse, beehive', fr. apis. See Apis, 

a genus of bees, 
apicitis, n., inflammation of the apex of an organ 

(med.) — A Medical L. hybrid coined fr. L. 

apex, gen. apicis (see apex) and -iris, a suff. of 

Greek origin, 
apiculture, n., rearing of bees. — Compounded 

of L. apis, 'bee', and cultiira, 'tending, care'. See 

Apis, 'a genus of bees', and culture, 
apiece, adv. — Orig. written in two words: a 


apiology, n., the scientific study of bees. — A hy- 
brid coined fr. L. apis, 'bee', and Gk. -XoyiS, 
fr. -X6-fo<;, 'one who speaks (in a certain man- 
ner); one who deals (with a certain topic)'. See 
Apis, a genus of bees, and -logy. 

Apios, n., a genus of plants of the pea family 
(bot.) — ModL., fr. Gk. demo?, 'pear tree, pear', 
which is a loan word from an unknown source, 
whence also L. pirum, 'pear' (cp. pear) ; so called 
from the pearlike form of the tubers. 

Apis, n., an Egyptian god represented as a man 
with the head of a bull (Egypt, mythol.) — L., 
fr. Gk. "Amc, fr. Egypt. Hdpi. 

Apis, a genus of bees. — L., 'bee', of unknown 
etymology. Cp. Apium, ache, 'parsley'. 

Apium, n., a genus of plants of the carrot family. 
— L., 'parsley', lit. 'the plant preferred by bees', 
a derivative of apis, 'bee'. See prec. word. 

apivorous, adj., bee-eater. — Compounded of L. 
apis, 'bee', and -vorus, from the stem of vordre. 



'to devour'. See Apis, a genus of bees, and 

apjohnite, n., a hydrous aluminum and manga- 
nese sulfate (mineral.) — Named after the Irish 
chemist James Apjohn (1796-1886). For the 
ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

Aplectrum, n., a genus of plants of the orchid 
family, the puttyroot (bot.) — ModL., lit. 'with- 
out spurs', formed fr. priv. pref. a- and Gk. 
7rWjxTpov, 'spur', lit. 'an instrument to strike 
with', fr. 7rXr)a(j£iv, Att. tcXtjtteiv, 'to strike'; 
see plectrum. The puttyroot has no spur, whence 
its scientific name. 

aplomb, n. — F., 'perpendicularity', whence 'self- 
possession', fr. a plomb, 'perpendicular', fr. a, 
'to' (see a), and plomb, 'lead'. See plumb. 

aplome, n., a variety of andradite (mineral.) — 
Gk. anXcoixa, 'that which is unfolded', fr. 
aTtX6oi;, omXou?, 'simple'. See haplo- and cp. 

Aplopappus, n., a genus of plants (tor.) —ModL., 
fr. Gk. <xtcX6o<;, ocnXouq, 'simple', and ncmnos, 
'pappus'. See haplo- and pappus. 

Apluda, n., a genus of grasses (boi.) — L. apluda, 
'chaff', which is of uncertain origin. Perh. it is 
formed fr. ab, 'away from, from', and plaudere, 
'to strike, beat', and lit. means 'that which is 
beaten off*; see ab- and plaudit. See Walde- 
Hofmann, LEW., I, 58 s.v. apluda. 

aplustre, n., the curved stern of a ship with its 
ornaments (Greek and Roman antiq.) — L., fr. 
Gk. &pXaaTov; as shown by the suff. -stre, the 
word came into Latin through the medium of 
the Etruscans. For the change of Greek a. (in 
&9Xa<JTov) to u (in L. aplustre) cp. L. scutula, 
'wooden roller', fr. Gk. axu-raXT), 'stick, staff', 
L. crapula, fr. Gk. xpai7i£X7], 'debauch', L. pes- 
sulus, fr. Gk. TraooaXoc, 'bolt', L. triumphus, 
'triumph', fr. Gk. &pia^o<;, 'a procession (made 
in honor of Bacchus)' ; (see crapulence, pessulus, 

apnea, apnoea, n., suspension of breathing (med.) 
— Medical L., fr. Gk. itrevoia, 'absence of res- 
piration', fr. itivtooQ, &7tvou<;, 'without breath- 
ing', fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and ttveco, tweiv, 
'to breathe'. See pnetuna. 
Derivatives: apne-al, apnoe-al, adj., apne-ic, 
apnoe-ic, adj. 

apo-, ap- (before a vowel), aph- (before an aspi- 
rated vowel), pref. meaning 'from, away from, 
asunder, separate' . — Gk. arco-, dm-, dip-, fr. ami, 
'from, away from', cogn. with OI. dpa, 'away 
from', L. ab (orig. *ap), 'away from, from', 
Goth, af, OE. of, 'away from, from'. See of and 
cp. a-, 'from', ab-, post-. 

apocalypse, n., revelation. — Eccles. L. apoca- 
lypsis, fr. Gk. dmoxixXuijju;, 'revelation', fr. 
<x7TOxaXuTTTEi.v, 'to uncover, disclose, reveal', fr. 
a.r.6 (see apo-) and xaXiiTrreiv, 'to cover', which 
is rel. to KaXut}«i>, Calypso, a sea nymph, 
xaXiipij, 'cabin*. See Calypso and cp. calybite, 
calypter, calyptra. 

apocalyptic, adj., pertaining to a revelation. — 
Gk. aTraxaXuTrnxiq, fr. a7raxaXu7TTeiv. See prec. 
word and -ic. 

apocalyptist, n., the writer of the Apocalypse 
(rare). — See apocalypse and -ist. 

apocatastasis, n., restoration (med. and astron.) 
— Gk. dmoxaTaaTaaiq, 'restitution, restoration', 
fr. aTraxoc&ia-ravai, 'to restitute, restore', fr. 
om6 (see apo-) and xa&ia-rtivat., 'to set in order, 
array, appoint', lit. 'to set down', fr. xctxd, 
'down', and Eaxdtvoa, 'to make to stand, to 
stand'. See cata- and state and cp. catastasis. 

apocha, n., receipt for the payment of money 
(law), — L., fr. Gk. dmo/if), 'a receipt', fr. ani- 
Xcini, 'to keep off, keep away, to receive in full', 
fr. dmo (see apo-) and ex £ w, 'to have, hold'. 
See hectic and cp. epoch. 

apocopate, tr. v., to cut off. — ModL. apocopatus, 
pp. of apocopdre, 'to cut off', fr. Gk. omoxoTtr), 
'a cutting off'. See next word and verbal suff. 

apocope, n., the omission of the last letter or syl- 
lable of a word (gram.) — L., fr. Gk. aTtoxoTyr), 
'a cutting off', from the stem of djioxoTrreiv, 'to 
cut off', fr. dm6 (see apo-) and xo7rreiv, 'to cut', 
whence x6[/.|jia, 'a piece cut off'. See comma and 
cp. pericope, syncope. 
Derivative: apocop-ic, adj. 
Apocrypha, n. pi., books excluded from the num- 
ber of the sacred books of the Bible. — Eccles. 
L., neut. pi. of apocryphus, fr. Gk. anoxputpo?, 
'hidden away, kept secret', fr. d7TOXp<S7rrEiv, 'to 
hide away', fr. d7t6 (see apo-) and xpu7nrsiv, 'to 
hide'. See crypt. 
Derivative: Apocryph-al, adj. 
Apocynaceae, n. pi., a family of plants, the dog- 
bane family (bot.) — ModL., formed with suff. 
-aceae fr. Apocynum (q.v.) 
apocynaceous, adj. — See prec. word and -aceous. 
Apocynum, n., a genus of plants; the dogbane 
(hot ) — ModL., fr. Gk. dmoxuvov, 'dogbane', 
fr. dTc6 (see apo-) and xucov, gen. xov6s, 'dog'. 
See cyno-. 

apod, apode, n., an animal that has no feet. — 
Gk. fcrou?, gen. &tto8o<;, 'footless', fr. 4- (see 
priv. pref. a-) and ttou?, gen. tto86?, 'foot'. See 

apodal, adj., having no feet. — See prec. word 
and adj. suff. -al. 

apodictic, apodeictic, adj., clearly demonstrated. 
— L. apodicticus, fr. Gk. d7ro8eixTix6<;, fr. cbro- 
Seixt6?, verbal adj. of dc7roSEixvuvai, 'to show 
by argument', fr. dm6 (see apo-) and Seixvuvou, 
'to show'. See deictic and cp. epideictic. 
Derivative: apod(e)ictic-al-ly, adv. 
apodosis, n., the consequent clause (gram.) — L., 
fr. Gk. dfcjrASoai?, 'a giving back', fr. Aro>8i86vai, 
'to give back', fr. a:i6 (see apo-) and 8i86vai, 
'to give'. See donation and cp. words there re- 
ferred to. 

apodons, adj., footless. — See apodal and -ous. 
apogee, n., the point at which the moon (or an- 



other celestial body) is at the greatest distance 
from the earth (astron) — F. apogee, fr. L. apo- 
gaeum, fr. Gk. dmoyociov, prop. neut. of the 
adjective dmoyaioi;, 'far away from the earth', 
but used by Ptolemy as a noun for dmiyoaov 
ctx)(xslov, 'the sign far away from the earth', i.e. 
'apogee'. 'Airoyaio? (also dcTtoyEio?) is formed 
fr. txTto (see apo-) and ycaa, -p), 'earth'. See geo- 
and cp. perigee. 

apograph, n., a copy, a transcript. — Gk. dm6- 
ypacpov, fr. arcoypdcpEiv, 'to write off', fr. octto 
(see apo-) and yp<x9£iv, 'to write'. See -graph. 

apolar, adj., having no pole. — Formed fr. priv. 
pref. a- and polar. 

apolaustic, adj., devoted to pleasure. — Gk. 
aTOuXauCTTixo?, fr. obraXauaTOf;, verbal adj. of 
dmoXauEiv, 'to enjoy', fr. arcS (see apo-) and 
I.-E. base *lau-, */«-, 'to profit, gain', whence 
also L. lucrum, 'profit, gain'. See lucre and cp. 
-lestes. For the ending see suff. -ic. 

Apollinarian, adj. — Formed with suff. -an fr. L. 
Apollindris, 'belonging to Apollo', fr. Apollo, 
gen. Apollinis. See Apollo. 

Apollinaris water. — From G. Apollinaris-Brun- 
nen ('Springs of Apollinaris'), near Remagen in 

Apollo, n., one of the most important Olympian 
divinities, the god of music, poetry, medicine, 
etc., later identified with Helios, the sun god 
(Greek mythol.) — L. Apollo, gen. -inis, fr. Gk. 
' AmSXXcov =Dor. ' AkeXXcov, which, accordingto 
Usener, is rel. to an obsolete Greek verb mean- 
ing 'to drive away (scil. evil)', and cogn. with L. 
pellere, 'to beat, strike; to drive'. See pulse 

Derivatives: Apollinarian (q.v.), Apoll-ine, adj., 
Apollonian (q.v.), Apollon-ic, Apollon-ist-ic, 

Apollonian, adj. — Formed with suff. -an fr. Gk. 
'AttoXXcovioi;, 'belonging to Apollo', fr. 'AmiX- 
Xtov. See prec. word. 

Apollyon, n., the destroying angel of the bottom- 
less pit, the equivalent of Heb. dbhaddSn (see 
Abaddon). — Gk. aTOXXutov, pres. part, of 
dmoXXuEiv, 'to destroy utterly', fr. am (see 
apo-) and oXXueiv, 'to destroy', which is rel. to 
BXE&po?, 'destruction, ruin'. Cp. Olethreutidae 
and the second element in Azolla. 

apologetic, adj., 1) apologizing; 2) defending in 
writing or speech. — F. apologetique, fr. L. apo- 
logeticus, fr. Gk. dmoXoyriTtxo;, 'fit for de- 
fense', fr. d7roXoycLadai, 'to speak in defense', 
fr. dmoXoyia, 'defense'. See apology. 
Derivatives : apologetic, n., apologetic-al-ly, adv., 
apologet-ics, n. 

apologist, n. — F. apologist e, fr. apologie. See 
apology and -ist 

apologize, intr. v. — This verb corresponds for- 
mally to Gk. dt7roXoYxSe<j$oti, which, however, 
means 'to give an account', fr. AroSXoyoi;, 'ac- 
count' (see next word). In reality, however, E. 
apologize is a new formation fr. apology and 

-ize and answers in sense to Gk. dt7roXoyEi<jftai, 
'to speak in defense, defense oneself. 
Derivative: apologiz-er, n. 

apologue, n., moral truth. — F., fr. L. apologus, 
fr. Gk. dmiXoyoi;, 'story, tale, fable, apologue, 
account', lit. '(that which comes) from a speech', 
fr. aTcS (see apo-) and X6y<S?, 'word, speech, 
discourse, account'. See logos. 

apology, n. — F. apologie, fr. L. apologia, fr. Gk. 
dbraXoyta, 'a speech in defense', fr. dm6Xoyo(;, 
See prec. word and -y (representing Gk. -ta). 

apomorphine, n., name of a drug, C^HnNOa 
(chem.) — Changed fr. earlier apomorphia, a 
name coined by the chemists Mathieson and 
Wright fr. apo- and morphine. They gave the 
drug this name because it is obtainable from 

apopemptic, adj., valedictory. — Gk. a7T07TE[j,TTTi.- 
x<k, 'pertaining to sending away, valedictory', 
fr. a7TOTr£|x7T£tv, 'to send away, dismiss', fr. 
dbr6 (see apo-) and 7CE(i.7reiv, 'to send', which 
stands in gradational relationship to to^ky), 'a 
sending, solemn procession'. See pomp. 

apophasis, n., mention of something we feign to 
deny (rhet.) — ModL., fr. Gk. dbr6cpaai<;, 'an- 
swer, denial', fr. dmoqjdcvai, 'to speak out, say 
no, deny', fr. dbio (see apo-) and <pdcvai, 'to 
speak', which is rel. to 9^u.t], 'voice, report, 
rumor', and cogn. with L. fama, 'talk, report, 
rumor'. See fame and cp. aphasia, aphemia. 

apophthegm, n. — See apothegm. 

apophyge, n., a curve in a column, with which 
the shaft 'escapes' into its base (archit.) — Gk. 
dmcKpuyr), 'escape', fr. dcTTtxpsuyEiv, 'to flee away, 
escape', fr. dmo (see apo-) and 9Eiiyeiv, 'to flee', 
which is cogn. with L. fugere 'to flee'. See fu- 
gitive and cp. hypophyge. 

apophysis, n., process on a bone (anat.) — Medi- 
cal L., fr. Gk. a7r6(pu(ji?, 'prominence, process 
of a bone', fr. dbrc^ueiv, 'to produce', fr. an6 
(see apo-) and <pi>Eiv, 'to bring forth, produce, 
make to grow'. See physio- and cp. words there 
referred to. Cp. also zygapophysis. 
Derivatives : apophys-ate, apophyse-al, apophysi- 
al, adjs. 

apophysitis, n., inflammation of the apophysis 
(med.) — Medical L., formed fr. prec. word 
with suff. -itis. 

apoplectic, adj., 1) pertaining to, or causing, apo- 
plexy; 2) having apoplexy; 3) liable to apoplexy. 
— F. apoplectique, fr. L. apoplecticus, fr. Gk. 
d7to7rX-r)XTix<Si;, 'disabled by a stroke, crippled', 
fr. i7r67tX7]XTOS, verbal adj. of anonkt)csaevv, 'to 
cripple by a stroke'. See next word and -ic. 

apoplexy, n., sudden loss of consciousness caused 
by the breaking of a blood vessel in the brain 
(med.) — ME. apoplexie, fr. OF (= F.) apo- 
plexie, fr. L. apoplexia, fr. Gk. inonX-r]li6L, 
'apoplexy, paralysis', fr. aTroTiX-rjooetv, 'to crip- 
ple by a stroke', fr. dm6 (see apo-) and rcXTjaoEiv, 
'to strike', which is rel. to nkrpp), Dor. 7tXayd, 
'stroke' ; see plague and cp. words there referred 



to. The Latin translation of Greek anoTikr&a., 
'siderdtid', lit. 'disease caused by a constellation', 
shows that AramX?^* °rig. must have denoted 
the condition of being struck (<x7TO7rX7)>tTO<;) by 
the stars (cp. sideration). 

aposiopesis, n., a sudden breaking ofT in the 
middle of a sentence {rhet.) — L., fr. Gk. Atto- 
aicoKYjai?, 'becoming silent', fr. ano (see apo-) 
and CTicoTTY), 'silence', which is prob. rel. to Mes- 
sapian oinra', 'be silent!, and perh. cogn. with 
Goth, sweiban, 'to cease', OHG. gi-swiftdn, 
'to become quiet'. Cp. swifter, swivel. 

apostasy, n., desertion of one's faith, principles, 
e t c . — ME. apostasie, fr. L. apostasia, fr. Gk. 
aTOaTaata, a later form of dc7t6<jTaaic., 'revolt, 
defection', lit. 'a standing off', fr. Ajroor^vai, 
'to stand off, revolt', fr. Airo (see apo-) and 
oTTjvoci, 'to stand'. See state and -y (representing 
Gk. 45), and cp. stasis. The word apostasy was 
introduced into English by Wycliffe. 

apostate, n., a person guilty of apostasy; adj., 
guilty of apostasy. — ME., fr. OF apostate (F. 
apostat), fr. L. apostata, fr. Gk. AttocttAt/;?, 
'rebel, deserter', lit. 'a person standing off', fr. 
dt7to<jTTjvai, 'to stand off, revolt'. See prec. 

apostatic, apostatical, adj., apostate. — L. apo- 
staticus, fr Gk. ajrocrraTocos, 'pertaining to re- 
volt', fr. a7tooTa-a);. See prec. word and -ic, resp. 
also -al. 

Derivative: apostatical-ly, adv. 
apostatize, intr. v., to become an apostate. — 
ML. apostat izdre, fr. L. apostata. See apostate 
and -ize. 

aposteme, n., an abscess (med.) — MF., fr. OF. 
aposteme, fr. L. apostema, fr. Gk. aTrotJTY^a, 
'abscess", lit. 'a standing off', fr. d^oa-r^vai, 'to 
stand off'. See apostasy and cp. impostume. 
a posteriori, i) from effect to cause; 2) induc- 
tively; 3) from experience (philos.) — a poste- 
riori, 'from what comes after', fr. a, 'from' (see 
a-, 'from'), and posteriori, abl. of posterior, corn- 
par, of posterns, 'coming after'. See posterior, 
apostil, also apostille, n., note, esp. on the text 
of the Bible. — F. apostille. See postil. 
apostle, n. — OF. apostle, apostre (F. apotre), 
'apostle', fr. Eccles. L. apostolus, fr. Gk. AttA- 
aToXoc, 'one sent, a messenger, an envoy', fr. 
i-oaTsXXeiv, 'to send forth', fr. dmo (see apo-) 
and ctteXXeiv, 'to set in order, dispatch, send'. 
See stall and cp. stele, stole, 'garment', epistle. 
Derivative: apostle-ship, n. 
apostolate, n. — Eccles. L. apostoldtus, fr. aposto- 
lus, fr. Gk. aTToaToAoq. See prec. word and 
subst. surf. -ate. 
apostolic, apostolical, adj. — F. apostolique, fr. 
Eccles. L. apostolicus, fr. apostolus, fr. Gk. an6- 
otoaoq. See apostle, -ic, resp. also -al. 
Derivative : apostolic-al-ly, adv. 
apostrophe, n., a sign (') indicating the omission 
of a letter or letters. — F., fr. L. apostrophusjt. 
Gk. dbr6aTpo<po<;, 'apostrophe', lit. 'a turning 

away', fr. ouma-piyziv, 'to turn away', fr. Airo 
(see apo-) and orpe^eiv, 'to turn'. See strophe 
and cp. next word. Cp. also anastrophe, anti- 
strophe, catastrophe, epistrophe. 
apostrophe, n., a turning aside from the subject 
(rhet.) — L., fr. Gk. ATroaxpocpTj, 'a turning 
away', fr. AnoaTpEtpEiv. See prec. word. 
Derivatives: apostroph-ic, adj., apostroph-ize, 
tr. v. 

apothecary, n. — OF. apotecarie (F. apothicaire), 
fr. ML. apothecdrius, orig. 'storekeeper', fr. 
apotheca, 'storehouse', fr. Gk. Atto&tixt), lit. 'a 
place wherein to lay up a thing', fr. AromSivcet, 
'to put away',fr. omo (see apo-) and -n#£vai,'to 
put, place, set down'. See theme and -ary and 
cp. next word and apothem. Cp. also bodega, 
bottega, boutique. 

apothecium, n., the ascocarp of lichens (bot.) — 
ModL., fr. Gk. *dbro&T)x lov > dimin. of Atto1W)X7), 
'a storehouse'. See apothecary. 

apothegm, apophthegm, n., a pithy saying, a 
maxim. — Gk. A7T6<p*£Y|j.a, 'a terse saying, apo- 
thegm', lit. 'something uttered', fr. Aroxp&EyyEC- 
Soci, 'to speak one's opinion plainly', fr. <x7ro 
(see apo-) and 9»£yy£<J&oa, 'to speak' (whence 
pSiyfjux, 'voice, speech'), which stands in gra- 
dational relationship to cp^oyyog, 'a sound, a 
voice'. Cp. the second element in monophthong, 
diphthong, triphthong. 

apothem, n., perpendicular drawn from the center 
to any of the sides of a regular polygon (geom.) 
— Formed fr. apo- and Gk. #s[xa, 'that which 
is placed', from the stem of xiflivca, 'to place'. 
See theme. 

apotheosis, n., deification. — L., fr. Gk. A7to#sco- 

ot?, 'deification', fr. Atto^eouv, 'to make some- 
one a god, to deify', fr. dmo (see apo-) and ^soq, 
'god'. See theo- and -osis. 
Derivative: apotheos-ize, tr. v. 

apotropaion, n., an amulet, a charm, anything 
supposed to avert evil. — Gk. A-rraTpoTraiov, 
neut. of dTTOTpoTTaioc;, 'that which averts', fr. 
ocTwiTp^TCELv, 'to turn away, avert', fr. Atto (see 
apo-) and xpeTreiv, 'to turn'. See trope. 

apozem, n., a decoction (pharm.) — F. apozeme, 
fr. L. apozema, fr. Gk. A^Eaa, 'decoction', 
fr. Azc^eiv, 'to boil till the scum is thrown off', 
fr. ami (see apo-) and £eT\i, 'to boil'. See ec- 
zema and cp. words there referred to. 

appall, tr. v. — ME. appallen, apallen, 'to make 
pale, become pale', fr. OF. apallir, 'to grow 
pale', fr. a, 'to' (see a), and pallir,palir(F.pdlir), 
'to grow pale', fr. pale (F. pale). See pallor and 
cp. pale, pallid. 

Derivatives: apall-ing, adj., apall-ing-ly , adv. 
appalto, n., a monopoly. — It., 'contract', of 
uncertain origin. It stands perh. for 'appacto, 
fr. L. "appactum, fr. ad, 'to', and pactum, 'agree- 
ment, contract, pact'; see ad- and pact. Rum. 
apalt is an Italian loan word. See Meyer-Liibke, 
REW., No. 533. 
appanage, apanage, n., provision made by kings 



and princes for their younger children; per- 
quisite. — F. apanage, fr. OF. apaner, 'to nourish, 
support', fr. ML. appdndre, 'to provide with 
bread', fr. ad- and L. pdnis, 'bread'. Cp. OProv- 
enc. apanar, 'to nourish', and see pastor and 

Derivative: appanage, tr. v. 

apparatus, n., instruments serving a specific task. 
— L. apparatus, 'preparation,' fr. apparatus, pp. 
of appdrdre, 'to make ready', fr. ad- and pardre, 
'to make ready, prepare'. See pare and cp. 
parade, prepare. 

apparel, n. — ME. appareil, apareil, fr. OF. apa- 
reil, (F. appareil), 'preparation', fr. apareillier, 
(F. appareiller), fr. VL. *appariculdre, fr. L. ap- 
pardre, 'to prepare', lit. 'to make ready for', fr. 
ad- and pardre, 'to prepare'. Cp. It. apparecchi- 
are, OProvenc. aparelhar, Sp. aparejar, Port. 
aparelhar, 'to prepare', which all derive fr. VL. 
*appariculdre, and see pare. Cp. also prec. word. 

apparel, tr. v. — ME. aparailen, fr. OF. apareil- 
lier. See apparel, n. 

apparent, adj. — OF. aparant (F. apparant), fr. 
L. appdrentem, acc. of appdrens, pres. part, of 
appdrere, 'to appear'. See appear and -ent. 
Derivatives: apparent-ly, adv., appar-ent-ness,n. 

apparition, n. — F., fr. L. appdritidnem, acc. of 
appdritid, 'service, attendance' fr. appdrit-(um), 
pp. stem of appdrere, 'to appear'. See appear 
and -ition. 

apparitor, n., an officer in attendance of a Roman 
magistrate (Roman antiq.); an officer who exe- 
cutes orders. — L., 'an attendant, a public ser- 
vant', fr. appdrit-(um), pp. stem of appdrere. See 
prec. word and agential suff. -or. 

appeach, intr. V. to impeach, accuse (obsol.) — 
ME. apechen, formed, with change of suff., from 
OF empechier (F. empecher), 'to hinder, im- 
pede'. See impeach. 

appeal, tr. and intr. v. — ME. appeien, apelen, 
fr. OF. apeler (F. appeler), 'to address, entreat, 
call', fr. L. appelldre, 'to address, accost, appeal 
to, apply to, summon, call, name', fr. ad- and 
-pelldre (found only in compounds), fr. pellere, 
'to drive', whence also appellere, 'to drive to'. 
The sense development of appelldre, 'to ad- 
dress, accost', etc., fr. pellere, 'to drive', may 
be illustrated by the following phases : 'to drive, 
push on, incite, warn, admonish, summon, call, 
address'. See pulse, 'throb', and cp. repeal. Cp. 
also compel, dispel, expel, impel, propel, repel. 
Cp. also push. The change from the 3rd con- 
jugation (pellere, appellere) to the 1st (appel- 
ldre) is due to the iterative sense of appelldre. 
Cp. interpelldrc, 'to intsrrupt in speaking', which 
is formed fr. inter- and -pelldre, and also has an 
iterative meaning (see interpellate). For other 
Latin iterative verbs of the 1st conjugation form- 
ed from verbs of other conjugations cp. inter- 
poldre, 'to give a new form to, to polish, fur- 
bish ; to change, vary; to falsify; to insert, inter- 
polate', fr. inter- and polire, 'to smooth, polish, 

furbish' (see interpolate), and occupdre, 'to seize, 
take possession of, fr. capere, 'to catch, seize, 
take' (see occupy). 

Derivatives: appeal, n. (q.v.), appeal-able, adj., 
appeal-er, n., appeal-ing, adj., appeal-ing-ly, adv. 
appeal, n. — ME. appel, apel, fr. OF. apel (F. ap- 
pel), back formation fr. OF. apeler. See ap- 
peal, v. 

appear, intr. v. — ME. apperen, aperen, fr. OF. 
aparoir (F. apparoir), 'to appear', fr. L. appd- 
rere, fr. ad- and pdrere, 'to come forth, appear, 
be visible', which is prob. cogn. with Gk. kz-kol- 
petv (aorist inf.), 'to display, manifest'. Cp. 
peer, 'to appear'. Cp. also apparent, apparition, 
apparitor, transparent. 

appearance, n. — ME. aparaunce, fr. OF. apa- 
rence (F. apparence), fr. L. appdrentia, fr. ap- 
pdrens, gen. -entis, pres. part, of appdrere, 'to 
appear'. See prec. word and -ance. 

appease, tr. v. — ME. apaisen, apesen, appesen, 
fr. OF. apeser (F. apaiser), 'to pacify, appease', 
fr. OF. pais, a collateral form of paiz (F. paix), 
fr. L. pdeem, acc. of pax, 'peace'. See peace. 
Derivatives: appeas-able, adj., appeas-er, n., ap- 
peasement (q.v.), appeas-ing, adj., appeas-ing-ly, 
adv., appeas-ive, adj. 

appeasement, n. — F. apaisement, fr. apaiser. See 
appease and -ment. 

appellant, adj., appealing. — F., fr. L. appellan- 
tem, acc. of appelldns, pres. part, of appelldre, 
'to call'. See appeal, v., and -ant. 
Derivative: appellant, n. 

appellate, adj., pertaining to appeals. — L. appel- 
Idtus, pp. of appelldre, 'to address, call'. See 
appeal and adj. suff. -ate. 

appellation, n. — L. appelldtid, gen. -dnis, fr. ap- 
pelldtus, pp. of appelldre. See prec. word and 

Derivative: appellation-al, adj. 

appellative, adj. — L. appelldttvus, fr. appelldtus, 
pp. of appelldre. See appeal, v., and -ative. 

appellee, n., a person appealed against (law). — 
F. appele, pp. of appeler, 'to call, address'. See 
appeal, v., and -ee. 

append, tr. v., to attach; to join. — OF. apendre 
(F. appendre), fr. L. appendere, 'to hang some- 
thing on', fr. ad- and pendere, 'to cause to hang'. 
See pendant. 

Derivatives: appendage, n., appendag-ed, adj. 

appendant, adj. and n. — F., pres. part, of ap- 
pendre. See prec. word and -ant. 

appendectomy, n., removal of the appendix (sur- 
gery). — A hybrid coined fr. L. appendix and 
Gk. -exTouLia, 'a cutting out of, fr. extou,-/;, 'a 
cutting out'. See appendix and -ectomy. 

appendicitis, n., inflammation of the vermiform 
appendix. — A Medical L. hybrid coined fr. L. 
appendix (see next word) and -itis, a suff. of 
Greek origin. 

appendix, n. — L., 'something hung on, some- 
thing appended', fr. appendere. See append. 
Derivative: appendix, tr. v. 


apperceive, tr. v. — ME., fr. OF. aperceivre (F. 
apercevoir), fr. a, 'to' (see a), and perceivre, 'to 
perceive', fr. L.percipere. See perceive and cp. 
next word. Cp. also apercu. 

apperception, n. — F. aperception, coined by the 
German philosopher Baron Gottfried Wilhelm 
von Leibniz (1646-1716) as the noun corre- 
sponding to the verb apercevoir, on analogy of 
the noun perception (which corresponds to per- 
cevoir). See prec. word and -ion. 

appertain, intr. v. — ME. aperteinen, apertenen, 
fr. apertenen, fr. OF. apartenir (F. appartenir), 
fr. L. appertinere, 'to pertain to', fr. ad- and 
pertinere, 'to pertain'. See pertain and cp. ap- 

appetence, appetency, n., a strong desire. — F. 
appetence, 'longing, covetousness, appetence', 
fr. L. appetentia, 'longing after something', fr. 
appetens, gen. -entis, pres. part, of appetere, 'to 
seek or long after', fr. ad- and petere, 'to rush at, 
seek, request'. See petition and -ence. 

appetent, adj., eagerly desirous. — L. appetens, 
gen. -entis, pres. part, of appetere. See prec. word 
and -ent. Derivative: appetent-ly, adv. 

appetite, n. — ME., fr. OF. ape tit (F. appetit), 
fr. L. appetitus, 'appetite', lit. 'a longing after', 
fr. appetitus, pp. of appetere. See appetency. 
Derivative: appetit-ive, adj. 

appetize, tr. v. — Irregularly formed fr. L. appe- 
titus (see prec. word) and suff. -ize. 
Derivatives: appetiz-er, n., appetiz-ing, adj. ap- 
petiz-ing-ly, adv. 

Appian Way. — The road between Rome and 
Capua is so called because it was begun by the 
consul Appius Claudius Caecus (during his con- 
sulship in 302 B.C.E.). 
applaud, intr. and tr. v. — L. applaudere, 'to clap 
the hands in approbation; fr. ad- and plaudere, 
'to clap the hands in approbation, approve, 
applaud'. See plaudit and cp. next word. 
Derivatives: applaud-able, adj., applaud-abl-y, 
adv., applaud-er, n., applaud-ing-ly, adv. 
applause, n. — L. applausus, pp. of applaudere. 
See applaud, 
applausive, adj. — ML. applausivus, fr. L. ap- 
plausus. See prec. word and -ive. 
apple, n. — ME. appel, eppel fr. OE. seppel, spl, 
rel. to OS., OFris., LG., Du. appel, ON. eple, 
epli, Dan. xble, Swed. apple, Norw. eple, OHG. 
apful, afful, MHG., G. apfel, Crimean Goth. 
apel, and cogn. with Gaul, avallo (pi.), 'fruit', 
Olr. ubull, 'apple', aball, 'apple tree', W. afall, 
of s.m., afal, Co., Bret, aval, 'apple', Lith. 
dbalas, dbuolas, Lett, dbuolis, OPruss. woble, 
'apple', OSlav. abluko, jabluko, 'apple'. Cp. L. 
Abella (now Avella), name of a town in Cam- 
pania, lit. 'Apple town'. 
Derivative: apple, intr. v. 
apple pie bed, a bed in which the sheets are 
doubled so as to prevent the user from stretch- 
ing his legs. — Apple pie in the above term 
is folk etymology and stands for F. nappe pliie. 


'folded sheet', pronounced nap-pe pliee. See 

napery and ply, 'to bend', 
appliance, n. — Formed fr. apply with suff. -ance. 
applicable, adj. — Formed with suff. -able fr. L. 

applicdre. See apply. 

Derivatives: applicabil-ity, n., applicable-ness, 
n., applicabl-y, adv. 

applicancy, n., quality of being applicable. — 
Formed fr. next word with suff. -cy. 

applicant, n., one who applies for something. — 
L. applicdns, gen. -antis, pres. part, of applicdre. 
See apply and -ant. 

applicate, adj. 1) inclined; 2) applied. — L. ap- 
plicdtus, pp. of applicdre. See prec. word and adj. 
suff. -ate. 

application, n. — F. fr. L. applicdtidnem, acc. of 
applicdtid, 'an attaching oneself to', fr. appli- 
cdtus, pp. of applicdre. See apply and -ation and 
cp. prec. word. 

applicative, adj., practical. — Formed with suff. 
-ive fr. L. applicdtus, pp. of applicdre. See apply. 
Derivatives: applicative-ly, adv., applicative- 
ness, n. 

applicator, n., an applier. — Formed as if fr. L. 
•applicator, fr. applicdre. See apply and agential 
suff. -or. 

applicatory, adj., applying. — Formed with adj. 
suff. -ory. fr. L. applicdtus, pp. of applicdre. See 
prec. word. 

applique, adj., applied, attached; n., an applique 
work. — F., pp. of appliquer, 'to apply', fr. L. ap- 
plicdre. See apply. 

apply, tr. and intr. v. — OF. aplier (F. appliquer), 
fr. L. applicdre, 'to fasten or attach to, to place 
near to, to devote oneself to', fr. ad- and plicdre, 
'to fold, bend*. See ply, 'to bend', and cp. ap- 

Derivatives: appli-able, adj., appliable-ness, n., 
appli-abl-y, adv., appli-ance, n., appli-ant, adj. 

appoggiatura, n., a grace note (music). — It., lit. 
'a support', fr. appoggiare, 'to lean, rest, sup- 
port', fr. VL. *appodidre, 'to support', fr. ad- 
and L. podium, 'elevated place, balcony'. See 
podium and cp. appui. 

appoint, tr. v. — ME. appointen, fr. OF. apointier, 
apointer (¥. appointer), 'to arrange, settle, place' 
fr. VL. appunctdre, 'to bring to a point', fr. ad- 
and L. punctum, 'point'. See point. 
Derivatives: appoint-ee, n., appoint-er, n., ap- 
point-ive, adj., appointment (q.v.), appoint-or, n. 

appointment, n. — F. appointement, fr. appointer. 
See prec. word and -ment. 

apport, n., an object appearing at a seance with- 
out visible physical agency (spiritualism). — F., 
lit. 'anything brought', back formation fr. ap- 
porter, 'to bring', fr. L. apportdre, 'to bring, 
carry to', fr. ad- and portdre, 'to carry'. See 
port, to carry', and cp. rapport. 

apportion, tr. v., — OF. apportionner, fr. a, 'to' 
(see a), and portionner, 'to divide into portions', 
fr. portion, 'share, portion'. See portion, n. 
Derivatives: apportion-er, n., apportion-ment, n. 



appose, tr. v. — F. apposer, fr. a, 'to' (see a), and 

poser, 'to place'. See pose, 'to place', and cp. 

words there referred to. 
apposite, adj., appropriate. — L. appositus, pp. of 

appdnere, 'to put near', fr. ad- and pdnere, 'to 

put, place'. See position and cp. postiche. 

Derivatives: apposite-ly, adv., apposite-ness, n. 
apposition, n. — L. appositid, gen. -dnis, 'a placing 

before', fr. appositus, pp. of appdnere. See prec. 

word and -ion. 
appraisal, n. — Formed fr. appraise with subst. 

suff. -al. 

appraise, tr. v. — OF. apreisier, apreiser (F. ap- 
precier), fr. L. appretidre. See appreciate and cp. 
apprize, 'to appraise'. 

Derivatives: appraise-ment, n., apprais-er, n., 
apprais-ing, adj., apprais-ing-ly, adv., apprais- 
ive, adj. 

appreciable, adj. — F. appreciable, fr. apprecier, 
'to appreciate'. See next word and -able. 
Derivative: appreciabl-y, adv. 

appreciate, tr. v. — L. appretidtus, pp. of appre- 
tidre, 'to value, appraise', lit. 'to set a price to', 
fr. ad- and pretium, 'price'. See price and cp. 
prize. Cp. also appraise, depreciate. 
Derivatives: appreciat-ing-ly, adv., appreciation 
(q.v.), appreciat-ive, adj., appreciat-ive-ly, adv., 
appreciat-ive-ness, n., appreciat-or, n., appreciat- 
ory, adj., appreciat-ori-ly, adv. 

appreciation, n. — F. appreciation, fr. apprecier, 
'to appreciate', fr. L. appretidre See prec. word 
and -ion. 

apprehend, tr. v., 1) to arrest; 2) to understand; 
3) to fear. — Fr. F. apprehender or directly from 
L. apprehendere, 'to seize, take hold of, appre- 
hend', fr. ad- and prehendere, 'to seize'. See 
prehensile and cp. apprentice, apprise. 
Derivatives: apprehend-er, n., apprehend-ing- 
ly, adv. 

apprehensible, adj. — L. apprehensibilis, 'that can 
be seized', fr. apprehensus, pp. of apprehen- 
dere. See apprehend and -ible. 
Derivatives : apprehensibil-ity, n., apprehensibl-y , 

apprehension, n. — F. apprehension fr. L. appre- 
hensidnem, acc. of apprehensid, fr. apprehensus, 
pp. of apprehendere. See prec. word and -ion. 

apprehensive, adj. — ML. apprehensivus, whence 
also F. apprehensif (fern, apprehensive), fr. L. 
apprehensus, pp. of apprehendere. See apprehend 
and -ive. 

Derivatives : apprehensive-ly, adv., apprehensive- 
ness, n. 

apprentice, n. — ME. aprentis, fr. OF. aprentiz 
(F. apprenti), fr. aprendre CF. apprendre). 'to 
learn, teach', fr. L. apprehendere, 'to seize, take 
hold of, grasp, apprehend', whence also It. ap- 
prendere, OProvenc. aprendre, Catal. apendrer, 
Sp., Port, aprender, 'to learn'. See apprehend. 
Derivative: apprentice, tr. v. 

•Ppreteur, n., dresser. — F. appreteur, lit. 'pre- 
parer', fr. appriter, 'to prepare, get ready*, fr. 

VL. *apprestdre, fr. ad- 'to', and *prestus, fr. L. 

praestd, 'at hand, ready'. VL. *prestdre'accoTd- 

ingly lit. meant 'to place into somebody's hand'. 

See presto and cp. the second element in culprit, 
apprise, also apprize, tr. v., to notify. — F. ap- 

pris, fem. apprise, pp. of apprendre, 'to learn'. 

See apprehend, 
apprize, also apprise, tr. v., to appraise. — OF. 

aprisier, fr. L. appretidre. See appreciate and cp. 


approach, intr. and tr. v. — ME. approchen, fr. 
OF. aprochier (F. approcher), fr. Late L. ap- 
propidre, 'to come near to', fr. ad- and propidre, 
'to come near', fr. L. prope, 'near', which stands 
for *pro-q w e- (whence also the superl. proximus, 
for *pro-csimos, 'nearest'). See propinquity and 
cp. proximal. Cp. also prochein, rapprochement, 

Derivatives: approach, n., approach-abil-ity, n., 
approach-able, adj., approach-able-ness, n., ap- 
proach-er, n., approach-ing, adj. 
approbate, tr. v., to approve. — L. approbdtus, 
pp. of approbdre, 'to approve'. See approve and 
verbal suff. -ate. 

approbation, n., approval. — F., fr. L. approbdtus, 
pp. of approbdre. See prec. word and -ion. 

approbative, adj., approving. — F. approbatif 
(fem. approbative), fr. L. approbdtivus, fr. appro- 
bdtus, pp. of approbdre. See approbate and -ive. 
Derivative: approbative-ness, n. 

approbator, n., one who approves. — L., 'an ap- 
prover', fr. approbdtus, pp. of approbdre, 'to ap- 
prove'. See approbate and agential suff. -or. 

approbatory, adj., approving. — Formed with 
adj. suff. -ory fr. L. approbdtus, pp. of appro- 
bare. See approbate. 

appropriate, adj. — L. appropriate, pp. of appro- 
pridre, 'to make one's own', fr. ad- and propri- 
dre, 'to appropriate', fr. proprius, 'one's own . 
See proper and adj. suff. -ate and cp. words 
there referred to. 

Derivatives: appropriate-ly , adv., appropriate- 
ness, n. 

appropriate, tr. v. — L. appropridtus, pp. of ap- 
propridre. See appropriate, adj. 
Derivatives: appropriation (q.v.), appropriat- 
ive, adj. appropriat-ive-ness , n., appropriat-or, n. 

appropriation^. — L. appropriatid, gen. -dnis, 'a 
making one's own', fr. appropridtus, pp. of ap- 
propridre. See appropriate, adj. and v., and -ion. 

approval, n. — Formed fr. approve with subst. 
suff. -al. 

approve, tr. and intr. v. — ME. aproven, fr. OF. 
aprover (F. approuver), fr. L. approbdre, 'to as- 
sent to as good, regard as good', fr. ad- and 
probdre, 'to try the goodness of, fr. probus, 
'good'. See probate adj. and cp. words there 
referred to. 

Derivatives: approv-ed-ly , adv., approv-er, n., 
approv-ing-ly, adv. 
approximate, adj. — L. approximdtus, pp. of ap- 
proximdre, 'to come near, approach', fr. ad- and 



proximus, 'nearest' (see proximal and adj. suff. 

-ate); introduced into English by Sir Thomas 

Browne (1605-82). 

Derivative: approximate-ly, adv. 
approximate, tr. and intr. v. - VL. approximate, 

pp. of approximdre. See approximate, adj. 

Derivatives: approximat-ion, n., approximat-ive, 

adj., approximat-ive-ly, adv., approximat-ive- 

ness, n., approximat-or, n. 
appui, n., support. - F., back formation ft.ap- 

puyer fr. OF. apuier, 'to support', fr. VL. ap- 

podiare (whence also It. appoggiare, Proven?. 
apoiar, Catal. apuiar, Sp. apoyar, Port, apoiar) 
'to support', fr. ad- and L. podium, 'an elevated 
place, balcony'. See podium and cp. appoggia- 

tura. . „ 

appulse, n., approach, impact. - L. appulsus, fr. 
appulsus, pp. of appellere, 'to drive to', fr. ad- 
and pellere, 'to push, strike, drive'. See pulse, 

appurtenance, n., that which appertains; appen- 
dage- accessory. — ME. apurtena(u)nce, fr. At. 
apurtenance, fr. OF. apartenance (F. appurte- 
nance), fr. apartenant (F. appurtenant), pres. 
part, of apartenir (F. appartenir). See appertain 
and -ance. 

appurtenant, adj., appertaining. — Mb., tr. At. 
apurtenant, fr. OF. apartenant, pres. part, of 
apartenir. See prec. word and -ant. 

apricate, intr. v., to bask in the sun; tr. v., to 
expose to the sun. — L. apricatus, pp. of apri- 
cari 'to bask in the sun', fr. apricus, 'exposed 
to the sun', contraction of *apericus, fr. aperire, 
'to open', hence prop, meaning 'lying open, un- 
covered'. See aperient and verbal suff. -ate. 
Derivative: aprication, n. 

apricot, n. — F. abricot, fr. Port, albricoque fr. 
Arab, al-barqdq fr. al-, 'the', and upoux6xiov, 
Grecized form of L.praecoquum, 'apricot', neut. 
of praecoquus = praecox, 'early ripe', for 
which see precocious. See also cook. For the 
interchangeability of -c (= -k) and -t cp. havoc 
(fr. OF. havoi), bat (fr. orig. bakke), and the 
words milt and m/Hc, 'milt of fishes'. 
April n — L. (mensis) Aprilis, lit. 'the month of 
Aphrodite', fr. Gk. 'A<pp<i, a short form of 
' A-ppoSfrr). See Aphrodite. Cp. L. mensis Maws, 
'the month of May', prop, 'the month of Jupiter 

Maius' (see May). 

Derivative: April-ine, adj. 
a priori, 1) from cause to effect; 2) deductively; 

3) not derived from experience (philos.) — L. 

a priori, 'from what comes first', fr. a, 'from' 

(see a-, 'from'), and priori, abl. of prior, 'first'. 

See prior, priiis. .... r 

apron, n. — ME. napron (through misdivision of 

a napron into an apron), fr. OF. naperon, dirmn. 

of nape, nappe (F. nappe), dissimilated fr. mappa, 

'tablecloth, napkin'. See map and cp. nappe, 

napkin, naperon. For similar misdivisions cp. 

adder and words there referred to. 

rwrivatives: apron, tr. v., apron-ed, adj. 

apropos, adv., opportunely. — F. a propos, ^ to 
the purpose' (= U ad propositum), fr. a, to 
(see a), and propos (fr. L. propositum), 'purpose . 
See purpose and cp. malapropos, malapropism. 
Apsaras, n., one of the nymphs of India's heaven 
(Hindu mythol.) — OI. Apsardh, lit. 'moving in 
the waters', compounded of ap-, fr. apah (pi.), 
'water', and sdrati, 'flows, runs fast'. The first 
element derives fr. I.-E. base ap-, 'water, river'; 
see amiuc. The second element is cogn. with 
Gk. 6p6? (for *<Jop6<;), 'whey', 6 Pi xav, 'to urge, 
stimulate', L. serum, 'whey, watery fluid'; see 

serum. , 
apse, n., 1) a semicircular extension at the end ol 
a church; 2) apsis. — L. apsis. See apsis, 
apsidal, adj. — Formed with adj. suff. -al fr. L. 
apsis, gen. apsidis. See apsis, 
apsis, n., apogee or perigee of the moon; aphe- 
lion or perihelion of a planet (astron) — L., 
'arch, vault', fr. Gk. &<]>k, Ion. tyU, 'a fastening, 
felloe of a wheel' (whence otiva^i?, 'contact, 
point or line of junction'), from the stem of 
torreiv, 'to fasten, to kindle', usually in the 
middle voice fijrreoftai, 'tp grasp, touch, 
whence also <x<j>Ti> 'a touching, handling', owpotM, 
'to touch, handle, feel', 'knot, noose' ; of 
uncertain etymology. Cp. -aphia, aphtha, hap- 
teron, haptic, hapto- and the second element m 
Anaphe, chirapsia, paraphia, periapt, Pselaphi- 
dae, synapnea, synapse. 

apt, adj., fit. — L. aptus, 'fitted, suited', prop. pp. 
of obsol. apere, 'to fasten', rel. to apisci, to 
reach after, attain', and cogn. with OI. apnoti, 
'he reaches, attains', Hitt. epmi, 'I seize'. Cp. 
adapt, adept, apex, aptitude, attitude, inept, 
lariat, reata. 

Derivatives: apt-ly, adv., apt-ness, n. 
Aptenodytes, n., a genus of pinguins (ornithol.) — 
ModL., lit. 'wingless diver', fr. Gk. ktrrry, 
'wingless', and Wmjc, 'diver'. The first element 
is formed fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) and a collat- 
eral form of 7TT7)v6<;, 'flying, winged', fr. *pta-, 
zero degree of I.-E. base *pet-, 'to fly'; see 
ptero-.The second element derives fr. Gk. Sueiv, 
'to dive' ; see adytum and cp. words there referred 

apterous, adj., without wings (zool.) — Gk. &n- 
■repo?, 'wingless', fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and 
,n:ep6v, 'wing'. See ptero-, and cp. next word. 
For E. -ous, as equivalent to Gk. -o?, see -ous. 
apteryx, n., the kiwi. - Lit. 'without wings', fr. 
priv. pref. a- and uxepui 'wing', which is rel. 
to TTxcpov, 'wing'. See ptero- and cp. prec. word, 
aptitude, n., fitness. - F., fr. Late L. aptitudd, 
'fitness', fr. L. aptus. See apt and -rude and cp. 
attitude, which is a doublet of aptitude. 
aptote, n., an indeclinable noun. — L. aptotum, 
fr Gk. Stttutov, neut. of 'having no 

eases, indeclinable', fr. *- (see priv. pref. a-) and 
Krorrfe 'fallen', verbal adj. of icferuw, to 
fall', which stands for •irf-Trreiv, fr. *pt-, zero 
degree of I.-E. base *pet-, 'to fly, to fall . See 


feather and cp. symptom and words there re- 
ferred to. 

Derivative: aptot-ic, adj. 

apyretic, adj., without fever (med.) — Formed 
with suff. -ic fr. Gk. ATroperos, 'without fever', 
fr. A- (see priv. pref. a-) and mpcroq, 'fever, 
feverish heat', fr. m>p, 'fire'. See pyretic and cp. 

apyrexia, apyrexy, n., absence of fever (med.) — 
Medical L. apyrexia, fr. Gk. Ajtupe!;l5, fr. A- 
(see priv. pref. a-) and izupiaoziv, 'to be fever- 
ish', fr. rojpETO!;, 'fever'. See prec. word and -ia. 

aqua, n., water. — L. See aquatic. 

aquacade, n., an aquatic entertainment. — A 
modern word formed fr. L. aqua, 'water' (see 
aquatic), on analogy of cavalcade (q.v.) See 
also -cade. 

aqua fortis, nitric acid. — L., 'strong water'. See 
aquatic and fort. 

aquamarine, n., a transparent bluish-green variety 
of beryl (mineral.)— h. aqua marina, 'sea water', 
fr. aqua, 'water', and marina, fem. of marinus, 
'of the sea'. See aqua and marine. 

aqua rcgia, mixture of concentrated nitric and 
hydrochloric acid (chem.) — L., lit. 'royal 
water' ; so called from its power to dissolve gold, 
'the king of metals'. See aquatic and regal. 

aquarelle, n., a water color painting. — F., fr. It. 
acquerella, 'water color', dimin. of acqua, 'wa- 
ter', fr. L. aqua. See aquatic. 
Derivative: the hybrid aquarell-ist, n. 

aquarian, adj., pertaining to an aquarium. — 
Formed with suff. -an fr. aquarium. 

aquarium, n. — L. aquarium, neut. of the adjective 
aqudrius, 'pertaining to water', used as a noun. 
See aquatic. 

Aquarius, n., a constellation and the eleventh 
sign of the zodiac (astron.) — L., 'water carrier', 
prop, the adj. aqudrius, 'pertaining to water'. 
See aquatic and cp. prec. word. L. Aquarius as 
the name of one of the signs of the zodiac is a 
loan translation of 'TSpo/oot;, 'the water- 
pourer' , the old Greek name of this constellation. 

aquatic, adj. — F. aquatique, fr. L. aqudticus, 
'found in the water, watery', fr. aqua, 'water', 
which is cogn. with Goth, aha, 'river, waters, 
OHG. aha, OFris. a, e, ON. 0, OE. ea, 'water', 
OHG. auwia, ouwa, MHG. ouwe, G. Au, 'mead- 
ow watered by a brook', ON. AEgir, name of 
the god of the sea, ON. ey, OE. leg, 'island', 
Hitt. akw-anzi, 'they drink'; cp. the Russian 
river name Oka, and the second element in 
Sca(ri)din-avia. See island and cp. eagre, 'tidal 
wave', ewer, eyot. Cp. also aquacade, aquatint, 
aqueduct, aqueous, aquiline, Aquilo, gouache, 
Scandinavia. For the ending see suff. -atic. 
Derivatives: aquatic-al, adj., aquatic-al-ly, adv. 

aquatint, n., a kind of engraving with aqua fortis. 

It. acquatinta, fr. L. aqua tincta, 'dyed water', 

fr. aqua, 'water', and tincta, fem. pp. of tingere, 
'to dye*. See aquatic and tinge. 

aqua tofana, a poisonous liquid, probably of ar- 

senic. — L., 'water of Tofana' , name of a Sicilian 
woman, who lived in the 17th cent, and invented 
this poison, using it for criminal purposes. 

aqua vitae, 1) alcohol; 2) brandy. — L., 'water of 
life'. See aquatic and vital. For sense develop- 
ment cp. F. eau-de-vie, 'spirits, brandy', lit. 
'water of life', and E. usquebaugh and whisky. 

aqueduct, n. — L. aquae ductus, 'a conduit', lit. 
'a conveyance of water', fr. aquae, gen. of aqua, 
'water', and ductus, 'a leading', fr. ductus, pp. 
of ducere, 'to lead'. See aquatic and duke and 
cp. the second element in viaduct, ventiduct. 

aqueous, adj., watery; like water. — Formed fr. 
L. aqua, 'water', on analogy of F. aqueux, the 
English suff. -eous having been substituted for 
its usual French equivalent -eux. F. aqueux, 
however, goes back directly to L. aqudsus, 
'abounding in water', whence also E. aquose. 
See aquatic. 

Derivatives: aqueous-ly, adv., aqueous-ness, n. 

Aquila, n., the genus of eagles (zool.) — L. aquila, 
'eagle'. See aquiline. 

Aquilegia, n., a genus of plants, the columbine 
Q, ot ^ — ModL., called also aquileia, fr. L. aqui- 
la, 'eagle'. See next word. 

aquiline, adj., 1) like an eagle; 2) like an eagle's. 
— L. aquilinus, 'of, or pertaining to, the eagle', 
fr. aquila, 'eagle', prob. lit. 'the dark-colored 
(bird)', fem. of aquilus, 'dark-colored', prop, 
'water-colored', fr. aqua, 'water'. See aquatic 
and adj. suff. -ine (representing L. -Inus) and cp. 
eagle. For the form of the word cp. L. nubilus, 
'cloudy', fr. nubes, 'cloud'. 

Aquilo, n., the north wind (Roman antiq.) — L. 
aquilo, 'north wind', lit. 'the dark one', fr. 
aquilus, 'dark-colored' [cp. aquila, 'eagle', 
prop, 'the dark-colored (bird)']; sec prec. word. 
For sense development cp. Gk. xoaxioc?, 'north 
east wind', lit. 'the dark one', cogn. with L. 
caecus, 'blind' (see Caecias). 

aquose, adj., aqueous. — L. aqudsus, 'abounding 
in water', fr. aqua, 'water'. See aquatic and cp. 

ar-, assimilated form of ad- before r . 

-ar, subst. suff. denoting an agent, as in vicar. — 
Fr. L. -drius (either directly or through the me- 
dium of OF. -ier, -er, of F. -ier). Cp. -ary (re- 
presenting L. -drius). 

-ar, adj. suff. meaning 'pertaining to, of the na- 
ture of, as in insular. — Fr. L. -dris (either 
directly or through the medium of OF. -ier, -er, 
or F. -air, -ier). L. -dris is a secondary form of 
-dlis (see adj. suff. -al) and is used when the syl- 
lable preceding the suff. has an /. So e.g. L. 
*dl-dlis, *consuI-dlis, *insul-dlis, *lun-dlis, *re- 
gul-dlis, *simil-alis, *sol-a!is, *ste!l-dlis became 
dl-dris (see alar), resp. consul-dris (see consular), 
insul-dris (see insular), lun-dris (see lunar), regul- 
dris (see regular), simil-dris (see simil-ar), Sol- 
aris (see solar), stell-dris (see stellar). The change 
of suff. -dlis to -dris is due to dissimilation. Cp. 
-ary (representing L. -drius). 



-ar, a rare variant of the agential suffixes -er, -or. 
Cp. beggar, liar. 

ara, n., altar. — L., prob. denoting orig. 'a 
parched place', fr. I.-E. base *&-, 'to burn, 
parch', whence also L. arere, 'to be dry', dridus, 
'dry, withered, parched', ardere, 'to burn'. See 
ash, 'powdery substance', and cp. ardent, arid. 

Arab, n. — F. Arabe, fr. L. Arabem, acc. of Arabs, 
fr. Gk. "Apa^, gen. "Apapo?, fr. Arab. 'Arab, 
which lit. means 'inhabitant of the desert', and 
is rel. to Heb. 'drdbhd h , 'desert', and to Ethiop. 
'dbra, 'was dry, was waste'. For sense develop- 
ment cp. Arab, badawt, 'Bedouin', lit. 'desert 
dweller', fr. badw, 'camp, desert' (see Bedouin). 
Cp. Mozarab. 

Derivatives: Arabesque (q.v.), Arab-ian, adj. and 
n., Arabic (q.v.), Arab-ic-ism, n., Arab-ic-ize, 
tr. v., Arabis (q.v.), Arab-ist, n. 

Arabe!, Arabella, fem. PN. — This name of Scot- 
tish origin prob. arose from the blend of the 
name Annabel(la) with the ethnic name Arab. 

arabesque, n. — F., It. arabesco, fr. Arabo, 
'Arab'. See Arab and -esque. 
Derivatives: arabesque, adj. and tr. v., arabes- 
que-ly, adv. 

Arabic, adj. — OF., fr. L. Arabicus, 'Arabic', fr. 
Arabs. See Arab and -ic. 

Derivative: Arabic, n. 

Arabis, n., a genus of clustering plants containing 
the rock cresses. — ML. Arabis, 'Arabian', fr. 
L. Arabs. See Arab. 

arable, adj., suitable for plowing. — F., fr. L. 
ardbilis, fr. ardre, 'to plow' (whence ardtrum, 
'plow'), fr. I.-E. base *ard-, 'to plow', whence 
also Gk. dcpoOv, OSlav. orjq, orati, Lith. ariu, 
drti, 'to plow', Lett, afu, 'I plow', Goth, arjan, 
OS., OE. erian, W. arddu, 'to plow', Mir. airim, 
'I plow', Gk. icpo-rpov, Cret. Sparpov, Arm. 
araur, Mir. arathar, OSlav. ralo, Lith. drklas, 
ON. arpr, Toch. AB are, 'plow', Gk. fipoupot, 
'arable land'. See ear, 'to plow', and -able and 
cp. Arval. 

Araceae, n. pi., the arum family (bot.) — Formed 
fr. Arum with suff. -aceae. 

araceous, adj. — See prec. word and -aceous. 

arachnid, n., any member of the Arachnida. — 
See next word. 

Arachnida, n. pi., a class of arthropods, the spider 
(entomol.) — ModL., fr. Gk. lipaxvT], 'spider; 
spider's web', which prob. stands for *ar i -k-snd, 
and is cogn. with L. ardnea, 'spider; spider's 
web'. Cp. araneid. The word Arachnida was 
first used by the French biologist Jean-Baptiste- 
Pierre-Antoine de Monet de Lamarck (1744- 
1829) in 1815. 

arachnitis, n., inflammation of the arachnoid 
membrane (med.) — Medical L., formed with 
suff. -itisfr. Gk. dpaxvr), 'cobweb'. See Arachnida. 

arachnoid,adj . , cobweblike : arachnoid membrame, 
the thin membrane that covers the brain and 
the spinal cord (anal.) — Gk. ApaxvoeiiWjs, 
'cobweblike', compounded of AoAxvrj, 'cobweb*, 

and -otiSriz, 'like', fr. eTSo?, 'form, shape'; first 
used by the Greek surgeon and anatomist Hero- 
philus. See Arachnida and -oid. 

aragonite, n., a variety of calcium carbonate (min- 
eral.) — Named after Aragon in Spain. For 
the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

arakawaite, n., a hydrous copper zinc phosphate 
(mineral) — Named after the Arakawa mine 
in Japan. For the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

Aralia, n., a genus of shrubs and trees (bot.) — 
ModL., of uncertain origin. 

Aramean, Aramaean, adj. and n. — Formed with 
suff. -an fr. L. Aramaeus, fr. Gk. 'ApajxaTo?, fr. 
Heb. Ardm, 'Syria, Mesopotamia', which is 
prob. related to Heb. and Aram, rum, 'to be 
high', and orig. meant 'Highland'. 

Aranea, n., a genus of spiders, the garden spider 
(entomol.) — L. ardnea, 'spider', cogn. with Gk. 
apa/vf), 'spider'. See Arachnida. 

araneid, ri., a member- of the order Araneida. — 
See next word. 

Araneida, n. pi., an order of spiders of the class 
Arachnida (entomol.) — A ModL. hybrid coined 
fr. L. ardnea, 'spider' (see Aranea), and -ida, 
a suff. of Greek origin. The correct form is 
Arachnida, in which both the primary word and 
the suff. are of Greek origin. 

araneology, n., the study of spiders. — A hybrid 
coined fr. L. ardnea, 'spider' (see prec. word), 
and Gk. -Xoyia, fr. -\6yoc,, 'one who speaks 
(in a certain manner); one who deals (with a 
certain topic)'. See Aranea and -logy. The cor- 
rect form would be arachnology, in which both 
elements are of Greek origin. 

Araucaria, n., a genus of trees of the pine family 
(bot.) — ModL., named after the province 
Arauco in Chile, whence also Araucania, name 
of a district in central Chile. 

arbalest, n., a crossbow. — ME. arblaste, fr. OF. 
arbaleste (F. arbaldte), fr. VL. arbalista, fr. Late 
L. arcuballista, 'catapult', which is compounded 
of L. arcus, 'bow', and ballista, 'a machine for 
projectiles, ballista'. MDu. armborst and MHG. 
(= G.) armbrust are OF. loan words, but have 
been influenced in form by folk etymology. See 
arc and ballistic. 

arbalester, n., a crossbowman. — ME. arblastere, 
fr. OF. arbalestier (F. arbaletrier), fr. arbaleste. 
See prec. word and agential suff. -er (represent- 
ing OF. -ier). 

arbiter, n., judge in. a dispute. — L., 'spectator, 
hearer, witness, judge', rel. to Umbr. afputrati, 
'by arbitration'; prob. formed fr. ad, 'to' (see 
ad-), and baetere, betere, bttere, 'to go', and lit. 
meaning 'one who goes to something'. For the 
change of ad to ar in arbiter cp. Marsian L. 
apor = L. apud, 'at, near, by'. 

arbitrable, adj. — Formed with suff. -able fr. L. 
arbitrdri. See arbitrate. 

arbitrage, n., arbitration. — F., fr. arbitrer, 'to 
arbitrate, judge', fr. L. arbitrdri. See arbitrate 
and -age. 


arbitrament, n. — F. arbitrement, fr. arbitrer. See 
prec. word and -ment. 

arbitrary, adj. — L. arbitrdrius, 'of arbitration, de- 
pending on the will, arbitrary', fr. arbiter. See 
arbiter and adj. suff. -ary. 
Derivatives: arbitrari-ly, adv., arbitrari-ness, n. 

arbitrate, intr. v. — L. arbitratus, pp. of arbi- 
trdri, 'to make a decision, be of opinion', fr. ar- 
biter. See arbiter and verbal suff. -ate. 
Derivatives: arbitration (q.v.), arbitrat-ive, adj., 
arbitrator (q.v.) 

arbitration, n. — OF. arbitracion, arbitration (F. 
arbitration), fr. L. arbitrdtidnem, acc. of ar- 
bitrdtid, 'judgement, will', fr. arbitratus, n., of 
s.m., fr. arbitratus, pp. of arbitrdri. See prec. 
word and -ion. 

Derivative: arbitration-al, adj. 

arbitrator, n. — L., 'a spectator, hearer, witness, 
judge', fr. arbitratus, pp. of arbitrdri. See ar- 
bitrate and agential suff. -or. 

arbor, arbour, n., a shady retreat. — Fr. earlier 
arber, fr. ME. herbier, 'a garden of herbs', fr. 
OF. (= F.) herbier, fr. L. herbarium, of s.m., 
fr. herba, 'herb'. See herb and cp. herbarium. 
For the change of e (in ME. herbier) to a (in 
arber) cp. carve, harbor. The change of arber 
to arbor, arbour is due to a confusion with L. 
arbor, 'tree'. 

arbor, n., tree. — L., of uncertain origin. Cp. ar- 
borescent, arboretum, arbuscle, arbuscule, ar- 

arboraceous, adj., treelike; wooded. — Formed 
with suff. -aceous fr. L. arbor, 'tree'. See prec. 

arboreal, adj., 1) of a tree or trees; 2) living in 
trees. — Forrned with adj. suff. -al fr. L. ar- 
boreus, 'pertaining to a tree or trees', fr. arbor. 
See arbor, 'tree'. 

arborean, adj., arboreal. — Formed fr. arbor, 
'tree', with suff. -ean. 

arboreous, adj., 1) abounding in trees; 2) living 
in trees. — L. arboreus, 'pertaining to a tree or 
trees', fr. arbor. See arbor, 'tree'. For E.-ous, 
as equivalent to L. -us, see -ous. 

arborescence, n. — Formed fr. next word with 
suff. -ce. 

arborescent, adj., 1) treelike; 2) branching. — L. 
arborescens, gen. -entis, pres. part, of arbores- 
cere, 'to grow into a tree', formed fr. arbor, 
'tree', with the inchoative suffix -escere. See 
arbor, 'tree', and -escent. 

arboretum, n., a garden of trees. — L. arboretum, 
'a place grown with trees', fr. arbor, 'tree'. See 
arbor, 'tree'. 

arboriculture, n., cultivation of trees. — Com- 
pounded of L. arbor, 'tree', and cultura, cul- 
tivation'. See arbor, 'tree', and culture. 
Derivatives : arboricultur-al, adj . , arboricultur-ist. 

arborize, tr. v., to give a treelike appearance; 
. intr. v., to assume a treelike appearance. — 
Formed fr. arbor, 'tree', with suff. -ize. 
Derivative: arboriz-ation, n. 

arbor vitae, n., an evergreen tree of the genus 
Thuja. — L., 'tree of life'; a name given by the 
French physician and botanist Charles de Le- 
cluse, latinized into Carolus Clusius (1525- 
1609), to trees of the genus Thuja. See arboreal 
and vital. 

arbuscle, n., a dwarf tree. — Late L. arbuscula, 
dimin. of L. arbor, 'tree'. See arbor, 'tree', and 

arbuscule, n., a tuft of hairs (zool.) — See prec. 

word and -cule. 
arbustum, n., a copse; an orchard. — L., 'a place 

where trees are planted ; an orchard', prop. neut. 

of arbustus, 'planted with trees', used as a noun, 

which stands for *arbos-to-s, fr. arbds, arbor, 

'tree'. See arbor, 'tree'. 
Arbutus, n., 1) a genus of evergreen trees of the 

heath family; 2) (not cap.) a tree of this genus. 

— L., 'the strawberry tree', of obscure origin, 
arc, n. — OF. (= F.) arc, fr. L.arcus, 'bow, arch', 

which is cogn. with Goth, arbazna, 'arrow', OE. 

earh, ON. or, of s.m.; but Russ. rakita, Czech 

rokyta, 'willow', and Gk. apxuq, 'net', are not 

cognate. Cp. arcade, arch, arrow, and the first 

element in arbalest, arciform, arcuate, arculite, 


area, n., a chest. — L., fr. arcere, 'to enclose'. 

See arcanum and cp. Arcella. 
arcade, n. — F., fr. It. areata, a derivative oiarco, 

'arc', fr. L. arcus, of s.m. See arc and -ade. 

Derivative: arcad-ed, adj. 

Arcadia, n., a district in ancient Greece, pro- 
verbial for the rural life of its inhabitants. — 
L., fr. Gk. 'ApxaSia, fr. 'Apxa?, gen. 'ApxaSo? 
= Areas, the founder of Arcadia. 

Arcadian, adj., and n. — Formed with suff. -an 
fr. L. Arcadia. See prec. word. 

arcanum, n., secret, mystery. — L. arcanum, prop, 
subst. use of the neut. of arcdnus, 'shut up, 
secret', orig. 'enclosed in a chest', fr. area, 'chest, 
coffin', which is rel. to arcere, 'to enclose, keep 
away, ward off', and cogn. with Gk. dpxEiv, 'to 
keep off', apxos, 'defense', apxtoc, 'safe, sure'. 
Arm. argel, 'obstacle', argelum, 'I lock in', and 
possibly also with Lith. raktas, 'key', rakinti, 'to 
shut lock'. These words stand in gradational 
relationship to Orcus, name of the god of the 
infernal regions in Roman mythology. Cp. area, 
Arcella, ark, coerce, exercise, Orcus. Cp. also 
askari, lascar, autarchy, 'self sufficiency'. 

Arcella, n., a genus of protozoans (zool.) — 
ModL., dimin. of area, 'chest, box' (see area); 
so called from the boxlike shape of the shell. 

Arceuthobium, n., a genus of parasitic plants 
(bot.) — ModL., compounded of Gk. £pxEu$oc, 
'the juniper', and [sioc;, 'life', so called from 
its parasitism on conifers. Gk. apxcuS-ot: is prob. 
rel. to apxu;, 'net'. For the etymol. of pto? see 

arch, n., a curved structure. — OF. (= F.) arche, 
fr. VL. 'area, fr. L. arcus, 'bow'. See arc. 
Derivative: arch, tr. v. 



arch, adj., chief, principal. — See pref. arch-. 
Derivatives: arch-ly, adv., arch-ness, n. 

arch-, pref. meaning 'chief, principal', as in arch- 
duke, archbishop. — ME. arche-, fr. OE. arce-, 
-erce, fr. L. archi-, arch-, fr. Gk. dpyi-, dpx~, 
which is rel. to dpxos, 'leader, chief, ruler', from 
the stem of apysiv, 'to begin, rule' (whence al- 
so ipyji, 'beginning, first cause, origin, first 
principle, office'), and in gradational relation- 
ship to fip/ajic.!;, 'leader, chief. Cp. arch, 'chief, 
-arch. Cp. also archaeo-, archaic, archaism, 
arche, architect, archon, -archy. 

-arch, suff. meaning 'a ruler', as in ethnarch, oli- 
garch. — See pref. arch-. 

Archaean, also Archean, pertaining to the oldest 
geological period. — Formed with suff. -an fr. 
Gk. apxxios, 'ancient', fr. apx^i, 'beginning'. See 
arch- and cp. archaic. 

archaeo-, before a vowel archae-; also archeo-, 
resp. arche-, combining form meaning 'ancient, 
primeval, primitive. — Gk. apxocto-, apxai-, fr. 
apxatoq, 'ancient', lit. 'from the beginning', fr. 
dpX^i 'beginning'. Sec arch-. 

archaeological, archeological, adj. — Formed 
with adj. suff. -al fr. Gk. dpxatoXoyt.x6?, 'per- 
taining to archaeology', fr. dpxouoXoyta. See 
next word. 

Derivative : archaeological-ly, archeological-ly, 

archaeology, also archeology, n. — Gk. apx«io- 
Xoyta, 'the study of ancient things', compound- 
ed of dpyoao- (see archaeo-) and Gk. -Xoyla, fr. 
-Xoyoc,, 'one who speaks (in a certain manner); 
one who deals (with a certain topic)'. See -logy. 
Derivatives : archaeological (q.v.), archae olog-ist 
or archeolog-ist, n. 

Archaeopteryx, also Archeopteryx, n., a genus of 
extinct reptilian birds (paleontol.) — ModL., 
compounded of archaeo- and Gk. rap-j^;, 'wing'. 
— See pterygo-, ptero-. 

archaic, adj., old-fashioned, antiquated, obso- 
lete. — Gk. apyjx'Cxo;, 'old-fashioned, anti- 
quated', fr. oLpyiiot;, 'ancient', fr. dp/r„ 'be- 
ginning'. See arch- and cp. Archaean. 
Derivative: archaic-al-ly , adv. 

archaism, n., use of an obsolete word. — Gk. 
ip/ortajzoc, fr. isyof'siv, 'to be old-fashioned, 
copy the ancients in language', fr. dpyaio;, 'an- 
cient'. See prec. word and -ism. 

archaist, n., one fond of using archaisms. — 
Formed with suff. -ist fr. Gk. dpyjxio;, 'ancient'. 
See archaic. 

Derivative: archaist-ic, adj. 
archaize, tr. v., to make archaic; intr. v., to use 
archaism*. — Gk. dpyauU'.v. See archaism and 

archangel, n. — Late L. archangelus, fr. Gk. 

dpyayyEXoc, 'chief angel', fr. apy- (see arch-) 

and ayyeXoi;, 'angel'. See angel, 
archangelic, adj. — Late L. archangelicus, fr. Gk. 

apxayyeXixos, fr. dpxdyyeXoi;. See p c. word 

and -ic. 

archbishop, n. — ME. archebischop, fr. OE. arce- 
biscop, fr. Eccles. L. archiepiscopus, fr. Eccles. 
Gk. apxietirotorros, lit. 'chief bishop', fr. Gk. 
apxi- (see archi-) and emaxoTO;, 'bishop'. See 

archbishopric, n. — ME. archebischopriche, fr. OE. 
arcebiscoprlce. See arch- and bishopric and cp. 
prec. word. 

archdeacon, n. — OE. arcediacon, fr. Eccles. L. 
archidiaconus, fr. Eccles. Gk. dpxtSidxovoi;, lit. 
'chief deacon', fr. dpyi- (see archi-) and Sidxovo?, 
'servant, minister of a church'. See deacon. 

arche, n., the first principle {Greek philos.) — Gk. 
dpyT], 'beginning, first cause, origin, first prin- 
ciple'. See arch-. 

Archean. — See Archaean. 

archegonium, n., the female sex organ in ferns 
and mosses (hot.) — ModL., fr. Gk. ap-yiyovoq, 
'first of a race', fr. dpx- (see arch-) and -yovo?, 
which is rel. to yew], 'offspring, race, family, 
generation', fr. I.-E. base *gen-, 'to produce, 
beget'. See genus. 

Archelon, n., a genus of extinct turtles. — ModL., 
shortened fr. Gk. oipx(<ov x)eX<ovt), 'ruler tor- 
toise'. Gk. apxwv, 'ruler', is pres. part, of apXEiv, 
'to rule' ; see arch- and cp. archon. Gk. xeXcovr] 
is rel. to yjOAq, 'tortoise', lit. 'the yellow animal', 
fr. I.-E. base *ghel-, 'yellow' ; see yellow. 

archenteron, n., the primitive enteron of a gas- 
trula (zool.) — Formed fr. arch- and Gk. Ivxepov, 
'intestine'. See enteric, 
archer, n. — OF. archier (F. archer), fr. L. ar- 
cdrius, fr. arcus, 'bow'. See arc and subst. suff. 

archery, n. — OF. archerie, fr. archier, 'archer'. 
See prec. word and -y (representing OF. -ie). 

archetype, n. — L.archetypum,fr. Gk. dp/ET-jTrov, 
'pattern, model', prop. neut. of the adjective 
as/ETUTroc;, 'stamped first', used as a noun, fr. 
ipy.E- (= ipyi-), 'first', and t-j-oc, 'a blow, mark 
of a blow'. See arch- and type. 

archi-, pref. meaning i) 'chief, as in archidia- 
conal; 2) 'primitive, original' as in archiplasm. — 
Gk. ipyi-, rel. to dpyo;, 'leader, chief, ruler', 
apye'.v, 'to begin, to rule'. See arch-. 

archiater, n., the chief physician at the court of a 
Greek king or Roman emperor (Greek and 
Roman hist.) — Gk. apy.iTpc;, 'court phy- 
sician', fr. apyi- (see archi-) and li-poc, 'physi- 
cian'. See iatric. 

archidiaconal, adj., i) of an archdeacon; 2) of an 
archdeaconry. — Compounded of archi- and 

archil, orchil, n., dyestuff obtained from lichen. 
— ME. orchcll, fr. AF. orchel, which is rel. to 
earlier F. orsolle, F. orseille, It. orcella; of un- 
certain origin. Cp. Roccella. 

archimandrite, n., in the Greek Church, head of 
a monastery or of a group of monasteries. — 
ML. archimandrila, fr. MGk. dtpyiu-ocvSpfTY)?, 
fr. dpyj.-, 'chief (see archi-), and [xdvSpa, 'fold, 
stable', which is prob. cogn. with OI. manduri. 



'stable', mandirdm, 'room, house, palace, 

Archimedean, adj., pertaining to Archimedes. — 
Formed with suff. -an fr. L. Archimedeus, 'of Ar- 
chimedes', fr. Gk. 'Apxi^St)?, Archimedes, the 
celebrated mathematician (2877-212 B.C.E.). 

archipelago, n., 1) the Aegean Sea; 2) a sea stud- 
ded with many islands; 3) a group of islands. — 
It. arcipelago, lit. 'the chief sea', compounded of 
arci-, 'chief, fr. Gk. dpxi- (see archi-), and Gk. 
TTeXayo?, 'sea' (see pelagic). In ancient and me- 
diaeval Greek, the word dpxi7t£Xayo<; does not 
occur, in modern Greek it is an Italian loan word . 
The fact that archipelago orig. denoted the Aege- 
an Sea may help us find the origin of this word, 
which is a real crux etymologorum. It. arcipelago 
very probably arose from a mistaking of Gk. 
Alyaiov 7t£Xayo(;, 'the Aegean Sea', for dpyi- 
TOXayo;, 'the chief sea', a confusion suggested by 
the numerous Greek words beginning with dpyi- . 

archiplasm, n., 1) primitive protoplasm; 2) ar- 
choplasm. — Compounded of archi- and -plasm. 
Derivative: archiplasm-ic, adj. 

architect, n. — F. architecte, fr. L. architectus, fr. 
Gk. dpyiTexTov, 'master builder', fr. apyi-, 
'chief, and text<ov, 'carpenter, builder', which 
is rel. to texvt), 'art, skill, craft'. See archi- and 
text and cp. technic, tectonic. 

architectonic, adj. — L. architectonicus, fr. Gk. 
dpxiTEXTovixoi;, 'pertaining to a master builder', 
fr. dp/iTEXTdiv. See prec. word and -ic. 

architectonics, n. — See prec. word and -ics. 

architecture, n. — F., fr. L. architect lira, fr. ar- 
chitectus. See architect and -ure. 
Derivatives: architectur-al, adj., architectur-al- 
ly, adv. 

architrave, n., the lowest part of the entablature 
(archil.) — It. architrave, fr. archi- and trave, 
'beam', fr. L. trabem, acc. of trabs. See trabeate. 

archive, n., generally used in the pi. — F. archives, 
fr. L. archivum, archium, 'the archives', trans- 
literation of Gk. dpyetov, 'official building', pi. 
-ra dp/Eia, 'public records, archives', fr. dpy^j, 
'beginning, origin, first place, office'. See arch- 
and cp. arche. 

Derivatives: archive, tr. v., archiv-al, adj., 
archiv-ist, n. 

archivolt, n., a curved molding on the face of an 
arch (archit.) — It. archivolto, lit. 'an arched 
vault', fr. arco, 'arch', and volta, 'vault'. See 
arch and vault. 

archo-, combining form meaning 'rectal' (med.) 
— Fr. Gk. dpyoq, 'rectum', which is of un- 
certain origin. 

archon, n.. one of the nine chief magistrates in 
Athens (Ancient Greek hist.) — Gk. 4pX"v, 
'ruler', prop. pres. part, of apyeiv, 'to rule'. 
See arch- and cp. the first element in Archelon. 

-archy, combining form meaning 'rule', as in an- 
archy, monarchy, — L. -archia, fr. Gk. -apxtS, 
'rule', fr. dpx<k> 'leader, chief, ruler'. See -arch 
and -y (representing Gk. -ta). 

arciform, adj., having the form of an arch. — 

Compounded of L. arcus, 'bow', and forma, 

'form, shape'. See arc and form, n. 
arctic, adj., pertaining to the North Pole or the 

regions near it. — L. arcticus, fr. Gk. dpx-nxoc, 

'of a bear; of the Great Bear; northern', fr. 

apxTO? (also apxo?), 'bear'; the constellation 

of the Great Bear; the north', which is cogn. 

with OI. [ksah, Avestic ar e shd, Arm. arj. Alb. 

art, 'bear', L. ursus (for *urksos), Olr., Gael. 

art, W. arth (for *arkt), 'bear'. Cp. LIrsus. Cp. 

also Arctium, arcto-, Arcturus, antarctic, Arthur, 


Arctium, n., a genus of plants of the thistle family, 
the burdock (bot.) — ModL., fr. Gk. apxTO?, 
'bear'. See prec. word. 

arcto-, before a vowel arct-, combining form 
meaning 'bear', or 'the north'. — Gk. dpx~o-, 
dpx-r-, fr. Spxxo?, 'bear; the north'. See arctic. 

Arctogaea, Arctogea, n., a zoogeographical 
realm, comprising North America, Europe, Asia 
and Africa. — ModL., compounded of arcto- 
and Gk. y^, 'earth'. See geo- and cp. Neogaea, 

Derivatives: Arctogae-al or Arctoge-al, Arcto- 
gae-an or Arctoge-an, Arctogae-ic or Arcloge- 
ic, adjs. 

Arctostaphylos, n., a genus of plants of the heath 
family, the bear berry (bot.) — ModL., com- 
pounded of Gk. apxxo;, 'bear' and aTxpuXv), 
'bunch of grapes'. See arctic and staphylo-. 

Arcturus, n., the brightest star in the constella- 
tion Bootes (astron.) — L., fr. Gk. 'ApxToOpo?, 
lit. 'the Bearguard', fr. apx-ro;, 'bear' and oOpo;, 
'watcher, guard, ward'. See arctic and ware, 

arcuate, arcuated, adj., bent like a bow. — L. 

arcudtus, pp. of arcudre, 'to bend like a bow', 

fr. arcus, 'bow'. See arc. 

Derivative: arcuate-ly, adv. 
arcuation, n. — L. arcudtid, gen. -dnis, fr. arcudtus 

pp. of arcudre. See prec. word and -ion. 
arculite, n., a bow-shaped crystallite (mineral.) — 

Compounded of L. arcus, 'bow' (see arc), and 

combining form -lite. 

-ard, -art, suff. It orig. had an intensive force; 
now it is often used in a pejorative sense. — 
OF., fr. OHG. -hart, which is rel. to OHG. har- 
ti, 'hard'. See hard. For the force of this suff. 
cp. coward, dastard, dotard, drunkard, sluggard. 

Ardea, n., a genus of herons (ornithol.) — L. ar- 
dea, 'heron', cogn. with Gk. epcoSio;, 'heron', 
Serb., Croat, roda 'stork', ON. arta, OSwed. 
drta, 'creek duck'. Cp. Erodium. 

ardeb, n.. a measure of capacity used in Egypt. — 
Arab, irddbb, in vulgar pronunciation arddbb, 
ardebb, fr. Gk. dpTafir;, name of a Persian 
measure. See artaba. 

ardella, n., any of the small apothecia of some 
lichens (bot.) — ModL., fr. Gk. apSciv, 'to wa- 
ter, pour forth', a word of unknown etymology. 
Cp. Arethusa. 



ardency, n. — Formed fr. next word with suff. -cy. 

ardent, adj. — ME. ardaunt, fr. OF. ardant (F. ar- 
dent), fr. L. ardentem, acc. of ardens, pres. part, 
of ardere, 'to burn', which stands for "dridere, 
fr. dridus, 'parched, dry', and is rel. to drere, 
'to be dry', fr. *dsere, fr. I.-E. base *&s-, 'to 
burn, glow', whence also OI. dsah, 'ashes, dust', 
Toch. A dsar, 'dry', Arm. azazem, 'I dry up', 
aciun, 'ashes', Gk. a£etv (for "azd'ein), 'to dry 
up, parch', &i<x, 'dryness; dirt, mold', iZ,aXioQ, 
'dry, parched', Czech ozd, 'malt drier', ozditi, 
'to dry (malt)*, Goth, azgd, OE. asce, &sce, 
'ashes'. See ash, 'powdery substance', and cp. 
ara, ardor, area, arid, arson, asbolite, Azalea. 
Cp. also the second element in aguardiente. 
Derivatives: ardent-ly, adv., ardent-ness, n. 

ardennite, n., a vanadosilicate of aluminum and 
manganese (mineral.) — Named after Ardennes 
in Belgium. For the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 
ardhanari, n., a form of Siva in which he is rep- 
resented as half male and half female (Hindu 
mythol.) — OI. drdha-ndri-, 'half woman', fr. 
drdhah-, 'half, part, side', and narl-, 'woman'. 
OI. drdhah- is rel. to OI. rdhak, 'especially', Aves- 
tic ar'da-, 'side', OI. fte, 'besides, except', fr. 
I.-E. base *er-, *(e)re-, 'loose; to split, separate, 
be rare', whence also L. rdrus, 'thin, loose', see 
rare, 'thin'. OI. ndri-, 'woman', prop, means 
'pertaining to a man', and is rel. to OI. ndram 
(acc), 'man', and cogn. with Gk. dwjp, 'man'; 
see andro-. 

arditi, n. pi., Italian volunteers serving in storm 
troops in World War I. — It., pi. of ardito, 
'brave, audacious', fr. F. hardi, prop. pp. of OF. 
*hardir, 'to render courageous', lit. 'to make 
hard', fr. Frankish *hardjan, fr. *hart, 'hard', 
which is rel. to OHG. harti. OE. heard, 'hard'. 
See hard. 

ardor, ardour, n. — ME. ardeur, fr. OF. ardour 
(F. ardeur), fr. L. arddrem, acc. of ardor, 'heat', 
fr. ardere, 'to burn'. See ardent and -or. 

arduinite, n., a zeolite (mineral.) — Named after 
the Venetian geologist Giovanni Arduino. For 
the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

arduous, adj. — L. arduus, 'high, lofty, steep', fr. 
I.-E. base *eredh-, *erdh-, 'to grow; high', 
whence also Avestic e r f dva-, 'high', Olr. ard, 
'high', Alb. ril, OSlav. rastp, 'I grow'. Cp. I.-E. 
base *weredh-, 'to grow; high', whence OI. 
urdhvdh, 'high', vdrdhate, 'causes to grow, in- 
creases', Gk. 'jp»6c (for *fop§F6q; cp. Dor. 
pop 5>o-), 'straight, right, erect'. See ortho- and 
cp. vriddhi. For E. -ous, as equivalent to L. -us, 
see -ous. 

Derivatives: arduous-ly, adv., arduous-ness, n. 
are, v., pres. pi. indicative of be. — ME. aren, 
later arc, fr. OE. (Northumbrian) aron, rel. to 
ON. eru, '(they) are', for I.-E. *es-en, whence 
also Dor. svti, Att. elm, OI. sdnti, L. sunt, 
Umbr. sent, Goth., OE. sind. All these words 
are derivatives of I.-E. base *es-, 'to be'. See 
esse and cp. am, art, is. 

are, n., a square unit. — F., formed in 1795 by a 
decree of the French National Convention, fr. 
L. area, 'vacant piece of ground'. See next word 
and cp. the second element in hectare. 

area, n. — L., 'vacant piece of ground, building, 
plot', rel. to arere, 'to become dry', hence area 
orig. meant 'a place burned down, a dry, bare pla- 
ce' ; see ardent and cp. areola, debonair. For sense 
development cp. G. Esse, 'chimney, forge', 
which also derives fr. I.-E. base *&s-, 'to burn'. 

Areca,n., a genus of palms of Asia and the Malay 
Archipelago (bot.) — ModL., fr. Port, areca, fr. 
Malayalam ddakka, fr. Tamil ddaikdy, lit. 
'having close clusters of nuts', fr. ddai, 'close 
arrangement of the cluster', and kdy, 'nut'. See 
OED. and Yule-Burnell, Hobson-Jobson, p. 35. 

Arecaceae, n. pi., a family of plants, the palm 
family (bot.) — ModL., formed fr. prec. word 
with suff. -aceae. 

arecaceous, adj. — See prec. word and -aceous. 

arena, n. — L. harena, arena, 'sand, sandy place, 
seashore; place of combat (lit. 'place strewn 
with sand'), prob. of Etruscan origin. Cp. 

arenaceous, adj., sandy. — L. arendceus, 'sandy'. 
See prec. word and -aceous. 

Arenaria, n., a genus of herbs of the chickweed 
family; the sandwort (bot.) — ModL., lit. 'the 
sandwort', fr. Late L. harendrius, arendrius, 'of 
sand', fr. L. harena, arena (see arena) ; so called 
because many representatives of this species 
grow in the sand. 

arend, n., bearded vulture (S. Afr.) — Du., 
'eagle', fr. MDu. arent, rel. to ON. dm, OE. 
earn, OHG. aro, 'eagle'. See ern(e). 

areo- combining form meaning 'of, or pertaining 
to, Ares or Mars', used in astronomy. — Fr. 
Gk. "Apeo? or "Apsw;, gen. oi'AptiQ, 'Ares'. 
See Ares and cp. Areopagite. 

areola, n., a small area; esp. the pigmented ring 
surrounding the nipple (anat.) — L. areola, 
'small area', dimin. of area, 'a vacant piece of 
ground' (see area) ; introduced into anatomy by 
the Swiss anatomist and botanist Caspar Bauhin 
(1560-1624) in 1605. 

Derivatives: areol-ar, areol-ate, areol-at-ed, 
adjs., areol-ation, n. 
areole, n., a small space (bot.) — F. areole, fr. L. 
areola. See areola. 

areolet, n., a small areola (zool.) — A dimin. of 
areola, hence a double dimin. of area. For the 
ending see suff. -et. 

areology, n., the study of the planet Mars. — 
Compounded of areo- and Gk. -Xoyla, fr. 
-Xoyo;, 'one who speaks (in a certain manner); 
one who deals (with a certain topic)'. See -togy. 
Derivatives: areolog-ic, areolog-ic-al, adjs., are- 
olog-ic-al-ly, adv. 

areometer, n., a hydrometer. — Compounded of 
Gk. dpaiis, 'thin, rare', and uirpov, 'meas- 
ure'. The first element is of uncertain origin; 
it originally began with digamma (f = w). 



hence cannot be cognate with L. rdrus, 'thin, 
rare' (see rare, 'thin'). For the second element 
see meter, 'poetical rhythm'. 
Derivatives: areometr-ic, areometr-ic-al, adjs., 
areometr-y, n. 

Areopagite, n., member of the Areopagus. — Gk. 
' ApstoTOXYf""]?, fr- 'Apei6raxyos. See next word. 

Areopagus, n., name of a hill west of the Acro- 
polis in Athens and of the tribunal situated on 
it. — L., fr. Gk. 'Apet67tayo<;, for "Apsio? 
toxyos, 'hill of Ares (= Mars)', resp. y\ BouX-i) 
7] If; 'Apsiou niyou, 'the council of the hill of 
Ares'. See next word. For the etymol. of toxyos, 
'rocky hill', see pact. 

Ares, n., the Greek god of war, identified by the 
Romans with Mars (Greek mythol.) — L., fr. 
Gk. "Apyj? (gen. "Apso; or "Apecoc;), lit. 'injurer, 
destroyer', fr. dtprj, 'bane, ruin', which is rel. 
to dpeiY), 'a cursing, menacing', and prob. 
cogn. with OI. irasyd, 'ill will', irasydti, 'bears 
ill will', Arm. her, 'anger, envy', OE. eorre, yrre, 
'angry'. Cp. areo-, Areopagus, Antares. 

arete, n., virtue (Greek philos.) — Gk. apeT7j, 
'virtue', prop, 'that which is good', rel. to 
dpeUov, 'better', apia-ros, 'best' (whence dp«r- 
-roxpa-rfa, 'the rule of the best'), apecnceiv, 'to 
make good, conciliate'. See aristo-. 

arete, n., sharp crest of a mountain. — F., 'fish- 
bone; ridge', fr. L. arista, 'ear of grain', which 
is prob. of Etruscan origin. Cp. arista, Aristida, 

Arethusa, n., nymph of a fountain near Syracuse 
(Greek mythol.) — L., fr. Gk. 'Ap£#ouaa, a col- 
lateral form of fipSouaa, 'waterer', fern. pres. 
part, of ctpSeiv, 'to water'. See ardella. 

Arethusa, n., a genus of orchids (bot.) — ModL., 
named after the nymph Arethusa. See prec. word. 

arfvedsonite, n., a basic metasilicate (mineral.) — 
Named after the Swedish chemist Johan August 
Arfvedson (1792-1841). For the ending see subst. 
suff. -ite. 

argala, n., the adjutant bird. — Hind, hargitd. 

argali, n., a large wild sheep of Asia (Ovis am- 
nion). — Mongolian. 

argand lamp. — Named after its inventor Aime' 
Argand, a Swiss physicist (1755-1803). 

Argemone, n., a genus of plants of the poppy 
family (bot.) — Gk. apyeu.cov7], 'a kind of pop- 
py', prob. fr. Heb. argam&n, 'purple'. Cp. Ak- 
kad. argamannu, of s.m. Cp. also agrimony. For 
the ending -covt) in dpYeu-tovr), cp. 4veu,civr,, 'the 
wind flower' (see anemone). 

argent, n., silver (archaic). — F., fr. L. argentum, 
'silver', which is cogn. with Gk. Spyupoc., 'silver', 
prop, 'the white (metal)', fr. dpyo? (dissimil- 
ated fr. *dpfp6?), 'shining, bright, white'; fr. 
I.-E. base *arg-, 'to shine', whence also OI. 
rjrdfi, 'shining, glowing, bright', rajatdm, Aves- 
tic l r*zata, 'silver', OI. drjunaht, 'shining, white', 
Toch. A aria, 'white' (said of teeth), drkyant, 
'silver', B drkwi, of s.m., arkwinne, 'light color', 
Hitt. harkish. 'bright, clear', Thracian 4pytXo<;, 

'mouse' (lit. 'the white colored animal'), Arm. 
arcat\ 'silver', Olr. argat, W. arian(i), Co., 
MBret. argant, Bret, arc'hant, 'silver', L. ar- 
guere, 'to make clear, prove'. Cp. argil, Argo, 
argue, Argus, argyria, argyrodite, arjun, and the 
second element in litharge, Pelargonium, Po- 
darge, pygarg. 
argentiferous, adj., containing silver. — Com- 
pounded of L. argentum, 'silver', and the stem 
of L. ferre, 'to bear, carry'. See argent and 

argentine, adj., resembling silver. — L. argen- 
tlnus, 'of silver', fr. argentum, 'silver'. See argent 
and -ine (representing L. -inus). 

argentite, n., silver sulfid, Ag 2 S (mineral.) — 
Formed with subst. suff. -ite fr. L. argentum, 
'silver'. See argent. 

argil, n., potter's clay. — F. argile, 'clay', fr. L. 
argilla, 'white clay, potter's earth', fr. Gk. 
SpYiXXo?, of s.m., which is rel. to dpyo;, 'shin- 
ing, bright'. See argent. 

argillaceous, adj., resembling clay. — L. argilld- 
ceus, fr. argilla. See prec. word and -aceous. 

argilliferous, adj., rich in clay. — Compounded 
of L. argilla, 'white clay' and the stem of ferre, 
'to bear, carry'. See argil and -ferous. 

Argive, adj., of Argos; (by extension) of Greece. 
— L. Arglvus, fr. Gk. 'Apyeioq, 'of Argos', fr. 
"Apyo?, 'Argos', name of the capital of Argolis 
in the Peloponnesus. 
Derivative: Argive, n. 

Argo, n., 1) name of the ship in which the Argo- 
nauts sailed to Colchis, whence 2) name of a 
constellation. — Gk. 'Apyd>, lit. 'the Swift', fr. 
dpy6c;, 'swift'. This word is identical with apyo;, 
'shining, bright'. Cp. its OI. cognate rjrdh, which 
also unites these two meanings, and see argent. 
Cp. also Argonaut. 

argon, n., an inert chemical element. — ModL., 
fr. Gk. £py6v, neut of dpyo?, 'idle, inert', con- 
traction of Aspyi?, lit. 'not active', fr. tic- (see 
priv. pref. a-), and gpyov, 'work'. See ergon 
and cp. the second element in lethargy. This ele- 
ment, discovered by the British chemists Sir 
William Ramsay (1852-1916) and Morris Wil- 
liam Travers (1872-1961) in 1894, was so called 
by them because it does not readily unite with 
other elements. 

Argonaut, n. pi., one of the heroes led by Jason 
in the ship Argo to fetch the golden fleece in 
Colchis. — L. Argonauta, fr. Gk. 'ApyovauTir)<;, 
'sailor of the Argo', which is compounded of 
'Apyco (see Argo) and vauTr,?, 'sailor, seaman'. 
See nautical. 

argonaut, n., the paper nautilus (zool) — Fr. 
prec. word. 

argosy, n., a large ship; a fleet of large ships. — 
Earlier ragusye, arguze, lit. 'ship from Ragusa' 
fr. It. Ragusea, 'ship of Ragusa' . 

argot, n., slang, esp. the slang of Paris. — F., of 
uncertain origin. 

argue, intr. and tr. v. — ME. arguen, fr. OF. 



(= F.) arguer, fr. L. argutdre, freq. of arguere, 
'to make clear, prove', which is rel. to argentum, 
'silver' (arguere orig. meant 'to make as white 
as silver'). See argent. 
Derivatives: argu-able, adj., argu-er, n. 

argument, n. — F., fr. L. argumentum, fr. arguere, 
'to argue'. See prec. word and -ment. 

argumental, adj. — L. argumentdlis, fr. argumen- 
tum. See prec. word and adj. suff. -al. 

argumentation, n. — F., fr. L. argumentdtidnem, 
acc. of argumentdtid, 'an adducing of proof, pp. 
of argumentari, 'to argue', fr. argumentum. See 
argument and -ation. 

argumentative, adj. — F. argumentatif (fem. ar- 
gumentative), fr. argument. See argument and -ive. 
Derivatives : argumentative-ly, adv., argumenta- 
tive-ness, n. 

Argus, n., a giant with a hundred eyes (Greek 
mythol.) — L., fr. Gk. "Apyo?, lit. 'the bright 
one', fr. dpyo?, 'shining, bright' (see argent); 
so called in allusion to his hundred eyes. Cp. his 
epithet flavore-a)?, 'all-seeing, all eyes'. 

argute, adj., sharp, quick. — L. argutus, pp. of 
arguere, 'to argue'. See argue. 
Derivatives: argute-ly, adv., argute-ness, n. 

argyr-, form of argyro- before a vowel. 

argyria, n., discoloration of the skin (med.) — 
Medical L., fr. apyupo?, 'silver'. See argyro- 
and -ia. 

argyrite, n., argentite (mineral.) — Formed with 
subst. suff. -ite fr. Gk. apyupo;, 'silver'. See 
argyro- and cp. argentite. 

argyro-, before a vowel argyr-, combining form 
meaning 'silver'. — Gk. dpyupo-, dpyup-, fr. 
Spyupo?, 'silver', which is cogn. with L. ar- 
gentum, 'silver'. See argent and cp. the second 
element in hydrargyrum. 

argyrodite, n., a steel gray mineral containing sil- 
ver, geranium and sulfur (mineral.) — G. Ar- 
gyrodit, coined by its discoverer the German 
chemist Aloys Auer von Welsbach (1858-1929) 
fr. Gk. dpyupcoSvji;, 'rich in silver' (fr. apyupo?, 
'silver', and -io8i);, 'like'), and suff. -fri);. See 
argyro-, -ode and subst. suff. -ite. 

Argyrol, n., a trademark for silver vitellin 
(pharm.) — Coined by its inventor Albert 
C. Barnes fr. argyr- and suff. -ol, a var. of -ole. 

aria, n. (music). — It., 'air'. See air, 'melody', 
and cp. arioso. 

-aria, subst. suff. meaning 'related to', or 'con- 
nected with', as in Utricularia (bot. and zool.) — 
ModL. -aria, fr. L. fem. sing, or neut. pi. of 
-drius. See adj. suff. -ary. 

Ariadne, n., daughter of Minos, king of Crete 
(Greek mythol.) — L., fr. Gk. ' ApioSvrj, a name 
of uncertain origin. 

Arian, adj. and n. — L. Aridnus, 'pertaining to 
Arius', fr. Arius = Gk. "Apeio?, presbyter of 
Alexandria (died in 336). 
Derivatives: Arian-ism, n., Arian-ist-ic, Arian- 
ist-ic-al, adjs., Arian-ize, intr. and tr. v., Arian- 
iz-er, n. 

-arian, suff. forming adjectives from nouns end- 
ing in -ary. — Compounded of the suffixes -ary 
(representing L. -arius) and -an (representing L. 

aricine, n., an alkaloid found in cusco bark. — 
Named after Arica, in Peru. For the ending see 
subst. suff. -ine. 

arid, adj., dry. — L. dridus, 'parched, dry', whence 

ardere, 'to burn'. See ardent. 

Derivatives: arid-ly, adv., arid-ness, n. 
aridity, n., dryness. — F. aridite, fr. L. dridi- 

tdtem, acc. of driditds, 'dryness', fr. dridus. See 

prec. word and -ity. 

ariel, n., a gazelle. — Arab, dryil, a vulgar variant 
of dyyil, 'stag', which is rel. to Heb. dyil, 'ram', 
ayydl, 'stag', Aram.-Syr. ayld, 'stag', Akkad. 
ayalu, 'ram', fr. Sem. base '-w-l, 'anything 
strong', whence also Heb. eydl, 'strength', eld", 
alld h , 'terebinth; oak', allon, Akkad. alldnu, 
'oak', prop, 'a strong tree'. 

Aries, n., 1) a constellation; 2) the first of the 
signs of the zodiac (astron.) — L. aries, gen. 
arietis, 'lamb', cogn. with Arm. or-oj (assimil. fr. 
*er-oj), 'lamb', Gk. gpi-cpo?, 'kind', Olr. heirp, 
'kid', Mir. earb, of s.m. 

aright, adv. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and right. 

aril, n., an accessory covering of seeds (bot.) — 
Late L. arillus, 'dried grape'. 

arioso, adj., melodious; adv., in a melodious 
way (mus.) — It., formed fr. aria, 'melody', with 
suff. -oso (corresponding to L. -dsus). See aria 
and adj. suff. -ose. 

Arisaema, n., a genus of plants of the arum family 
(bot.). — ModL., lit. 'blood of arum', fr. Gk. 
apt?, 'a kind of arum', which is rel. to apov, 
'cuckoopint', and atu.a, 'blood' (see Arum and 
hemal); so called from the red-spotted leaves of 
some species. 

arise, intr. v. — OE. drisan, rel. to OS. arisan, 
Goth, urreisan. See a-, 'on', and rise. 

arista, n., an awn. — L. See arlte. 

aristarchy, n., government by the best men. — 
Gk. dpusTocpxta, compounded of dcpicTo;, 'best', 
and -apxta, 'rule', fr. dpx<k, 'leader, chief, ruler'. 
See aristo- and -archy. 

Aristida, n., a genus of grasses (bot:) — ModL., 
fr. L. arista, 'awn'. See arista and -ida. 

aristo-, before a vowel arist-, combining form 
meaning 'best'. — Gk. dpLOTo-, dp«TT-, fr. 
ipiazoc,, 'best', superl. to dpeiov, 'better', rel. 
to aperf), 'virtue', dpsaxeiv, 'to make good, con- 
ciliate', fr. I.-E. base *ar-, 'to join', whence also 
Gk. ap&pov, 'a joint', L. artus, 'joint, limb', ars, 
'art', arma (pi.), 'implements of war, weapons'. 
See arm, 'weapon', and cp. arete. 

aristocracy, n. — MF. aristocracie (F. aristocra- 
tie), fr. L. aristocratia, fr. Gk. dpia-roxpa-rta, 
'government, rule of the best', which is com- 
pounded of apia-ros, 'best' and -xpomi, 'rule 
of, fr. xpaTo?, 'strength, power, rule' . See aristo- 
and -cracy. 

aristocrat, n. — F. aristocrate, back formation fr. 



aristocratie. See prec. word, 
aristocratic, adj. — F. aristocratique, fr. Gk. 
dpia-roxpaTixo?, 'pertaining to the rule of the 
best', fr. dpia-roxpa-aa. See aristocracy and -ic. 
Derivatives: aristocratic-al, adj., artistocratic- 
al-ly, adv. 

Aristolochia, n., a genus of plants, the birthwort. 
— ModL., fr. Gk. dpia-roXoxia, 'birthwort', lit. 
'that which is the best for childbirth', fr. apic-ro?, 
'best', and Xo/Eia, 'childbirth', fr. X<$x°<;, of s.m. 
See aristo- and lie, 'to recline'. 

aristology, n., the science of dining. — Com- 
pounded of Gk. apurrov, 'breakfast', and -Xoyia, 
fr. -Xoyo?, 'one who speaks (in a certain manner) ; 
one who deals (with a certain topic)'. The first 
element lit. means 'morning meal'. It is formed 
fr. dpi-, which is rel. to r,pi, 'early', and cogn. 
with OE. xr, 'soon, formerly' (see ere, early), 
and fr. -axo (for *d-to), zero degree of root eS-, 
'to eat', whence also Gk. £8siv, laMsiv, L. edere, 
'to eat' (see eat). For the second element in 
aristology see -logy. 

Derivatives: aristolog-ic-al, adj., aristolog-ist, n. 
Aristotelian, adj., pertaining to the Greek phi- 
losopher Aristotle (384-322); n., a follower of 
Aristotle; an adherent of Aristotle's teachings. — 
Formed with suff. -ian fr. Gk. 'Apia-ro-reXT]?, 

Derivative: Aristotelian-ism, n. 
arite, n., a variety of niccolite (mineral.) — 
Named after montagne d'Ar in the dept. Basses 
Pyrenees, in France. For the ending see subst. 
suff. -ite. 

arithmetic, n. — ME. arsmetike, fr. OF. aris- 
metique, fr. L. arithmetica, fr. Gk. dpi^(iT)Tix7] 
(scil. te/vt;), *the art of counting', fr. dpi&- 
|ieiv, 'to number, count, reckon', fr. dpi-O^oc;, 
'number', fr. I.-E. base *rt-, 'to count, number', 
whence also Gk. yri)-pi-toq, 'numberless', OE., 
OHG. rim, 'number', Olr. rim, 'number', do- 
rimu, 'I count, number, enumerate', L. ritus, 
'religious custom, usage, ceremony'. Base *rf-, 
'to count, number', is prob. an enlargement of 
base *ar-, 'to join', whence L. arma, 'weapons', 
ars, 'art', Goth, arms, OE. earm, arm, etc., 'the 
upper limb'. See arm, 'the upper limb', arm, 
'weapon', and cp. rhyme, rite. The d- in dpift^oi; 
is prosthetic and due to the fact that the Greek 
(as well as the Armenian) never begins a word 
with primary r. Initial p in Greek words goes 
back either to *sr- or *wr- (see red). The 5 in OF. 
arismetique is the phonetic rendering of L. th = 
Gk. the ME. forms arismetric, arsmetrik 
were developed from ME. arsmetike, which was 
associated erroneously with L. ars metrica, 'the 
art of measure'. ModF. arithmetique and E. 
arithmetic have been refashioned after the Greek. 
Cp. aparithmesis and the second element in 

arithmetician, n. — ■ F. arithmeticien, fr. arith- 
metique. See arithmetic and -ian. 
arithmo- combining form meaning 'number*. — 

Gk., fr. dpi&u.o-, fr. dpiS-(x6;, 'number'. See 

arithmogram, n., the sum of the numerical values 
of the letters in a word or phrase. — Compound- 
ed of arithmo- and Gk. ypdu.u.a, 'something 
written'. See -gram. 

arithmograph, n., a kind of calculating machine. 
— Compounded of arithmo- and Gk. -ypacpoi;, 
fr. ypdtpeiv, 'to write'. See -graph. 

arithmography, n. — Compounded of arithmo- 
and Gk. -ypaqna, fr. ypdipsiv, 'to write'. See 

arithmometer, n., a calculating machine. — Com- 
pounded of arithmo- and Gk. fzexpov, 'meas- 
ure'. See meter, 'poetical rhythm'. 

-arium, subst. suff. meaning 'a place for, or a- 
bounding in, something', or 'a thing pertaining 
to something'. — L. -arium, prop. neut. of the 
adjectival suff. -drius, used to form nouns. The 
regular English equivalent of this suff. is -ary. 

arizonite, n., a ferric metatitanate (mineral.) — 
Named after Arizona in the U.S.A. For the end- 
ing see subst. suff. -ite. 

arjun, n., an Asiatic tropical tree (Terminalia ar- 
juna). — Hind, arjun, fr. OI. drjunah, 'white', 
which is cogn. with Gk. dpyo?, 'bright, white', 
apyupo?, 'silver', L. argentum, 'silver'. See 

ark, n. — OE. arc, earc, 'Noah's ark, box, coffin', 
fr. L. area, 'chest', whence also OHG. arahha, 
arka (MHG., G. arche), 'ark'. (OSlav. raka, 
'burial cave, rakev, 'coffin', are Teut. loan 
words.) See arcanum and cp. words there re- 
ferred to. 

arles, n. pi., earnest money (Scot.) — OF., fr. L. 
*arrhula, dimin. of arrha, 'pledge'. See arrha 
and cp. words there referred to. 

arm, n., the upper limb. — ME., fr. OE. earm, 
arm, rel. to OS., Dan., Swed., MDu., Du., 
MHG., G. arm, ON. armr, OFris. erm, OHG. 
arm, aram, Goth, arms, 'arm', and cogn. with 
OI. irmdh, Avestic ar e ma-, 'arm', Arm. armukn, 
'elbow', Osset. arm, 'palm of the hand', Gk. 
dp|xo?, 'a joint', L. armus, 'shoulder', OSlav. 
ramo, OPruss. irmo, 'arm'. All these words de- 
rive fr. I.-E. base *ar-, 'to join', and lit. mean 
'joint', whence also L. arma (pi.), 'weapons', 
prop, 'implements of war', artus, 'joint, limb', 
ars, 'art', are OI. ardh, 'spoke (of a wheel)', 
Avestic ratav-, 'epoch; judge', Toch. AB drwar, 
drwer, 'ready, prepared', Hitt. dra, 'suitable, 
good', Arm. y-armar, 'fitting, appropriate', 
afnem, 'I make', Gk. SpSpov, 'a joint', apjioc, 'a 
chariot', dpaptaxetv, 'to join, fasten, fit together', 
dp£<rxELv, 'to make good, conciliate', dpettov, 
'better', apia-ros, 'best', aps-nf), 'virtue', dp(xaXia, 
'allotted sustenance', dpfxo^etv, 'to fit together, 
adapt, accommodate', apuoc, 'a joining', 
dpixovla, 'joint, proportion, concord', (xp-ri, 
'just', ipxioc,, 'complete, perfect of its kind, 
suitable; even' (said of a number), dpTueiv, 
dpTiiveiv, 'to arrange, prepare, make ready'. Cp. 



arm, 'weapon'. Cp. also ambry, arete, aristo-, 
armilla, art, Artamus, arthro-, article, articulate, 
artillery, artisan, artist, artiste, harmony, inert, 
inertia, the first element in Artiodactyla and the 
second element in Homer. Cp. also arithmetic, 
ration, read, reason, 
arm, n., usually in pi. arms, weapon. — ME. 
armes (pi.), fr. OF. armes (pi.), fr. L. arma, 'im- 
plements of war, weapons', neut. pi. mistaken 
in VL. for fern, sing., fr. I.-E. base *ar-, 'to join', 
whence also L. armus, 'shoulder', Goth, arms, 
OE. earm, arm, 'arm'. See arm, 'upper limb', 
and cp. words there referred to. Cp. also alarm, 
alarum, armada, armadillo, armament, arma- 
ture, armet, army, inerm and the last element in 

arm, tr. v., to furnish with weapons. — F. armer, 
fr. L. armare, fr. arma, 'weapons'. See arm, 

Derivatives: arm-ed, adj., arm-ing, n. 

armada, n., a fleet of warships; specif, the fleet 
of warships sent against England by Philip II 
of Spain in 1588, called the Spanish or Invin- 
cible Armada. — Sp., 'fleet, navy', fr. L. armata, 
fem. pp. of armare, 'to furnish with weapons', 
used as a noun, fr. arma, 'weapons'. See arm, 
'weapon', and cp. army. 

armadillo, n., an American burrowing mammal. 
— Sp., dimin. of armado, 'armed', fr. L. armdtus, 
pp. of armare (see prec. word); so called in al- 
lusion to its hard bony plates resembling armor. 

Armageddon, n., scene of a great battle. — Late 
L. Armagedon, fr. Gk. 'ApfiayeSStov, 'Apu.a- 
yeScov, fr. Heb. Har MegiddS, 'mountain (dis- 
trict) of Megiddo'. 

armagnac.n., a superior kind of brandy. — So cal- 
led because it is made in the department of Gers 
in France, a district formerly named Armagnac. 

armament, n. — L. armdmentum, 'implement', fr. 
armare, 'to furnish with weapons', fr. arma, 
'weapons'. See arm, 'weapon', and -ment and 
cp. F. armement. 

armature, n., armor. — L. armatura, 'armor', fr. 
armdtus, pp. of armare. See prec. word and -lire 
and cp. armor, which is a doublet of armature. 

armet, n., a medieval steel helmet. — F., dimin. 
of arme. See arm, 'weapon', and -et. 

armiger, n., an esquire. — L., 'a weapon bearer', 
compounded of arma, 'weapons', and the stem 
of gerere, 'to bear, carry'. See arm, 'weapon', 
and gerent. 

armigerous, adj., possessing arms. — Formed fr. 
L. armiger (see prec. word) with suff. -ous, on 
analogy of adjectives in which this suff. corre- 
sponds to OF. -ous, -eus (F. -eux), representing 
L. -dsus. 

armilla, n., a bracelet. — L. dimin. formed fr. 
armus, 'shoulder'. See arm, 'the upper limb'. 

armillary, adj., 1) pertaining to a bracelet; 2) con- 
sisting of rings. — Formed with adj. suff. -ary 
fr. L. armilla. See prec. word. 

Arminian, adj., pertaining to the Dutch theo- 

logian Jacobus Arminius (1560-1609) or his 
doctrines. For the ending see suff. -ian. 
Derivative: Arminian-ism, n. 

armipotent, adj., mighty in arms. — L. armi- 
potens, gen. -entis, compounded of arma, 
'weapons', and potens, 'mighty, powerful'. See 
arm, 'weapon', and potent. 

armistice, n., truce. — F., fr. ModL. armistitium, 
lit. 'a standing (still) of arms', formed, on ana- 
logy of the juridic term justitium, 'suspension of 
jurisdiction', fr. L. arma, 'weapons', and -sistere, 
pp. stem -stit-(um) (used only in compounds), 
fr. sistere, 'to cause to stand still', fr. stare, 'to 
stand'. See state and cp. words there referred to. 
G. Waffenstillstand, 'armistice', lit. 'a standing 
still of weapons', is a loan translation of F. ar- 

armlet, n. — Formed fr. arm, 'the upper limb', 
with dimin. suff. -let. 

armor, armour, n. — ME. armure, fr. OF. ar- 
meiire, armure (F. armure), fr. L. armatura. See 

Derivative: armored, armoured, adj. 
armorer, n. — OF. armeurier, armurier (F. ar- 
murier), fr. armeiire, armure. See armor and 
agential suff. -er. 

armory, n., the science of heraldry. — OF. ar- 
moierie, fr. armoier, armoyer, 'to blazon', fr. L. 
arma, 'weapons'. See arm, 'weapon', and cp. 
next word. 

Derivative: armori-al, adj. 

armory, n., armour collectively. — A blend of 
OF. armoierie, 'coat of arms', and OF. almarie, 
armarie, 'a place where arms are kept'. See 
armor and ambry. 

army, n. — F. armee, fr. L. armata, fem. pp. of 
armare, 'to furnish with weapons'. See armada 
and -y (representing F. -ee). 
Derivative: armi-ed, adj. 

Arnebia, n., a genus of plants of the borage 
family (bot.) — Arab. arnabtya h , name of a plant, 
lit. 'hare plant', fr. drnab, 'hare', which is rel. 
to Heb. arnebheth, Arm. arnabhtd, Syr. ar- 
n'bhd, Ugar. 'nhb. Akkad. annabu, 'hare'. 

arnica, n., 1) (cap.) a genus of plants of the thistle 
family; 2) tincture made from the root of the 
plant. — ModL. , prob. corruption of ptarmica, fr. 
Gk. jtrapjiixT), 'sneezewort', fem. of 7tTap|xixo?, 
'causing to sneeze', fr. 7rrapvuvai, 7rratpeiv, 'to 
sneeze', from the I.-E. imitative base *pster- 
(eu)-, whence also L. sternuere, 'to sneeze'. See 

Arnold, masc. PN. — G., fr. OHG. Arenwald, 
lit. 'having the strength of an eagle', fr. OHG. 
aro, 'eagle', and wald, 'power', from the base 
of waltan, 'to have power'. For the first element 
see ern(e) and cp. arend, for the second see 
wield and cp. words there referred to. 

Amoseris, n., a genus of plants of the chicory 
family (bot.) — ModL., lit. 'lamb chicory', 
fr. Gk. Apv6s, 'lamb', and aipu;, 'chicory'. 
The first element is rel. to dcpTjv gen. dpvo;. 



'lamb', and to Homeric and Ion. Gk. stpo?, 
'wool'; see erio-. The second element is of un- 
certain, prob. foreign, origin. 

aroint, intr. v. (used only in the imper.), begone! 
(obsol.) — Of uncertain origin. 

aroma, n., odor. — L., fr. Gk. apa>[za, 'fragrance, 
odor, spice', of uncertain origin. 

aromatic, adj. — F. aromatique, fr. L. aromaticus, 
fr. Gk. apwjAcmxoi;, fr. apcojxa, gen. apto^axoq, 
'fragrance'. See prec. word and -atic. 

aromatize, tr. v., to render aromatic. — F. aro- 
matiser, fr. L. ardmatizdre, fr. Gk. dpujjtaTtsetv, 
fr. Spcofxa. See aroma and -ize. 

aromo,n.,thehuisache. — Sp. aroma, fr. L. aroma, 
fr. Gk. apco(j.a, 'fragrance, odor'. See aroma. 

arose, past tense of arise. — ME. aroos, fr. OE. 
dras, 'arose' fr. drisan. See arise. 

around, adv. and prep. — Formed fr. a- 'on', 
and round. 

arouse tr. v. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and rouse. 
Derivatives: arous-al, n., arous-er, n. 

a rovescio, a musical direction indicating imita- 
tion by contrary motion. — It., lit. 'upside 
down', fr. a (fr. L. ad), 'to', and rovescio, 're- 
verse, wrong side', fr. L. reversus, 'turned back', 
pp. of revertere. See ad- and revert. 

arpeggio, n., the playing of the notes of a chord 
in rapid succession instead of simultaneously; 
a chord on which the notes are so played 
(mus.) — It., fr. arpeggiare, 'to play upon the 
harp', fr. arpa, 'harp'. See harp. 

arpent, n., an old French land measure. — F., 
fr. VL. *arependis, alteration of L. arepennis, 
a Gaulish word of uncertain origin. 

arquebus, n. — See harquebus. 

arrack, in the East, a strong alcoholic drink made 
from rice or molasses. — Fr. Arab, 'draq, 'sweat, 
juice of fruit'. Cp. rack, 'arrack', and borage. 

arraign, tr. v., to call to account; to bring before 
a law court. — ME. areinen, fr. AF. areiner, 
fr. OF. araisnier, aresnier (F. arraisonner), fr. 
VL. 'arrationdre, fr. ad- and *rationdre, 'to 
reason', fr. L. ratio, 'reckoning, calculation; 
reason'. See reason and cp. deraign. 
Derivatives: arraign, n., arraign-er, n., arraign- 
ment (q.v.) 

arraignment, n. — OF. araisnement, fr. araisnier. 
See prec. word and -ment. 

arrange, tr. and intr. v. — OF. arengier, arangier, 
(F. arranger), fr. a, 'to' (see a), and rengier, ran- 
gier (F. ranger), 'to put into line'. See range and 
cp. derange. 

Derivatives: arrange-ment, n., arrang-er, n. 

arrant, adj., 1) wandering (obsol.); 2) unmitigated; 
notorious, infamous. — A variant of errant. 
Derivative: arrant-ly, adv. 

arras, n., pictured tapestry. — Fr. Arras, former- 
ly capital of the province of Artois (now capital 
of the department Pas de Calais), from L. Atre- 
bates, a tribe of the Belgae (whence also the 
name Artois. Cp. artesian. 

arras, n., property contributed by the husband 

to the wife (Sp. law). — Sp., fr. L. arrha, 'earnest 
money'. See arrha and cp. earnest, 'pledge', and 
words there referred to. 

arrastre, n., a drag-stone mill for grinding ores. 
— Sp., 'dragging, haulage', fr. arrastrar, 'to 
drag along', fr. ad-, ar- (fr. L. ad), 'to', and 
rastrar, 'to drag', fr. rastro, 'rake, harrow', fr. 
L. rdstrum, 'a toothed hoe, a rake', which stands 
for *rdd-trom, 'instrument to scrape with', fr. 
rddere, 'to scrape'. See raze. 

array, tr. v., 1) to arrange; 2) to dress, clothe. — 
ME. arraien, fr. OF. araier, areier, areer, aroier, 
fr. VL. *arreddre (whence also It. arredare), 
which is formed fr. L. ad, 'to', and Teut. *raid- 
jan, 'to place in order', whence OE. rxde, 
'ready, mounted', Goth, garedan, 'to attend to, 
provide for', garaips, 'fixed, appointed, or- 
dained'. See ad- and ready and cp. raiment. 
Derivatives: array-al, a., array-er, n., array- 
ment, n. 

array, n., 1) order, arrangement; 2) dress, gar- 
ments. — ME. arrai, fr. OF. arret, aroi, arroi 
(F. arroi), 'array, equipage', fr. OF. areier, 
areer. See array, v. 

arrayan, n., name of various trees. — Sp. arraydn, 
fr. Arab, ar-rayhdn, fr. ar-, assimilated form of 
al-, 'the', and rayhdn in rayhdn al-qub6r, 'myrtle' 
(lit. 'sweet-smelling plants of the tombs'), a 
deriv. of rih, 'odor', which is rel. to Heb. r&h, 
'odor', prop, 'breath', Heb. ru a h, Aram.-Syr. 
ruhd, 'breath, wind, spirit', Arab, ruh, 'soul, 

arrear, n. — ME. arere, fr. OF. arere (F. arriire), 
'behind', fr. VL. *ad retro (L. = retro), 'back- 
ward'. See ad- and retro- and cp. reredos. 

arrearage, n. — ME. arerage, fr. OF. arerage 
(F. arrerage). See prec. word and -age. 

arrect, adj., erect. — L. arrectus, pp. of arrigere, 
'to set upright', fr. ad- and regere, 'to keep 
straight, stretch'. See regent and cp. erect. 

arrest, tr. v. — ME. aresten, fr. OF. arester (F. 
arreter), fr. VL. *arrestdre (whence also It. ar- 
restare, Sp., Port, arrestar), fr. ad- and L. res- 
tare, 'to stop', fr. re- and stare, 'to stand'. See 
state and cp. rest, 'to remain'. 

arrest, n. — ME. arest, fr. OF. arest (F. arret), 
back formation fr. arester (F. arreter). See 
arrest, v. 

Derivatives: arrest-er, n., arrest-ing, arrest-ive, 
adjs., arrestment (q.v.) 
arrestment, n. — OF. arestement, fr. arester. See 
prec. word and -ment. 

arrha, n., earnest money. — L. arrha, arra, short- 
ened fr. arrhabd, fr. Gk. dppocpkov, 'earnest 
money', fr. Heb. 'erabhSn, 'pledge, surety', fr. 
'drdbh, 'he pledged'. See earnest, 'pledge' and 
cp. words there referred to. 

arriba, n., a variety of cacao from Ecuador. — 
Sp. arriba, 'up, above', formed fr. ad-, ar- (fr. 
L. ad), 'to' and ripa, 'bank of a stream' (see ad- 
and riparian and cp. arrive); so called from an 
upland district in Ecuador. 



arride, tr. v., to please {archaic). — L. arridere, 
'to laugh at, laugh with', fr. ad- and ridere, 'to 
laugh'. See risible. 

arriere-ban, n., summons to war issued by the 
king to his vassals. — R, fr. OHG. hari-ban, 
(whence also G. Heerbann), lit. 'proclamation 
to the army', fr. OHG. hari, heri (whence G. 
Heer), 'army', and ban (whence G. Bonn), 'pro- 
clamation'; see harry and ban. F. arriere-ban 
was influenced in form by a confusion with F. 
arriere, 'behind' (see next word). 

arriere-pensee, n., mental reservation — F., lit. 
'a thought behind', fr. arriere, 'behind', and 
pensee, 'thought'. For the first word see arrear. 
F. pensee is prop. fem. pp. of penser, 'to think', 
fr. L. pensdre, 'to weigh out carefully, ponder, 
examine'; see pensive and cp. pansy. 

arriero, a muleteer. — Sp., a collateral form of 
harriero, fr. arrear, harrear, 'to drive or push 
on', from the interjection harre, fr. Arab, harr, 
the cry used to drive on camels. 

arris, n., a sharp ridge, an edge. — OF. areste 
(F. arete), fr. L. arista, 'ear of grain'. See arete 
and cp. arista, Aristida. 

arrival, n. — ME. arrivaile, fr. AF. arrivaille, fr. 
OF. arriver. See next word and subst. surf. -al. 

arrive, intr. v. — ME. ariven, fr. OF. arriver, 
ariver (F. arriver), 'to arrive', fr. VL. *arripare, 
'to touch the shore', fr. ad- and L. ripa, 'shore, 
bank'. See river and cp. arriba. Sp. arribar also 
derives fr. VL. *arripdre, but It. arrivare, is a 
French loan word. 

Derivatives: arrival (q.v.), arriv-er, n. 

arroba, n., a Spanish weight. — Sp. and Port., 
fr. Arab. ar-rub', in vulgar pronunciation ar- 
rob', 'the quarter' (scil. of the weight al-qintar), 
fr. ar-, assimilated form of al-, 'the', and rub' 
{rob'), 'quarter', from the stem of arbat (masc), 
drba'a h (fem.), which is rel. to Heb. arbd' 
(masc), arbd'd h , (fem.), Aram, arbd' (masc), 
arb''d (fem.), Ethiop. arba' (masc), arbd'tu 
(fem.), Akkad. arba'u (masc), irbitti (fem.), 
'four'. (The masc. forms are used with fem. 
nouns, the fem. ones with masc. nouns). 

arrogance, n. — F., fr. L. arrogantia, fr. arrogans, 
gen. -ant is. See next word and -ce. 

arrogant, adj. — F., fr. L. arrogantem, acc. of 
arrogans, pres. part, of arrogdre. See next word 
and -ant. 

Derivative: arrogant-ly, adv. 

arrogate, tr. v. — L. arrogdtus, pp. of arrogdre, 
'to claim as one's own, to arrogate to oneself, 
fr. ad- and rogdre, 'to ask'. See rogation and 
verbal suff. -ate and cp. abrogate. 
Derivatives: arrogation (q.v.), arrogat-ive, adj. 

arrogation, — L., fr. arrogdtus, pp. of arrogdre. 
See prec. word and -ion. 

arrojadite, n., a phosphate of natrium, ferrum, 
sodium, etc. — Named after the Brazilian geo- 
logist Dr. Miguel Arrojado of Lisbon. For the 
ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

arrondissement, n., an administrative district of 

a department in France. — F., lit. 'a rounding', 
fr. arrondir, 'to make round, to round off', fr. 
a, 'to' (see a), and rond, 'round'. See round, adj. 
and -ment. 

arrope, n., must boiled down to a sirup. — Sp., 
fr. Arab, ar-ritbb, ar-, assimilated form of al-, 
'the', and rubb, 'juice of the fruit boiled down', 
arrow, n. — ME. arewe, fr. OE. arwe, earh, rel. 
to ON. or, gen. orvar, Goth, arhazna, and cogn. 
with L. arcus, 'bow, arch'. See arc. 
Derivative: arrow-y, adj. 
arroyo, n., a watercourse; the dry bed of a 
stream. — Sp., 'rivulet, small stream', fr. L. ar- 
rugia, 'shaft or pit in a gold mine', which is 
prob. formed, fr. ad- and ruga, 'wrinkle'; the 
orig. meaning was 'a digging out'. See ruga, 
arse, n., the buttocks (now vulgar). — ME. ars, 
ers, fr. OE. ears, sers, rel. to OS., OHG., MHG. 
ars, ON. ars (also metathesized into rass), MDu. 
sers, e(e)rs, Du. {n)aars, G. Arsch, 'buttock', 
and cogn. with Gk. oppo; (for I.-E. *orsos), 
'tail, rump, base of the spine', oupd (for *6paFd), 
'tail', Hitt. arrash, Arm. of, 'buttock', Olr. err 
(for *ersd), 'tail'. Cp. uro-, 'tail-', 
arsenal, n., a place for manufacturing and storing 
ammunition and weapons. — It. arsenate (Olt. 
arzanale), 'dock', borrowed — prob. through the 
medium of MGk. apa-rp/akrjt; — fr. Arab, ddr- 
as-sind'a h (whence also Sp. ddrsena and It. dar- 
sena, 'dock'), lit. 'house of construction', fr. ddr, 
'house', as-, assimilated form of al-, 'the', and 
sind'a h , 'construction, art', fr. sdna'a, 'he made'. 
For the ending of arsenal see adj. suff. -al. 
arsenic, n., a chemical element. — OF. (= F.) 
arsenic, fr. L. arsenicum, arrhenicum, fr. Gk. 
dptrEMixov, dppsvixov, 'yellow orpiment', fr. 
MPers. *zarnik, 'gold, golden ; orpiment'(whence 
ModPers.-Arab. zarnikh, 'orpiment'), through 
the medium of a Semitic language; cp. Mish- 
naic Heb. zarnikh, Syr. zarnikhd, 'orpiment'. 
Cp. Avestic zaranya, Pers. zar, 'gold', and the 
first element in zermahbub, and see yellow and 
words there referred to. Cp. also jargon, 'a 
variety of zircon'. Gk. dpasvixov, dppEvtxov, 
'orpiment', was influenced in form by apaevixo?, 
appevixoc, 'male', fr. apar)v, app?;v, 'male'. For 
the sense development of MPers. "zarnik, cp. L. 
auripigmentum, fr. aurum, 'gold' (see orpiment). 
Derivatives: arsenic, arsenic-al, adjs. 
arsenious, adj., containing arsenic. — See ar- 
senic and -ous. 
arsis, n., the unaccented part of a foot in pro- 
sody. — L., fr. Gk. dtpots, 'a raising, lifting', 
fr. asipetv, afpeiv, 'to raise, lift'. See artery, 
arson, n. — OF., fr. Late L. arsidnem, acc. of 
arsid, 'a burning', fr. L. arsus, pp. oiardere, 'to 
burn'. See ardent, 
arsonium, n., the radical AsH 4 (chem.) — ModL., 
compounded of arsenic and ammonium. 
art, n. — OF. (= F.), fr. L. ortem, acc. of ars, 
'skill, handicraft, trade, occupation, art', which 
is rel. to L. artus, 'joint', and cogn. with OI. 



rtih, 'manner, mode', Gk. apxi, 'just', SpTio?, 
'complete, perfect of its kind, suitable; even 
(said of a number), dcp-rf^eiv, 'to prepare', 
dpxuEiv, dpxuvciv, 'to arrange, prepare, make 
ready', Lith. arti, 'near', MHG., G. art, 'man- 
ner, mode'. All these words derive fr. I.-E. 
*art-, at- enlargement of base *ar-, 'to join', 
whence L. annus, 'shoulder', arma, 'weapons'. 
See arm, 'upper limb', and arm, 'weapon', and 
cp. Artamus, article, articulate, artifice, artil- 
lery, artisan, artist, artiste, coarctation, inert. 
Derivatives: art-ful, adj., artful-ly, adv., art- 
ful-ness, n., art-less, adj., art-less-ly, adv., art- 
less- ness, n. 

art, 2nd pers. pres. ind. of be. — OE. eart, fr. 
Teut. base *ar-, corresponding to I.-E. base *es-, 
'to be'. See are, v., and words there referred to. 

artaba, artabe, n., a Persian and Egyptian meas- 
ure. — Gk. dpxagr,, prob. of Egyptian origin. 
Cp. ardeb. 

Artamus, n.,a genus of oscine birds (ornithol.) — 
ModL., fr. Gk. apxajio?, 'butcher, cook', 
which — according to Eusthatios — is a contract- 
ion of el? apxia xe|jlv<i>v, 'he who cuts artist- 
ically'. Accordingly apxa[io? stands for *dpxi- 
xafiot; (see haplology), and is compounded of 
apxi, 'just', orig. 'joining, order', and of the 
stem of te(xve'.v, 'to cut'. See art, n., and tome. 

Artemis, n., the goddess of hunting in Greek 
mythology; identified by the Romans with 
Diana. — L., fr. Gk. "Ap-re^i?, a name of un- 
certain origin. Cp. next word. 

Artemisia, n., a genus of plants of the thistle 
family (bot.) — L., 'mugwort', fr. Gk. dpxe- 
fxima, fr. "ApTejii;, the Greek goddess of hunt- 
ing. See prec word and -ia. 

arterial, adj. — F. arterial (now arteriel), fr. L. 
arieria. See artery and adj. suff. -al. 
Derivative: arterial-ly, adv. 

arterialize, tr. v. to change into arterial. — F. 
arterialiser. See prec. word and -ize. 
Derivative: arterializ-ation, n. 

arteriasis, n., degeneration of an artery (med.) — 
Medical L., formed with suff. -iasis fr. Gk. 
apx7;p(a. See artery. 

arterio-, combining form meaning 'arterial'. — 
Gk. ipx^pio-, fr. apxv;pia, 'windpipe, artery'. 
See artery. 

arteriole, n., a small artery. — ModL., dimin. 
of L. arieria. See artery and -ole. 

arteriosclerosis, n., thickening of the walls of 
the arteries (med.) — Medical L., lit. 'hardening 
of the arteries'; compounded of Gk. apxr,pLa, 
'windpipe, artery', and avXifaaic, 'hardening, 
induration'. See arterio- and sclerosis. 

arteriosclerotic, adj. — See arterio- and sclerotic. 

arteriotomy, n., the cutting open of an artery 
(med.) — Late I., arteriotomia, fr. Gk. apx^pio- 
~o\jX5l, fr. dpxv;pi.oTO[iEiv, 'to cut an artery'. See 
artery and -tomy. 

arterious, adj., arterial. — Formed with suff. -ous 
fr. L. arteria. See artery. 

arteritis, n., inflammation of an artery or of ar- 
teries (med.) — Medical L., formed with suff. 
-iris fr. Gk. dpxYjpta. See next word. 

artery, n. — L. arteria, fr. Gk. dpxrjpia, 'wind- 
pipe, artery*, prob. contracted from *depxyjpia, 
which is a derivative of dsipEiv, atpsiv, 'to 
lift, raise, bear'. See aorta and cp. arsis and the 
second element in meteor. 

artesian, adj. — F. artesien, 'of Artois'. fr. OF. 
Arteis (F. Artois), fr. L. Atrebates, a people that 
lived in the NW. of Gallia. Cp. arras. For the 
ending see suff. -ian. — Artesian well owes its 
name to the circumstance that the first such 
wells were established by Belidor (1698- 1761) 
in the province of Artois, who therefore called 
them puits artesiens. 

artha, n., purpose (Hindu philos.) — OI. drtham, 
later drthah, 'purpose, aim, work, object', which 
is rel. to rnoti, fnvdti, 'rises, moves', rcchdti, 
'goes toward a thing, reaches', Avestic e r e naoiti, 
'moves', and cogn. with Gk. Spv'jjjii, opvuvai, 
'to stir up, rouse', L. orior, oriri, 'to rise'. See 
orient, and cp. words there referred to. 

arthritic, adj., pertaining to arthritis. — L. art- 
hriticus, fr. Gk. dpftpixixoe, fr. dpS-ptxi;. See 
next word and -ic. 

arthritis, n., inflammation of a joint (med.) — 
Medical L., fr. Gk. dp-9-pixii; (scil. voaoq), 'dis- 
ease of the joints', prop. fem. of the adjective 
dtpS-pfxY]?, 'pertaining to the joints', fr. ap&pov, 
'joint'. See next word and -itis and cp. diar- 
throsis, enarthrosis, synarthrosis. 

arthro-, before a vowel arthr-, combining form 
meaning 'pertaining to the joints'. — Gk. 
dp#po-, dp#p-, fr. apS-pov, 'joint', which is a 
derivative of base *ar-, 'to join'. See arm, 'the 
upper limb', and cp. arthritis and words there 
referred to. Cp. also article. 

arthrology, n., the study of the joints. — Formed 
fr. arthro- and Gk. -Xoyia, fr. -Xoyoc, 'one who 
speaks (in a certain manner); one who deals 
(with a certain topic)'. See -logy. 

arthroplasty, n., formation of (artificial) joints. — 
Formed fr. arthro- and --axcttix. See -plasty. 

arthropod, adj., pertaining to the Arthropoda; 
n., one of the Arthropoda. — See next word. 

Arthropoda, n. pi., the phylum of invertebrate 
animals with jointed limbs (entomol.) — ModL., 
lit. 'those with jointed feet' ; coined by the Ger- 
man anatomist and zoologist Karl Theodor 
Ernst von Siebold (1804-85) in 1845 fr. arthro- 
and -poda. 

Arthur, n., masc. PN. — ML. Arthurus, Arturus, 
fr. W. arth, 'bear', which is rel. to MIr. art, of 
s.m. and cogn. with Gk. Spxxoc, L. ursus 'bear'. 
See arctic and cp. words there referred to. 

artichoke, n. — Northern It. articiocco, altered 
fr. It. carciofo, fr. Sp. alcarchofa. fr. Arab, al- 
karshaf, fr. al-, 'the', and karshtf, 'artichoke'. 
F. artichaut, and G. Artischocke are also bor- 
rowed fr. It. articiocco. 

article, n. — F., fr. L. articulus, dimin. of artus, 



'joint', which is rel. to ars, gen. artis, 'art'. See 
art, n., and cp. articular, articulate. For the end- 
ing see suff. -cle. 

Derivatives: article, tr. v., articl-ed, adj. 
articular, adj. — L. articuldris, 'pertaining to the 
joints', fr. articulus, 'joint'. See prec. word 
and -ar. 

Articulata, n. pi., a division of animals compris- 
ing invertebrates with jointed limbs (now called 
Arthropodd). — ModL., coined by the French 
naturalist baron Georges-Leopold-Chretien- 
Frederic-Dagobert Cuvier (i 769-1 832) fr. L. 
articulatus, 'jointed', pp. of articuldre. See next 

articulate, tr. and intr. v. — L. articulatus, pp. of 
articuldre, 'to separate into joints; to utter dis- 
tinctly', fr. articulus, 'joint'. See article and 
verbal suff. -ate. 

Derivatives : articulat-ed, adj., articulation (q.v.), 
articulat-ive, adj., articulat-or, n., articulat-ory, 

articulate, adj. — L. articulatus, pp. of articuldre. 
See articulate, v. 

articulation, n. — F., fr. L. articuldtionem, acc. 
of articulatio, 'separation into joints', fr. arti- 
culatus, pp. of articuldre. See articulate, v., and 

artifact, n., anything made by human art (pale- 
ont.) — Compounded of L. ars, gen. artis, 'art', 
and facere, 'to make, do'. See art and fact and 
cp. next word. 

artifice, n., 1) skill; 2) trickery. — F., fr. L. arti- 
ficium, 'handicraft, skill, ingenuity, dexterity; 
craft, cunning, device', fr. artifex, gen. artificis, 
'craftsman', which is formed fr. ars, gen. artis, 
'art', and -ficere, fr. facere, 'to make, do'. See 
art, n., and fact and cp. artifact. For the change 
of Latin & (in facere) to 1 (in arti-fic-, the stem 
of arti-fex) see abigeat and cp. words there 
referred to. 

Derivative: artific-er, n. 

artificial, adj. — L. artificidlis, 'pertaining to art, 
artificial', fr. artificium. See prec. word and adj. 
suff. -al. 

Derivatives: artificial, n., artificial-ity, n.,arti- 
ficialize (q.v.), artificial-ly, adv., artificial-ness, n. 

artillery, n. — OF. (= F.) artillerie, fr. artiliier, 
'to provide with engines of war', fr. ML. arti- 
cula, 'engine of war', dimin. of L. ars. gen. artis, 
'art'. See art, n., and cp. words there referred to. 
For sense development cp. engine, fr. L. ingenium, 
'nature, disposition, capacity'. 
Derivative: artiller-ist, n. 

artinite, n., a hydrous magnesium carbonate 
{mineral.) — Named after the Italian mineral- 
ogist Ettore Artini (1866-1928). For the ending 
see subst. suff. -ite. 

Artiodactyla, n., an order of mammals (zool.) — 
ModL., lit. 'having even-numbered toes', fr. Gk. 
Sp-rio?, 'even', and SAxtuXo?, 'finger, toe'. For 
the first element see art, for the second see 

artisan, n. — F., fr. It. artigiano, fr. VL. *arti- 
tidnus, fr. L. artitus, pp. of artlre, 'to instruct 
in arts', fr. ars, gen. artis, 'art'. See art. For the 
ending cp. partisan. 

artist, n. — F. artiste, fr. It. artista, which is 
formed fr. L. ars gen. artis, 'art'. See art and -ist. 

artiste, n. — F. See prec. word. 

artistic, adj. — F. artistique, fr. artiste. See prec. 
word and -ic. 

Derivative: artistic-al-ly, adv. 
artistry, n. — Coined by Browning fr. artist and 
suff. -ry. 

Arum, n., a genus of plants; (not cap.) any plant 
of this genus (bot.) — L., fr. Gk. Jcpov, 'the 
cuckoopint', a word of Egyptian origin. See 
Plinius, Historia Naturalis, 19, 96, and cp. 

Aruncus, n., a genus of plants, the goat's beard 
(6 0f .) _ l. aruncus (a word used by Pliny), fr. 
Gk. fyuyyos, Dor - &puYY ?> 'goatsbeard'. See 

Arundinaria, n., a genus of bamboo grasses (bot.) 

ModL., fr. L. arundo, gen. -inis, 'reed'. See 

Arundo, adj. suff. -ary and suff. -ia. 

Arundo, n., a genus of grasses (bot.) — L. arundo, 
harundd, 'reed', of uncertain origin. 

arupa, adj., without form (Hindu religion). — OI. 
arupah, formed fr. priv. pref. a- and rupab, 
'form'. See priv. pref. an- and rupa. 

Arval, adj., pertaining to the Fratres Arvales 
(Rom. relig.) — L. arvdlis, 'pertaining to a culti- 
vated field', fr. arvum, 'arable field, cultivated 
land', which is rel. to ardre, 'to plow', and cogn. 
with Gk. dcpouv, 'to plow', ipoupa, 'arable land'. 
See arable and adj. suff. -al. 

arvej6n, n., the chickling vetch. — Sp., h. arvejo, 
'bastard chick-pea', rel. to arveja, 'vetch', fr. L. 
ervilia, 'the chick-pea', which is rel. to ervum, 
'the bitter vetch'. See Ervum. 

-ary, adj. suff. meaning 'pertaining to, connected 
with', as in arbitrary. — ME. -arie, -arye, de- 
rived fr. L. -drius, fern, -aria, neut. -drium, either 
directly or through the medium of OF. -ier, 
AF. -er or F. -aire. Cp. adj. suff. -ory. 

-ary, subst. suff. meaning 'a man belonging to, 
or engaged, in something', as in emissary, no- 
tary, _ L. -drius, prop, identical with adj. suff. 
-drius. See adj. suff. -ary. 

-ary, subst. suff. denoting 'a place for, or abound- 
ing in, something', as in aviary. — L. -drium, 
prop. neut. of the adj. suff. -drius, used to form 
substantives. See prec. suffixes and cp. -arium, 
and -er in the sense 'receptacle for'. 

-ary, adj. suff., meaning 'pertaining to', as in 
exemplary. — L. -am.TheregularEnglishequiv- 
alent of L. -dris is -ar (q.v.) 

Aryan, adj. and n. — Formed with suff. -an fr. 
OI. dryah, 'noble', which is rel. to OPers. ariya, 
'noble' (whence Pers. Iran, 'Persia'). Cp. Iran- 
ian. As a synonym for 'Indo-European' the 
term Aryan was introduced by the German 
philologist Friederich Max Miiller (1823-1900). 



Derivatives: Aryan-ism, n., Aryan-ize, tr. v., 
Aryan-iz-ation, n. 

aryballus, n., a bottle with a short neck and glob- 
ular body (Greek antiq.) — L., fr. Gk. dtpiip<xX- 
Xos, 'bag or purse; globular bottle for hold- 
ing oil', prob. a North Balkanic loan word. See 
Frisk, GEW., I, p. 156. 

arytenoid, adj., pertaining to two small cartilages 
in the larynx (anat.) — Gk. apuToavoeiS-fe/shaped 
like a pitcher', coined by Galen fr. dcpuTouva, 
'a pitcher' and -osiSfjC,, 'like', fr. sXSoq, 'form, 
shape'. The first element is rel. to Apu-rjjp, 
'ladle', fr. Apiieiv (Att. apuxetv), 'to draw' (water, 
wine, etc.) which prob. stands for *Fapueiv, and 
is rel. to eupioxsiv, 'to find' ; see heuristic. For 
the second element see -oid. 
Derivatives: arytenoid, n., arytenoid-al, adj. 

as, adv. — ME. as(e), als(e), also, al swa, fr. OE. 
ealswd, slswd, alswd, prop, 'all so', rel. to 
MHG. als, dlse, also, 'so, as, than', G. als, 'as, 
than'. See also. 

Derivatives: as, conj., pron., prep. 

as, n., Roman copper coin. — L. as (for *ass), 
gen. assis, prob. lit. meaning 'square piece of 
metal' (such was the original form of the coin), 
and orig. identical with assis, axis, 'plank, disc', 
which is rel. to asser, 'pole, stake, post'. See 
ashlar and cp. the second element in ambsace. 

as-, assimilated form of ad- before s. 

asafetida, asafoetida, n. — A ModL. hybrid 
coined fr. asa (fr. Pers. aza, 'mastic') and L. 
foetida, fern, of foetidus, 'stinking'. See fetid. 

asana, n., seat; sitting. — OI. dsanaft, formed 
from the stem of dste, 'he sits', which is cogn. 
with Hitt. esa, esari, 'he sits', eszi, 'he causes 
to sit', Gk. ^[xai, 'I sit'. 

asarabacca, n., the wild ginger (bot.) — Com- 
pounded of L. asarum, 'hazelwort', and bacca, 
'berry'. See Asarum and bacci-. 

asaron, n., a crystalline compound, found espe- 
cially in the oils of plants of the genus Asarum. 

— Gk. diaapov, 'hazelwort' of uncertain, possibly 
Sem. origin. Cp. next word. 

Asarum, n., a genus of herbs of the family Aristo- 
lochiaceae (bot.) — ModL., fr. L. asarum, 
'hazelwort, wild spikenard', fr. Gk. fiaapov. 
See asaron. 

asbestine, adj., pertaining to asbestos. — L. as- 
bestinus, fr. Gk. ac^ea-rivo?, fr. fia|3eaTo<;. See 
next word and adj. suff. -ine (representing L. 

asbestos, n. — L. asbestos, fr. Gk. SctPecttoi;, lit. 
'unquenchable, inextinguishable', fr. A- (see 
priv. pref. a-) and opeari?, verbal adj. of 
aPewijvai, 'to quench, extinguish', which derives 
fr. I.-E. base *g w es-, 'to quench, extinguish', 
whence also Lith. gestu, gisti, 'to go out, be 
extinguished', OSlav. gaSo, gasiti, of s.m., Hitt. 
kishtari, 'is being put out', Toch. A kas-, B kes-, 
kas-, 'to go out, be extinguished'. 

asbolite, n., a mineral containing oxide of cobalt. 

— Formed with subst. suff. -Ite fr. Gk. &a$6kt). 

'soot', which is perhaps rel. to Gk. 5t£a, 'dry- 
ness', #£eiv, 'to dry up, parch', and cogn. with 
Goth, azgo, 'ashes', L. drere (for *dsere), 'to be 
dry', ardere, 'to burn'. See ardent and cp. ash, 
'powdery substance'. 

Ascaridae, n. pi., a genus of Nematoda or thread- 
worms. — ModL., fr. Gk. aaxapi?, hen. -iSo?, 
'worm in the intestines', which is rel. to axa- 
pi^siv, Att. acwapi^stv, 'to jump', axaipsiv, 'to 
skip, dance', axipTav (freq. of axoupeiv), 'to 
leap, bound', axApos, 'the parrot fish' (lit. 'the 
leaping one'), fr. I.-E. base *sqer-, 'to leap, 
bound'. See Scarus and -idae. 

ascend, tr. and intr. v. — L. ascendere, 'to climb 
up, mount', fr. ad- and scandere, 'to climb'. See 
scan and cp. descend. For the change of Latin 
a (in scandere) to e (in as-cindere) see accent 
and cp. words there referred to. 

ascendance, ascendence, n. — Formed fr. ascend- 
ant resp. ascendent, with suff. -ce. 

ascendancy, ascendency, n. — Formed from next 
word with suff. -cy. 

ascendant, ascendent, n. — F. ascendant (adj. and 
n.), fr. L. ascendentem, acc. of ascendens, pres. 
part, of ascendere. See ascend and -ancy, resp. 

ascension, n. — F., fr. L. ascensidnem, acc. of as- 

censid, 'ascent', fr. ascensus, pp. of ascendere. 

See ascend and -ion and cp. descension. 

Derivative: ascention-al, adj. 
ascensive, adj. — Formed with suff. -ive fr. L. 

ascensus, pp. of ascendere. See ascend and cp. 


ascent, n. — Formed fr. ascend on analogy of 

descent (fr. descend), 
ascertain, tr. v. — OF. acertener, fr. a, 'to' (see a), 

and certain. See certain. 

Derivatives : ascertain-able, adj., ascertain-er, n., 
ascertain-ment, n. 
ascetic, adj., self-denying, austere. — Gk. dta- 
x7)-rat6(;, 'practiced, laborious, athletic', fr. 
acrxT)Trji;, 'one who practices any art or trade', 
fr. aoxeiv, 'to form by art, to practice gym- 
nastics, to practice, exercise', which is of un- 
certain origin. The word ascetic was introduced 
into English by Sir Thomas Brown (1663- 1704). 
Derivatives: ascetic, n., ascetic-al-ly, adv., as- 
cetic-ism, n. 

ascidian, n., a sea squirt (zool.) — Gk. dicmiSiov, 
dimin. of imcoq, 'leather bag'. See ascus. 

ascites, n., accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal 
cavity (med.) — Gk. acncf-nr)?, 'a kind of drop- 
sy', short for doxfTirji; uSpoiJ', lit. 'a baglike 
dropsy', fr. aoxoi;. See ascus. 

Asclepiadaceae, n. pi., the milkweed family (bot.) 
— ModL., formed fr. next word with suff. 

Asclepias, n., a genus of plants, the milkweed. — 
L. asclepias, name of a plant, fr. Gk. a<rxXr)mct?, 
fr. 'AaxXr)7ri6i;, name of the god of medicine; 
see next word and -ad. Asclepias orig. meant 
'the plant dedicated to Asclepius'. 



Asclepius, n., the god of medicine in Greek my- 
thology. — Gk. 'AraXTjTuot;, of uncertain ori- 
gin. Cp. Asclepias, Aesculapian. 

asco-, combining form meaning 'bladder'. — 
Gk. dcaxo-, fr. txaxo?, 'leather bag, wine skin'. 
See ascus. 

ascospore, n., a spore formed in an ascus (for.) — 
Compounded of asco- and a-Kopoq, 'a sowing'. 
See spore. 

ascribe, tr. v. — L. ascribere, 'to add to in a 
writing', fr. ad- and scribere, 'to write'. See 

Derivatives: ascrib-able, adj., ascrib-er, n. 

ascription, n. — L. ascriptid, gen. -onis, fr. ascrip- 
tus, pp. of ascribere. See prec. word and -ion. 

ascus, n., a sac in certain fungi (bot.) — ModL., 
fr. Gk. aaxoq, 'leather bag, wine skin' ; of un- 
certain origin. It is possibly cogn. with OI. 
dtkah, 'covering garment'. Cp. ascidian, ascites, 

Ascyrum, n., a genus of plants (bot.) — ModL., 

fr. Gk. foxupov, 'St. John's wort', which is of 

unknown origin, 
-ase, suff. denoting enzymes (biochemistry). — 

The ending of diastase (q.v.), the first enzyme 

isolated, became the regular suffix for forming 

nouns denoting enzymes. Cp. -ese. 
aseity, n., being by itself (philos.) — ML. dseitds, 

'state of being by itself, fr. L. a se, 'from, or of, 

himself. See a-, 'from', sui and -iry. 
asepsis, n., absence of sepsis (med.) — Medical 

L., formed fr. priv. pref. a- and sepsis, 
aseptic, adj., pertaining to asepsis, not producing 

sepsis (med.) — Formed fr. priv. pref. a- and 

<jY)7tTi,x6i;, 'putrefactive'. See septic. 

Derivatives: aseptic-al-ly, adv., aseptic-ism, n., 

aseptic-ize, tr. v. 
aseptol, n , an antiseptic preparation (pharm.) — 

Coined fr. aseptic and suff. -ol (representing L. 

oleum, 'oil'), 
asexual, adj., not sexual. — A hybrid coined fr. 

Gk. a-, 'not' (see priv. pref. a-), and sexual, a 

word of Latin origin. 

Derivatives: asexual-ity, n., asexual-ly, adv. 
ash, n., usually in pi. ashes, a powdery substance 
that remains after burning anything. — ME. 
asche, fr. OE. asce, sesce, rel. to ON., Swed. aska, 
Dan. ask, OHG. asca, MHG., G. asche, Goth. 
azgd, 'ashes' (whence Sp. and Port, ascua, 'red 
hot coal"), fr. l.-E. *as-gdn, *as-ghdn, 'ashes', 
fr. l.-E. base *Ss-, 'to burn, glow', whence also 
L. drere (for *dsere), 'to be dry', ardere, 'to 
burn'. See ardent and cp. words there referred to. 
Derivatives: ash-en, adj., ash-ery , n., ash-y, 

ash, n., any tree of the genus Fraxinus. — ME. 
asch, esch, fr. OE. xsc, rel. to ON. askr, OS., Dan. 
Swed., OHG. ask, MDu. esce, Du. es, MHG. 
asch, esche, G. Esche, and cogn with Arm. haci, 
'ash', Alb. ah, 'beech', Gk. o£ua, o^ui), 
'beech', and — with -n-formative element — with 
Russ. jdsen', Olr. uinnius, W., OCo. onnen (fr. 

base *onnd, for *o sna), 'ash' , L. ornus (for *osinos), 
'the wild mountain ash'. The original I.-E. base 
*dsis appears in Lith. uosis, Lett, uosis, OPruss. 
woasis, 'ash'. 
Derivative: ash-en, adj. 

ashamed, adj. — Pp. of obsol. ashame, fr. ME. 
aschamien, fr. OE. dscamian, 'to put to shame', 
which is formed fr. intensive pref. a- and 
scamian, 'to put to shame'. See shame. 
Ashamnu, n., the shorter of the two alphabetical 
confessions of sins recited in the liturgy of 
Yom Kippur (Jewish religion). — Heb. Asham- 
nu, 'we have trespassed', fr. dshdm, 'he has tres- 
passed', rel. to dshdm, 'offence, guilt, guilt of- 
fering', and to Arab, dthima, 'he has sinned', 
ithm, 'offence'. 
Asher, n., i) masc. PN.; 2) in the Bible: a) a son 
of Jacob; b) the tribe descended from him. — 
Heb. Asher, lit. 'happy' (see Gen. 30: 13), rel. to 
ishsher, 'he pronounced happy', osher, 'happi- 
ness', ashri, 'happy is', and prob. also to Arab. 
ydsara, 'was gentle, easy, happy'. Cp. the PN. 
Felix, fr. h. felix, 'happy', 
asherah, n., a Canaanitish and Phoenician god- 
ess; a sacred tree or pole. — Heb. dsherd", of 
uncertain origin. 

Ashkenaz, n., the eldest son of Gomer (Gen. 
10:3); also name of a people mentioned in Jere- 
miah (51:27); in the Middle Ages applied to 
Germany. — Heb. Ashkenaz. Cp. Euxine. 
Ashkenazim, n. pi., the Jews of Germany, central 
and northern Europe. — Heb. Ashkenazztm, 
pi. formed fr. Ashkenaz. See prec. word, 
ashlar, n., 1) a squared building stone; 2)masonry 
of squared stones. — ME. ascheler, fr. OF. ais- 
selier, fr. L. axillaris, fr. axis, 'board, plank', a 
collateral form of ass is, of s.m., which is rel. to 
osier, 'pole, stake, post'. Axis, 'axle', is not rel. to 
axis in the above sense. Cp. as, n., atelier. For 
the ending see suff. -ar. 
Derivatives: ashlar-ed, adj., ashlar-ing, n. 
ashore, adv. — Formed fr. a- 'on', and shore, 
ashrafi, n., name of various gold coins, esp. a 
gold coin in Persia. — Pers., fr. Arab. 
dshraf, lit. 'noble ones', pi. of sharif, 'noble', 
fr. shdrafa, 'he was exalted, he was noble'. 
See shereef and cp. words there referred to. 
ashrama, n., hermitage (Hinduism). — OI. dsrd- 
mah, fr. adnominal pref. d- and srdmah, 'effort, 
toil, fatigue', whence srdmyati, 'he becomes 
tired', which is rel. to OI. kldmyati, kldmati, 'he 
slackens, languishes' and cogn.^ with OSlav. 
kromiti, 'to tame', chromu, 'lame'. 
Ashtoreth, n., a Canaanitish goddess, identical 
with Astarte. — Heb. 'AshtSreth, rel. to Ugar. 
'strt, Akkad. Ishtar. Cp. Ishtar, Astarte, Aphro- 
dite, and the first element in Atargatis. Cp. also 

Ashura, n., name of the Mohammedan fast ob- 
served on the 10th day of the month Muhar- 
ram. — Arab. 'Ashurd', lit. 'the tenth', Arabized 
fr. Heb. 'asSr, 'the tenth day', which is rel. to 

'asdrd" (fem.), 'ten'. The Arabic word shows 
Aramaic influence; the ending -a represents the 
Aramaic article. See asor. 
Asia, n. — L. Asia, fr. Gk. * Aota, 'Asia', fr. Ak- 
kad. dsu, 'to go out; to rise' (said of the sun), 
which is rel. to Heb. yatzd\ 'went out; rose' 
(said of the sun), Aram. y e 'a, 'went forth; burst 
forth, bloomed', Ethiop. wadda, 'went out', 
Arab, wddu'a, 'was or became beautiful, neat 
or clean'. Accordingly Asia orig. denoted 'the 
Region of the Rising Sun', in contradistinction 
to Europe, which orig. meant 'the Region of the 
Setting Sun' (see Europe). Cp. hamotzi. Cp. also 

Asian, adj. and n. — L. Asianus, fr. Gk. ' Aaioevo?, 

fr. 'Acta. See prec. word and cp. next word. 

Derivatives: Asian-ic, adj., Asian-ism, n. 
Asiatic, adj. and n.— L. Asidticus, fr. Gk. 'Aoi5- 

Tixos, fr. *Aota, 'Asia'. See Asia and cp. prec. 


Derivatives: Asiatic-al-ly, adv., Asiatic-ism, n., 
Asiatic-ize, tr. v. 

aside, adv., prep., and n. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', 
and side. 

Asilidae, n. pi., a family of flies (zool.) — ModL., 
fr. L. asilus. See next word and -idae. 

Asilus, n., a genus of flies (zool.) — L. asilus, 
'gadfly, horsefly', prob. of Etruscan origin. See 
A.Ernout in Bulletin de la societe de linguisti- 
que, 30, no 2 . 

Asimina, n., a genus of trees, the North American 
papaw (bot.) — ModL., fr. Can. F. assiminier, 
'papaw tree', fr. Illinois Indian rassimina. 

asinego, n., a little ass, a fool. — Sp. asnico, di- 
min. of asno, 'an ass', fr. L. asinus, of s.m. See 
next word. 

asinine, adj., like an ass; stupid. — L. asinlnus, 
fr. asinus, 'ass, dolt, blockhead'. See ass and 
cp. words there referred to. For the ending see 
suff. -ine (representing L. -inus). 

-asis, suff. used in medical terminology to 
denote a state or condition. — Medical L. 
-asis, fr. Gk. -act;, formed from the aorist 
of verbs into -do, -co (inf. -aeiv, -av). Cp. -esis, 
-osis, -iasis. 

ask, tr. and intr. v. — ME. asken, axien, fr. OE. 
ascian, desian, rel. to OS. escon, Dan. seske, 
Swed. aska, OFris. askia, MDu. eiscen, Du. 
eisen, 'to ask, demand', OHG. eiscon, heiscdn, 
'to ask (a question)', MHG. eischen, heischen, 
G. heischen, 'to ask, demand', and cogn. with 
OI. icchdti (for *is-ske-ti), 'seeks, desires', Arm. 
aic (for *ais-skd-), 'investigation', OSlav. iskati, 
'to seek', Lith. ieskau, ieskoti, 'to seek', OI. 
ismdh, 'spring, god of love', prob. also with 
Gk. t^Epo; (for* ioy.spoc,), 'longing, yearning, 
desire'. All these words derive fr. I.-E. base 
*aish-, 'to wish, desire, seek'. 
Derivatives: ask-er, n., ask-ing, i., ask-ing-ly, 

ask, n., water newt. — ME. aske, corruption of 
OE. apexe, which is rel. to OS. egithassa, MDu. 

haghedisse, Du. hagedis, OHG. egidehsa, MHG. 
egedehse, eidehse, G. Eidechse. The first element 
of these words is prob. cogn. with L. anguis, 
'serpent, snake', Gk. iyic,, 'viper' ; see anguine 
and cp. echidna. The second element is prob. 
rel. to MHG. dehse, 'spindle'. For sense develop- 
ment cp. Russ. weretenica, 'lizard', fr. wereteno, 
'spindle'. Cp. asker. 
askance, adv. — ME. askaunce; of uncertain 

askari, n., a native soldier of East Africa. — 
Arab, 'askari, 'a soldier', fr. 'dskar, 'an army', 
fr. Late Gk. s5epxr,Tov, ultim. fr. L. exer- 
citus, 'army', fr. exercere, 'to train, drill'. See 
exercise and cp. lascar. 

askew, adv. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and skew, 
asker, n., a newt (dial.) — Formed fr. ask, 'newt', 
with suff. -er. 

askos, n., a vase resembling a wine skin (Greek 
antiq.) — Gk. atrok, 'leather bag, wine skin'. 
See ascus. 

aslant, adv. — Formed fr. a- 'on', and slant, 
asleep, adv. and pred. adj. — Formed fr. a-, 

'on', and sleep, 
aslope, adv. and pred. adj. — Formed fr. a-, 

'on', and slope. 
Asmodeus, n., an evil spirit, the prince of the 

demons. — L. Asmodaeus, fr. Gk. 'Aa^oSatoc, 

fr. Talmudic Heb. Ashm e ddy, fr. Avestic Aesh- 

ma-dseva, lit. 'Aeshma, the deceitful', 
asocial, adj., not social. — A hybrid coined fr. 

Gk. 4-, 'not' (see priv. pref. a-), and social, a 

word of Latin origin. 

asomatic, adj., incorporeal. — Formed with suff. 
-ic fr. L. asdmatus, fr. Gk. aaco(jtaTot;, 'disem- 
bodied, incorporeal', fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) 
and Gk. <rw[ia, 'body'. See somatic, 
asomatous, adj., incorporeal. — Gk. cxac^a-roc. 
See prec. word. For E. -ous, as equivalent to Gk. 
-os, see -ous. 
asor, n., a Hebrew ten-stringed instrument. — 
Heb. 'dsdr, fr. 'eser (masc), 'asdrd" (fem.), 
'ten', which is rel. to Aram, 'dsdr (masc), 'asrd 
(fem.), Ugar. 'shr (masc), 'shrh (fem.), Arab. 
'ashr (masc), 'dshara h (fem.), Ethiop. 'ashru 
(masc), 'ashartu (fem.), Akkad. eshri (masc), 
eshertu, esherit (fem.), 'ten'. (The masc. 
forms are used with fem. nouns, the fem. 
ones with masc. nouns.) In the Sem. lan- 
guages the orig. meaning of 'ten' seems to 
have been 'gathering, collection, union'. Cp. 
Arab, 'dshara, 'he formed a community', 'a- 
shtra h , 'a tribe', 'ashir, 'kinsman', md'shar, 'a 
group of men, assembly'. Cp. Ashura. 
asp, n., a snake of the viper family. — OF. aspe, 
fr. L. aspidem, acc. of aspis, 'asp', fr. Gk. xv-lz, 
gen. acrriSo?, of s.m., which prob. derives fr. 
Heb. tzepha', 'basilisk'. 
Derivative: asp-ish, adj. 
asp, n. — Poetic form of aspen. 
Derivative: asp-en, adj. 
asparagus, n. — L., fr. Gk. aCTTrapayot;, Att 



dtatpapayo?, 'asparagus,' which prob. means lit. 
'a sprout', and is rel. to amxpyav, 'to swell, be 
ripe', fr. I.-E. base *sper{e)g, *spher(e)g-, 'to 
sprout, swell, burst', whence also L. spargere, 
'to scatter'. See sparse and cp. words there 
referred to. Cp. also asperges and sparrow- 

Aspasia, fem. PN. — L., fr. Gk. 'Aorraaloc, fem. 
of aaTtaaioc,, 'welcome', which is rel. to acrrax- 
£ea&ai, 'to welcome'; of uncertain origin. 

aspect, n. — L. aspectus, 'glance, sight, appear- 
ance, countenance', fr. aspectus, pp. of aspicere, 
'to look at', fr. ad- and specere, spicere 'to look 
at'. See species and cp. conspectus, inspect, in- 
trospect, perspective, prospect, respect, retro- 
spect, suspect. 

aspect, tr. v. — L. aspectdre, freq. formed fr. 
aspectus, pp. of aspicere. See aspect, n. 

aspen, n., a variety of poplar. — Orig. an adj. 
formed with suff. -en (cp. ashen, oaken) fr. asp, 
'the aspen', fr. ME. aspe, asp, fr. OE. sespe, sesp, 
seps, 'aspen, white poplar', which is rel. to ON. 
dsp, Dan., Swed. asp, MLG., MDu. espe, Du. 
esp,OWG. aspa, MHG. aspe, G. Espe, and cogn. 
with Lett, apsa, OPruss. abse, Lith. apuse, Russ. 
osina (for *opsina). 

asperate, tr. v., to make rough. — L. asperdtus, 
pp. of asperdre. See asperity and verbal suff. -ate. 

asperges, n., the ceremony of sprinkling (R.C.Ch.) 
— L. asperges, second person sing. fut. indie, 
of aspergere, 'to sprinkle upon' ; see asperse. The 
ceremony is called asperges from the opening 
words of the Vulgate, Ps. 51:9 Asperges me 
hyssopd, rendering Heb. t e hatt e eni bh e ezdbh 
('purge me with hyssop'), 
aspergillum, n., a small brush for sprinkling 
(R.C.Ch.) — ML., 'a small brush for sprinkling', 
a diminutive formed fr. L. aspergere. See prec. 

Aspergillus, n., a genus of fungi (bot.) — ModL., 
a diminutive formed fr. L. aspergere. See 

asperifoliate, also asperifolious, adj., having rough 
leaves. — Compounded of L. asper, 'rough', 
and folium, 'leaf. See next word and foliate. 

asperity, n., roughness. — F. asperite, fr. L. as- 
periidtem, acc. of asperitds, 'unevenness, rough- 
ness', fr. asper, 'uneven, rough', which is of un- 
certain origin. Cp. Asperugo, Asperula, Aspredo, 
exasperate. For the ending see suff. -ity. 

asperse, tr. v., 1) to besprinkle {now rare); 2) to 
slander. — L. aspersus, pp. of aspergere, 'to 
sprinkle upon', fr. ad- and spargere,' to scatter, 
sprinkle'. Sec sparse and cp. asperges, disperse. 
For the change of Latin a (in spargere) to e (in 
a-spergere) see accent and cp. words there re- 
ferred to. 

Derivatives: aspers-ed, adj., aspers-er, n., aspers- 
ive, adj., aspers-ive-ly, adv. 

aspersion, n. — L. asper sid, gen. -dnis, fr. asper- 
sus, pp. of aspergere. See prec. word and -ion. 

Asp;rug3, n., a genus of plants of the borage 

family (bot.) — L. asperugo, 'a plant with prick- 
ly leaves', fr. asper, 'rough'. See asperity. 

Asperula, n. a genus of plants of the madder 
family (bot.) — ModL., a diminutive formed fr. 
L. asper, 'rough'. See asperity. 

asphalt also asphaltum, n. — F. asphalte, fr. Late 
L. asphaltus, fr. Gk. S«r<paXTo?, which is of un- 
certain, possibly Sem., origin. See Heinrich 
Lewy, Die semitischen Fremdworter im Grie- 
chischen, Berlin, 1895, p. 53. 
Derivatives: asphalt, tr. v., asphalt-ine, asphalt- 
ic, adjs. 

asphodel, n. — L. asphodelus, fr. Gk. aayoHzkoc,, 
a foreign word of uncertain origin. Cp. daffodil, 
which is a doublet of asphodel. 

asphyxia, n.. suspended animation (med.) — 
Medical L. fr. Gk. dcacpui;la, lit. 'pulselessness', 
fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and a<pu!;i;, 'pulsation', 
which is rel. to a<puY|i6<;, 'pulsation', acpii^eiv 
(for *a(piJY-isiv), 'to beat, pulsate'. See sphyg- 
mus and -ia. 

asphyxiant, adj., asphyxiating; n., an asphyxiat- 
ing agent. — See prec. word and -ant. 

asphyxiate, tr. v., to suffocate. — See asphyxia 
and verbal suff. -ate. 
Derivative : asphyxiat-ion, n. 

aspic, n., asp. — OF. (= F.) aspic, which is prob. 
a blend of OF. aspe, 'asp' (see asp, 'snake'), and 
OF. (= F.) basilic, 'basilisk', fr. L. basiliscus 
(see basilisk), two names that are often asso- 
ciated with each other. 

aspic, n., a savory meat jelly. — F., the same as 
aspic, 'asp' ; so called from the varied colors of 
this jelly. 

Aspidistra, n., a genus of plants of the lily-of-the- 
valley family (bot.) — ModL., lit. 'star shield', 
fr. Gk. aura?, gen. aaruSoc., 'shield', and acTpov, 
'star'. See next word and aster. 

aspidium, n., the shield fern (bot.) — ModL., Lit. 
'little shield', fr. Gk. aamSiov, dimin. of aortic., 
gen. dcamSoc., 'shield', which is of uncertain 

aspirant, adj. — F., fr. L. aspirantem, acc. of as- 
p'trans, pres. part, of aspirdre. See aspire and -ant. 

aspirate, n. — L. aspirdtus, pp. of aspirdre. See 
aspire, and adj. suff. -ate. 

aspirate, tr. v. — L. aspirdtus, pp. of aspirdre. 
See aspirate, n. 

Derivatives: aspirat-ed, adj., aspiration (q.v.), 
aspirat-or, n., aspirat-ory, adj. 
aspiration, n. — L. aspirdtid, gen. -dnis, fr. as- 
pirdtus, pp. of aspirdre. See next word and 

aspire, intr. v. — F. aspirer, fr. L. aspirdre, 'to 
breathe or blow upon; to aspire', fr. ad- and 
spirdre, 'to breathe'. See spirit and cp. con- 
spire, expire, inspire, respire. 

aspirin, n. (pharm.) — A hybrid coined by H. 
Dreser in Pfliiger's Archiv in 1 899. The acetylo- 
salicylic acid occurs in the flowers of the plant 
Spiraea ulmaria. In order to distinguish from 
this natural product the same substance gained 



chemically, the word aspirin was formed by 
Dreser from priv. pref. a-, the above mentioned 
plant Spiraea, and chem. suff. -in. Hence aspirin 
prop, means 'acetylo-salicylic acid which is 
gained not from the Spiraea ulmaria (but in a 
chemical way)'. 
Asplenium, n., a genus of ferns (bot) — ModL., 
fr. L. asplenum, 'miltwort, spleenwort', fr. Gk. 
aorcXY)vov, fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and (ttcXtjv, 
'spleen' ; see spleen. The plant was so called for 
its healing qualities. The name ScttlXtjvov lit. 
means 'a remedy against (the diseases of) the 

Aspredo, n., a genus of catflshes (ichthyol.) — 
ModL., fr. L. aspredo, 'roughness', fr. asper. 
See asperity. 

asquint, adv. and adj. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', 
and squint. 

ass, n. — ME. asse, fr. OE. assa, fr. Olr. assan, 
fr. L. asinus, 'ass, dolt, blockhead', a word bor- 
rowed from a language spoken in the South of 
Asia Minor, whence also Gk. ovoc, (for orig. 
*osonos), 'ass', Arm. esh (collective pi. ishan-k"), 
of s.m. Cp. asinego, asinine, easel, onager. 

assagai, assegai, n., a hardwood spear. — Port. 
azagaia, fr. Arab.-Berb. az-zaghdya", fr. az-, 
assimilated form of al-, 'the', and zaghdya", 'a 
spear'. Cp. lancegay. 
Derivative: assagai, assegai, tr. v. 

assai, adv., very (musical direction). — It., fr. L. 
ad, 'to', and satis, 'enough'. See assets. 

assai, n., the assai palm. — Port, assai, fr. Tupi 

assail, tr. v. — ME. assailen, fr. OF. asalir, as- 
sailir (F. assaillir), fr. VL. assalire, fr. ad- and 
L. salire, 'to leap, spring'. Cp. L. assilire, 'to 
leap upon', and see salient. Cp. also assault. 
Derivatives: assail-able, adj., assailant (q.v.), 
assail-er, n., assail-ment, n. 

assailant, n. — F. assaillant, pres. part, of as- 
saillir. See assail and -ant. 

assart, n., the act of grubbing up trees, bushes, 
etc. (Old English law) — Formed— with change 
of prefix— fr. OF. (= F.) essart, 'the grubbing 
up of trees', fr. VL. exsartum, fr. L. ex, 'out of 
(see ist ex-), and the stem of sarire (also spelled 
sarrire), 'to grub, hoe', whence also sarculum, 
(for *sart-lom), 'hoe'; cogn. with OI. sfnf, 
'sickle', s/-nih, 'elephant goad'. L. sarire is rel. 
to sarpere, 'to cut off, lop, trim'. See sarmentum. 

assart, tr. v. — OF. essarter, 'to grub up trees', 
fr. essart. See assart, n. 

assassin, n., murderer. — F., fr. It. assassino, fr. 
Arab, hashshdshin, 'drinkers of hashish 1 , fr. 
hashish, 'hemp' ; see hashish. The first assassins 
were the fanatic followers of the Shaykh-ul- 
Jabal (the Old Man of the Mountains), who 
committed their murders under the intoxication 
of hashish. The plural suff. -in in assassin was 
mistaken for part of the word. Cp. Bedouin. 
Derivatives: assassin-ate, tr. v., assassin-at- 
ion, n. 

assault, n. — ME. asaut, fr. OF. asaut (F. as- 
saut), fr. VL. *assaltus, fr. ad- and L. saltus, 
'a leap', fr. salire, 'to leap, spring'. See salient 
and cp. assail. 

assault, tr. v. — OF. assauter, fr. VL. assaltdre, 
fr. ad- and L. saltdre, freq. of salire. See as- 
sault, n. 

Derivative: assault-er, n. 

assay, n. — ME., fr. OF. assai, which was form- 
ed — with change of prefix — from OF. essai, 
essay (F. essai), fr. L. cxagium, 'a weighing', 
fr. exigere, 'to weigh, measure, examine', lit. 
'to drive out', fr. ist ex- and agere, 'to drive'. 
Cp. It. saggio (with the loss of the initial 
syllable) and the verb assaggiare (with the same 
change of pref. as in English). See agent, adj., 
and cp. essay. Cp. also exigent, exiguous. 

assay, tr. v. — ME. assayen, fr. OF. assayer, a 
collateral form of essaier, essayer, fr. assai, 
resp. essai, essay. See assay, n. 
Derivatives: assay-able, adj., assay-er, n., assay- 
ing, n. 

assecuration, n., insurance (law). — ML. asse- 
curdtid, gen. -dnis, fr. ad- and L. seciirus, 'free 
from care, careless'. See secure. 

assecurator, n. (law). — See prec. word and agen- 
tial suff. -or. 

assemblage, n. — F. assemblage, 'gathering, as- 
semblage', fr. assembler. See next word and 

assemble, tr. and intr. v. — ME. assemblen, fr. 

OF. (= F.) assembler, 'to gather, assemble', fr. 

L. assimuldre, 'to make like, think like', in later 

sense 'to gather at the same time', fr. ad- and 

simuldre, 'to make like, imitate', fr. simul, 

'together'. See simulate. 

Derivative: assembl-er, n. 
assembly, n. — ME. assemblee, fr. OF. assemblee 

(F. assemblee), prop. fem. pp. of assembler, 'to 

assemble', used as a noun. See prec. word and 

-y (representing OF. -e, -ee). 
assent, intr. v. — ME. assenten, fr. OF. asenter, 

assenter, fr. L. assentdri, 'to agree with', freq. 

formed fr. assentire, assentiri, fr. ad- and sentire, 

'to feel'. See sense and cp. consent, dissent, 


Derivatives: assentation (q.v.), assent-er, n., 
assent-ive, adj., assent-ive-ness, n. 

assent, n. — ME., fr. OF., back formation fr. as- 
senter. See prec. word.' 

assentation, n. — L. assentdtid, gen. -dnis, 'a 
flattering assent', fr. assentdtus, pp. of assen- 
tdri. See assent, v., and -ation. 

assentient, adj., assenting; n., one who assents. — 
L. assentiens. gen. -entis, pres. part, of assentire. 
See assent, v., and -ent. 

assert, tr. v. — L. assertus, pp. of asserere, 'to 
claim, maintain, affirm', lit. 'to join to oneself, 
fr. ad- and serere, 'to join together, connect, 
combine'. See series and cp. dissert, insert. 
Derivatives: assert-er, n., assertion (q.v.), assert- 
ive, adj., assert-ive-ly, adv., assert-ive-ness, n. 



assertion, n. — L. assertio, gen. -onis, fr. assertus, 

pp. of asserere. See prec. word and -ion. 

Derivative: assertion-al, adj. 
assertory, adj. — L. assertdrius, 'pertaining to an 

assertion, assertive', fr. assertus, pp. of asserere. 

See assert and adj. suff. -ory. 

Derivatives: assertori-al, adj., assertori-al-ly, 


assess, tr. v., to evaluate for taxation. — ME. 
assessen, fr. OF. assesser, fr. Late L. assessdre, 
freq. formed fr. L. assessus, pp. of assidere, 'to 
sit by or near; to assist in office', fr. ad- and 
sedere, 'to sit'. See sedentary and cp. assiduous, 
assize. Cp. also cess, 'tax', which is an aphetic 
form of assess. 

Derivatives: assess-able, adj., assess-ee, n., as- 
sess-ment, n., assessor (q.v.) 

assessor, n. — ME. assessour, fr. OF. assessour 
(F. assesseur), fr. L. assessdrem, acc. of assessor, 
lit. 'a sitter by', fr. assessus, pp. of assidere. See 
prec. word and agential suff. -or. 
Derivative: assessor-ial, adj. 

assets, n. — Orig. a singular noun fr. OF. asez 
(pronounced asets) (whence F. assez), 'enough', 
fr. VL. *ad-satis, 'in sufficiency', fr. L. ad, 'to' (see 
ad-), and satis, 'enough'. Cp. OProvcnc. assatz, 
'enough', It. assai, 'much', which also derive fr. 
VL. *ad-satis, and see satis, sad. 

asseverate, tr. v., to affirm. — L. asseverdtus, pp. 
of asseverdre, 'to act with earnestness, to assert 
strongly' (said of speech), fr. ad- and severus, 
'serious, grave, strict, austere'. See severe and 
cp. persevere. 

Derivatives: asseverat-ive, adj., asseverat-ive-ly, 
adv., assever-at-ory, adj. 

asseveration, n., affirmation. — L. asseverdtid, 
gen. -onis, 'vehement assertion', fr. asseverdtus, 
pp. of asseverdre. See prec. word and -ion. 

assibilate, tr. v., to make sibilant. — L. assibi- 
latus, pp. of assibildre, fr. ad- and sibildre, 'to 
hiss'. See sibilant. 
Derivative: assibilat-ion, n. 

assiduity, n. — L. assiduitds, gen. -tdtis, 'con- 
tinual presence', fr. assiduus. See next word 
and -ity. 

assiduous, adj., i) constant in application; 2) dili- 
gent. — L. assiduus, 'busy; incessant, continual, 
constant', lit. 'sitting by (one's work)', fr. assi- 
dere, 'to sit by', fr. ad- and sedere, 'to sit'. See 
ad- and sedentary. For the change of Latin e 
(in sedere) to 1 (in as-sidere), see abstinent and 
cp. words there referred to. For E. -ous, as 
equivalent to L. -us, see -ous. 
Derivatives :assiduous-ly, adv., assiduous-ness, n. 

assiento, asienro, n., contract or convention. — 
Sp. asiento, fr. asentar, 'to adjust, settle, estab- 
lish', lit. 'to place on a chair', formed fr. a 
(fr. L. ad, 'to'), and sentar, 'to place on a chair, 
set, set up, establish', fr. L. sedens, gen. -entis, 
pres. part, of sedere, 'to sit'. See ad- and seden- 

assign, tr. v. — ME. assignen, fr. OF. aligner, as- 

signer, fr. L. assigndre, 'to assign, allot, distrib- 
ute', lit. 'to mark out', fr. ad- and signdre, 'to 
mark', fr. signutn, 'mark, token, sign'. See sign, 
n., and cp. design. 

Derivatives: assign-able, adj., assignabl-y, adv. 
assign, n., one assigned. — F. assigne, pp. of as- 

signer. See prec. word and cp. assignee, 
assignat, n., paper money issued by the French 

revolutionary government (1789-96). — F., fr. L. 

assignatum, neut. pp. of assigndre. See assign, v. 
assignation, n., appointment to meet; assignment. 

— ME. assignacion, fr. OF. assignacion (F. 

assignation), fr. L. assigndtionem, acc. of assig- 

ndtid, 'allotment', fr. assigndtus, pp. of assig- 
ndre. See assign, v., and -ation. 
assignee, n., an assign. — F. assigne, pp. of as- 

signer, fr. L. assigndre. See assign, v., and cp. 

assign, n. 

assignment, n. — ME. assignement, fr. OF. as- 
signment, fr. assigner. See assign, v., and -ment. 

assimilate, tr. and intr. v. — L. assimildtus, pp. 
of assimildre, 'to make like, liken', fr. ad- and 
simildre, 'to make similar to', fr. similis, 'like, re- 
sembling'. See similar and verbal suff. -ate and 
cp. assemble. 

Derivatives: assimilation (q.v.), assimilat-ive, 
adj., assimilat-or, n., assimilat-ory, adj. 

assimilation, n. — L. assimildtid, gen. assimild- 
tionis, 'likeness, similarity', fr. assimildtus, pp. 
of assimildre. See assimilate and -ion. 

assist, tr. and intr. v. — F. assister, 'to stand by, 
help, assist', fr. L. assistere, 'to stand by', fr. ad- 
and sistere, 'to cause to stand, put, place; to 
stand still, stand', from the reduplicated base of 
stare, 'to stand'. Cp. OI. tisthati, Avestic hish- 
taiti, 'stands', and Gk. ictt7)[xi, 'I cause to stand, 
place; I stand', which stands for *en-aT7j[xi, 
and see state. Cp. also consist, desist, exist, 
insist, persist, resist, subsist. 

assistance, n. — F., fr. assistant. See next word 
and -ce. 

assistant, adj. and n. — F. assistant, adj. and n., 
prop. pres. part, of assister. See assist and -ant. 

assize, n. — ME. assise, fr. OF. asise, 'session' 
(whence F. assises, 'the assizes'), prop. fem. 
pp. of asseoir, 'to cause to sit, to set', fr. L. as- 
sidere, 'to sit by'. See assess and cp. size. 
Derivatives: assize, tr. v., assize-ment, n., assiz- 
er, n. 

associable, adj. — F., fr. associer, fr. L. associare. 

See next word and -able. 

Derivatives: associabil-ity, n., associable-ness,n. 
associate, tr. and intr. v. — L. associdtus, pp. of 

associare, 'to join to, unite with', fr. ad- and 

socidre, 'to join together, associate', fr. socius. 

'companion'. See sociable and verbal suff. -ate 

and cp. consociate, dissociate. 

Derivatives: associat-ed, adj., association, asso- 
ciative (qq.v.) 
associate, adj. — L. associdtus, pp. of associare. 

See prec. word. 

Derivative: associate, n. 



association, n. — F., fr. ML. associdlidnem, acc. 

of associdtid, fr. L. associdtus, pp. of associare. 

See associate, v., and -ion, and cp. consociation, 

dissociation. Derivative: association-al, adj. 
associative, adj. — Formed with suff. -ive from 

the verb associate; first used by Coleridge. 

Derivatives: associative-ly, adv., associative- 

ness, n. 

assoil, tr. v., to absolve (archaic). — ME. assoi- 
len, fr. OF. assoile, pres. subjunctive oiassoldre 
(F. absoudre), 'to absolve'. See absolve, which 
is the doublet of assoil. 
Derivative: assoil-ment, n. 

assoilzie, tr. v., to acquit (Scot. law). — Formed 
fr. prec. word. 

assonance, n. — F., fr. assonant. See next word 
and -ce and cp. sonance and words there re- 
ferred to. 

assonant, adj. — F., fr. L. assonantem, acc. of as- 
sondns, pres. part, of assondre, 'to sound to, res- 
pond to',fr. ad- and sondre, 'to sound'. See sound, 
'voice', and cp. sonant and words there referred to. 

assonate, intr. v. — L. assonatus, pp. of assondre. 
See prec. word and verbal suff. -ate. 

assort, tr. and intr. v. — OF. assorter, 'to assort, 
match', fr. a, 'to' (see a), and sorte, 'sort, kind, 
species'. See sort, v. and n. The change of con- 
jugation in F. assortir, of s.m., is due to the in- 
fluence of the verb sortir, 'to go out'. 
Derivatives: assort-ative, adj., assort-ed, adj., 
assort-er, n., assort-ive, adj., assort-ment, n. 

assuage, tr. v., to mitigate; to soothe. — ME. 
asuagen, fr. OF. asuager, assouager, assouagier, 
fr. a, 'to' (see a), and L. sudvis, 'sweet'. See 
sweet and cp. suave. 

Derivatives: assuag-er, n., assuagement (q.v.) 

assuagement, n. — OF. assouagement, fr. assou- 
ager. See assuage and -ment. 

assuetude, n., custom, habit (med.) — L. assue- 
tudo, fr. assuetus, pp. of assuescere, 'to accus- 
tom', fr. ad- and suescere, 'to become used or 
accustomed', fr. I.-E. base *swedh-, 'to make 
one's own'. See custom and cp. consuetude. For 
the ending see suff. -tude. 

assume, tr. and intr. v. — L. assumere, 'to take 
to (oneself), take up, adopt, usurp', fr. ad- and 
sumere, 'to take' ; which is compounded of sub-, 
'under', and emere, 'to take'. See exempt and 
cp. consume, presume, resume, subsume. Cp. also 

Derivatives: assum-ed, adj., assum-ed-ly, adv., 
assum-ing, adj., assum-ing-ly, adv. 
assumption, n. — L. assumptid, gen. -onis, 'a tak- 
ing, receiving', fr. assumptus, pp. of assumere. 
See prec. word and ->on and cp sumption and 
words there referred to. 

assumptive, adj. — Formed with suff. -ive fr. L. 
assumptus, pp. of assumere. See assume and cp. 

prec. word. 

assurance, n. — OF. aseiirance (F. assurance), 
fr. aseiirer. See assure and -ance. 
assure, tr. v. — OF. aseiirer (F. assurer), fr. Late 

L. assecurare, fr. ad- and L. securus, 'safe'. See 
secure, sure. 

Derivatives: assur-ed, adj., assur-ed-ly, adv., 
assur-ed-ness, n., assur-er, n., assur-ing, adj., as- 
sur-ing-ly, adv. 

assurgent, adj., rising. — L. assurgens, gen. -entis, 
pres. part, of assurgere, 'to rise up', fr. ad- and 
surgere, 'to rise'. See surge and cp. insurgent. 

Assyria, n. — L. Assyria, fr. Gk. ' Acroupta (short 
for 'Acroupia -ffi, 'the Assyrian land'), fem. of 
'Aacripto?, 'pertaining to Assyria', fr. Akkad. 
Ashshur. Cp. Heb. Ashshiir, Gen. 10:10. Cp. 
also Syria. 

Derivatives: Assyri-an, adj. and n., Assyri-an- 
ize, v. 

Assyriology, n., the study of the history and 
language of Assyria. — Compounded of As- 
syria and Gk. -Xoyia, fr. -Xoyo?, 'one who 
speaks (in a certain manner); one who deals 
(with a certain topic)'. See -logy. 
Derivatives: Assyriolog-ic-al, adj., Assyriolog- 
ist, n. 

-ast, agential suff., identical in meaning to -ist. — 
F. -aste, fr. L. -asta, fr. Gk. -acjTYjt;, which stands 
for -an-TTf, and is formed fr. -aa- (the ending 
of the stem of the verbs in -a^ew) and agential 
suff. -Tr);. Cp. -ist. 

Astarte, n., a Phoenician goddess, identical with 
Greek Aphrodite. — L., fr. Gk. 'AaTap-o;, fr. 
Heb.-Phoen. 'Ashtoreth. See Ashtoreth and cp. 

astatic, adj. (electricity) — Formed with suff. -ic 
fr. Gk. itCTTaxo;, 'not steadfast', fr. d- (see priv. 
pref. a-) and otoctA;;, 'standing', verbal adj. of 
lcty)pli, (for *ai-aTT)(jiO, 'I cause to stand, place; 
I stand'. See static. 

astatine, n.,name of a radioactive element (chem.) 
— Formed with chem. suff. -ine, fr. Gk. 
aaTaTo;, 'unstable'. See prec. word. 

asteism, n., genteel irony. — Gk. daTelajioi;, 
'wit, witticism', fr. daTeiog, 'of the town', fr. 
Sa-pj, 'town, city', esp. 'the city of Athens', fr. 
orig. f daT'j [cp. Arcadian faaaxui"/ 01 (gen. of 
f ocaaTuo/oi;), 'protecting the city (of Athens)', 
epithet of Pallas Athene], which is cogn. with 
OI. vdstu, 'dwelling place', vdstu, vastu, 'seat, 
place, thing', Toch. A wast, 'house', fr. I.-E. 
base *wes-, 'to dwell'. See was and cp. words 
there referred to. Cp. also the first element in 
Astyanax. For the ending see suff. -ism. 

Aster, n., a genus of plants of the thistle family 
(bot.) — L. aster, 'star', fr. Gk. dcmr;p ; so called 
from the radiate heads of its flowers. See star 
and cp. asterisk, Astraea, astrology, astrono- 
my, disaster. 

-aster, combining form meaning 'star, starlike', 
as in Ciypeaster. — See prec. word. 

-aster, suff. expressing incomplete resemblance, 
usually of dimin. and depreciativc force. — L. 
-aster, fr. Gk. -a<T-r/)p, a suff. orig. forming 
nouns from verbs ending in -d^ew, later gene- 
ralized as a pejorative suff. Cp. mx-zpaivriip, 'he 



who plays the father', fr. raxxvjp, 'father'. The 
Gk. suff. -aoT7)p was adopted by the Latin, 
whence, in the form -astre, -dtre, it came into 
the Old French, resp. the French. Cp. the words 
medicaster, oleaster, pinaster, poetaster. Cp. also 

asteria, n., a gem reflecting a six-rayed light 
(Greek antiq.) — L., fr. Gk. doxepid, 'a pre- 
cious stone', prop. fem. of aa-zipioq, 'starred, 
starry', used as a noun, fr. dox-rjp, 'star'. See Aster. 

asterisk, n., the figure of a star (the printing 
mark *). — Late L. asteriscus, fr. Gk. doxEpwrxo?, 
dimin. of daxr)p, 'star'. See Aster. 

asterism, n., a system of stars, a constellation. — 
Gk. a<JT£pi<jjx6g, fr. daxrjp, 'star'. See Aster and 

astern, adv. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and stern. 

asteroid, adj., starlike. — Gk. daxEpoEiSi]?, 
compounded of daxrjp, 'star', and -oei8»]s, 
'like', fr. sISos.'form, shape'. See Aster and -oid. 
Derivative: asteroid, n. 

Asteroidea, n., a class of echinoderms, the starfish 
(zool.) — ModL. See asteroid. 

asthenia, n., weakness (med.) — Medical L., fr. 
Gk. dafreveiot, 'weakness', fr. daS-EVTji;, 'weak', 
fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and o9ivo;, 'strength'. 
See sthenic and cp. sthenia. 

asthenic, adj., weak (med.) — Gk. da&evixoi;, fr. 
da&evr;;, 'weak'. See prec. word and -ic. 

asthma, n., a chronic disorder characterized by 
difficulty in breathing. — Gk. <Xa{>u.oe, 'hard- 
drawn breath', which prob. stands for *dvcr!>u.a 
and derives fr. I.-E. base *an-, 'to blow, breathe', 
whence also ave[io<;, 'wind', L. animus, 'breath 
of air, air, breath'; see animus. See Frisk, GEW., 
I, pp. 161-62 s.v. i£a9-[xa. 

asthmatic, adj. — L. asthmaticus, fr. Gk. da&fxa- 
xixoc, fr. 5<j&fxa. See asthma and -atic. 
Derivative: asthmatic-al-ly, adv. 

astigmatic, adj., pertaining to, or suffering from, 
astigmatism (med. and optics). — See next word. 

astigmatism, n., defect of the eye that prevents 
the rays of light from converging to a point on 
the retina (med. and optics). — Coined by the 
English mathematician and philosopher Wil- 
liam Whewell (1794- 1866) in 18 19 fr. priv. pref. 
a- and Gk. axiyixa, gen. artyfj.<xxo<;, 'a prick, 
puncture, mark'. See stigmatic and -ism. 

Astilbe, n., a genus of plants of the saxifrage 
family (bot.) — ModL., lit. 'not shining', fr. 
priv. pref. a- and axtX(3eiv, 'to shine'. See stilbite. 

astir, adv. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and stir. 

astomatous, adj., having no mouth. — Formed 
fr. priv. pref. a- and -stomatous. 

astonish, tr. v. — Obsol. astony, fr. ME. astonien, 
astonen, which is formed with change of pref. 
fr. estoner (whence F. etonner), fr. VL. *exto- 
ndre, lit. 'to strike with thunder', fr. 1st ex- 
and L. tondre, 'to thunder'. See thunder and cp. 
astound. The verb astonish was influenced in 
form by English verbs ending in -ish, in which 
this suff. is the equivalent of OF. and F. -iss, 

and goes back ultimately to the Latin inchoative 
suff. -iscere. Cp. admonish, distinguish, ex- 

Derivatives: astonish-ed-ly, adv., astonish-er, n., 
astonish-ing, adj., astonish-ing-ly, adv., astonish- 
ing-ness, n. 

astound, tr. v. — ME. astoned, astouned, pp. of 
astonien. See astonish. 

Derivatives: astound-ing, adj., astound-ing-ly, 
adv., astound-ment, n. 
astraddle, adv. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and 

Astraea, n., the goddess of justice in Greek and 
Roman mythology. — L., fr. Gk. 'Aaxpaia, lit. 
'starry', fem. of dcrxpaux;, fr. dcrrjp, 'star'. See 

astragal, n., a convex molding (archil.) — L. as- 
tragalus, fr. Gk. daxpdyaXcx;, 'one of the ver- 
tebrae of the neck, anklebone, molding', assim- 
ilated fr. *6axpdyocXoi;, which is rel. to oaxpa- 
xov, 'oyster shell, potsherd', fiaxsov, 'bone', and 
cogn. with L. os, 'bone'. See os. 

astragalus, n., the ball of the ankle joint (anat.) 

— L. See prec. word. 

Astragalus, n., a genus of plants of the pea family 
(bot.) — L. See astragal. 

astrakhan, astrachan, n., the fur of still-born or 
young lambs from Astrakhan. — From As- 
trakhan in Russia. The name of the city lit. 
means 'star of the caravanserai'. See astral and 
khan, 'caravanserai'. 

astral, adj., pertaining to the stars. — F., fr. L. 
astrdlis, fr. astrum, 'star', fr. Gk. &axpov, which 
is rel. to daxr)p, 'star'. See Aster and adj. suff. 

Derivative: astral-ly, adv. 
astrapophobia, n., morbid fear of lightning (med.) 

— Medical L., compounded of Gk. daxpa7rrj, 
'lightning', and -<po(3l5, 'fear of, fr. <j>6f}o<;, 'fear'. 
Gk. dcoTpaTCT] is a collateral form of d<7XEpo7r*), 
CTTepo7rf), and lit. means 'the eye of a star', fr. 
aoTspo;, daxrjp, 'star', and stem on-, 'to look' 
(whence also otxt), 'an opening, hole', o^i?, 
'sight'). See Aster and optic. For the second ele- 
ment see -phobia. 

astray, adv. and adj. — For on stray, fr. pref. a-, 

'on', and the noun stray, 
astrict, tr. v., 'to bind, constrict. — L. astrictus, 

pp. of astringere, 'to draw tight, bind', fr. ad- 

and stringere, 'to draw tight'. See stringent. 

Derivatives : astriction (q.v.), astrict-ive, adj. 
astriction, n. — L. astrictid, gen. -onis, 'a drawing 

tight', fr. astrictus, pp. of astringere. See prec. 

word and -ion. 
Astrid, a fem. PN. — A Norse name rel. to 

OHG. Ansitruda, which is compounded of ansi, 

'god', and trut, drut (whence MHG. trut, G. 

traut), 'beloved, dear'. For the first element cp. 

Arise lm, for the second see true and cp. the 

second element in Ermentrud and in Gertrude, 
astride, adv. and prep. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and 




astringe, tr. v., to bind, constrict. — L. astrin- 
gere, 'to draw tight'. See astrict. 

astringency, n. — Formed fr. next word with 
suff. -cy. Cp. stringency. 

astringent, adj., that which contracts, severe. — 
L. astringens, gen. -entis, pres. part, of astrin- 
gere, 'to draw close, tighten, contract'. See 
astringe and -ent. 

astro-, before a vowel astr-, combining form 
meaning 'star'. — Gk. daxpo-, dcrxp-, fr. ocaxpov, 
'star', which is rel. to daxvjp, 'star'. See Aster. 

astrocyte, n., a star-shaped cell (anat.) — Com- 
pounded of astro- and Gk. xuxoi;, 'a hollow 
vessel'. See -cyte. 

astrography, n., the mapping of the stars. — Lit. 
'description of the stars', fr. astro- and Gk. 
-ypatpta, fr. ypd<pEiv, 'to write'. See -graphy. 
Derivative: astrograph-ic, adj. 

astrolabe, n., an obsolete astronomical instru- 
ment. — ME., fr. OF. astrelabe, fr. ML. astro- 
labium, fr. Gk. daxpoXd(3ov (scil. opyavov), lit. 
'startaking (instrument)', fr. Soxpov, 'star', and 
the stem of XajipdvEiv, 'to take'. See astro- 
and lemma. 

astrologer, n. — See astrology and agential suff 

astrologic, astrological, adj. — Gk. daxpoXoyixoi;, 
fr. daxpoXoytd. See astrology and -ic, resp. al- 
so -al. 

astrology, n. — F. astrologie, fr. L. astrologia, 
fr. Gk. doxpoXoytd, 'astronomy', later 'astrol- 
ogy', fr. doxpoX6yo(;, 'astronomer', later 'astrol- 
oger', which is compounded of ocaxpov, 'star', 
and -Xoyos, 'one who speaks (in a certain 
manner); one who deals (with a certain topic)'. 
See astro- and -logy. 

astrometer, n., an instrument for measuring the 
brightness of stars. — Compounded of astro- 
and Gk. fiixpov, 'measure'. See meter, 'poetical 

astronaut, n., one who flies through space; one 
concerned with space flight. — Compounded 
of astro- and Gk. vauxT);, 'sailor, seaman'. See 
nautical and cp. cosmonaut. 

astronautics, n., the science of space flight. — 
Compounded of astro- and nautics. Cp. prec. 
word. Cp. also cosmonautics. 

astronomer, n. — See astronomy and agential suff. 

astronomic, astronomical, adj. — F. astronomique, 
fr. L. astronomicus, fr. Gk. daxpovo^utoi;, fr. 
doxpovoixfa. See next word and -ic, resp. also 

Derivative: astronomical-y, adv. 
astronomy, n. — OF. astronomic, fr. L. astro- 

nomia, fr. Gk. daxpovo(j.ta, 'astronomy', fr. 

doxpovou.oc;, 'an astronomer', lit. 'star-arranger', 

fr. Soxpov, 'star', and -v6(xo;, 'arranger', which 

is rel. to vsfZEiv, 'to deal out, distribute'. See 

Nemesis and cp. nomo-. 
astrophysics, n. — Lit. 'astronomical physics'. 

See astro- and physics. 

astucious, adj., astute. — F. astucieux (fem. 
astucieuse), fr. astuce, 'astuteness', fr. L. astutia, 
'dexterity; cunning, subtlety', fr. astutus. See 
astute and -ous. 

Astur, n., the genus of the goshawks (zool) — 
ML.,fr. L. acceptor, secondary form ofaccipiter, 
'falcon' (see accipiter), whence also OSp. aztor, 
Port, acor, Tt. astore, OProvenc. austor, OF. 
ostoir, ostour, F. autour, 'goshawk'. Cp. ostreger. 

astute, adj., shrewd, cunning, crafty. — L. astu- 
tus, 'artful, drafty, cunning', fr. astus, 'clever- 
ness, craft, cunning', which is of uncertain 

Derivatives: astute-ly, adv., astute-ness, n. 
Astyanax, n., the son of Hector and Andromache 

(Greek mythol.) — L., fr. Gk. 'Aaxudva^, lit. 

'king of the city', fr. aaxu, 'city' (see asteism), 

and ava£, orig. *Fdva£, 'chief, lord, master', a 

name given to him in reference to his father. 

Cp. Andromache. 
asunder, adv. — OE. on sundran. See pref. a-, 'on', 

and sunder. 

asura, n., a god, a good spirit; later an evil spirit 
(Hindu mythol) — OI. dsurah, prob. rel. to OI. 
dsuh (for *nsu-), 'breath of life', fr. I.-E. base 
*an-, 'to blow, breathe', whence also OI. dni-ti, 
dna-ti, 'breathes', L. anima, 'breath of air, 
breath, soul, life', animus, 'soul, spirit, mind, 
courage, wish, derive'. See animus and cp. ahura 
and sura, 'spirit, demon'. 

Asvins, n. pi., two Vedic gods, twin brothers, the 
Dioscuri of Vedic mythology. — OI. Asvinau 
(dual), lit. 'horse owners', fr. dsvah, 'horse', 
which is rel. to Avestic aspa-, and cogn. with 
Gk. itttco?, L. equus, 'horse'. See equine. 

asylum, n. — L. asylum, fr. Gk. aouXov, 'refuge, 
sanctuary', prop. neut. of the adjective aauXo;, 
'free from plunder, inviolable', used as a noun, 
fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) and 06X75, cruXov, 'the 
right of seizure', whence aOXdv, 'to strip, plun- 
der'. Accordingly SoOXov lit. means 'an invio- 
lable place'. 

asymmetric, asymmetrical, adj. — Formed with 
suff. -ic, resp. also -al, fr. Gk. dcrufi^P ?- See 

Derivative: asymmetrical-ly, adv. 

asymmetry, n. — Gk. dau(x(x£xpia, 'incommen- 
surability', fr. daVfiexpoq, 'incommensurate; 
disproportionate', fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) and 
<ru(j.(XExpo;, 'commensurable'. See symmetry and 
cp. dissymmetry. 

asymptote, n., a straight line continually ap- 
proaching but never meeting a curve (math.) — 
Gk. dcrVrcxuTo;, 'not falling together', formed 
fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-), auv. 'with' (see sym-, 
syn-), and Trxuxo?, 'fallen', verbal adj. of 7ti7txEiv, 
'to fall', which stands for *7u-7txei.v, fr. *pt-, 
zero degree of I.-E. base *pet-, 'to fly, to fall'. 
See feather and cp. symptom and words there 
referred to. 

Derivatives: asymptot-ic, asymptot-ic-al, adjs., 
asymptot-ic-al-ly, adv. 



asyndetic, adj., using asyndeton. — See next word 
and -ic. 

Derivative: asyndetic-al-ly, adv. 
asyndeton, n., omission of conjunctions (rhet.) — 
Gk. dauvSexov, neut. of dauvSexo?, 'uncon- 
nected', fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and aovSexcx;, 
'connected', verbal adj. of auv8s.iv, 'to bind 
together, connect', fr. uiiv, 'with' (see syn-), and 
8eiv, 'to bind'. See diadem and cp. polysyn- 

at, prep. — OE. set, rel. to ON., OS., Goth, at, 
OFris. et, at, OHG. az, and cogn. with L. ad, 
'to, toward', Olr. ad-, W. add-, Phryg. aS-, 
af}-, 'to'. Cp. ad-. 

at-, assimilated form of ad- before t. 

atabal, n., kettledrum. — Sp., fr. Arab, at-tabl, 
'the drum', fr. at-, assimilated form of al-, 'the', 
and tab!, 'drum'. Cp. timbal. 

atacamite, n., a basic copper chloride (mineral) 
— Named after the province of Atacama, in 
Chile. For the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

atajo, n., a drove of mules (Amer. Sp.) — Sp., 
'separation', fr. atajar, 'to separate', fr. a- (fr. 
L. ad), 'to', and tajar, 'to cut', fr. VL. *talidre, 
'to cut'. See ad- and tailor. 

Atalanta, n., daughter of King Schoeneus, famous 
for her swiftness in running (Greek mythol.) — ■ 
L., fr. Gk. ' AxoeXdvx-/) (fem. of dxdXavxoi;), 
'having the same value (as a man)', from copul. 
pref. d- and xdXavxov, 'balance, weight, talent, 
value'. Copul. pref. d- stands for I.-E. *sm-, a 
weak gradational form of I.-E. base *sem-, 
'one, together'; see same. For the etymology 
of xdXavxov see talent. 

atalaya, n., a watchtower. — Sp., fr. Arab, at- 
taldyi', 'the sentries', fr. a/-, assimilated form of 
al-, 'the', and faldyi', pi. oitall'a h , 'sentinel', but 
mistaken for a singular. See Dozy-Engelmann, 
Glossaire des mots espagnols et portugais de- 
rives de l'arabe, 2nd edition, pp. 209-10. Arab. 
talt'a h derives fr. tdla'a, 'he rose'. 

ataman, n., a Cossack commander. — Russ., fr. 
Pol. hetman. See hetman. 

ataraxia, n., calmness, impassiveness. — ModL., 
fr. Gk. d-rapa^ia, 'calmness, impassiveness, 
calmness', lit. 'imperturbability', fr. a- (see priv. 
pref. a-) and the stem of xapaaoeiv, 'to trouble, 
disturb', which is rel. to S-pitrociv, of s.m., and 
cogn. with ON. dregg, 'dreg'. See dreg. 

Atargatis, n., Syrian goddess of fertility. — Gk. 
'AxapyaTL!;, fr. Aram. 'Attfir, 'Astarte', which 
is rel. to Heb. 'AshtSreth (see Ashtoreth), and 
Palmyrene 'Athe, name of a goddess (cp. Der- 

ataunt, adj., fully rigged (naut.) — F. autant, 'so 
much, as much as possible', fr. earlier altant, 
which is compounded of the OF. pron. al, 
'something else', and tant, 'so much'. The first 
element derives fr. VL. *ate, which is shortened 
fr. *alid, corresponding to L. aliud, neut. of alius, 
'another'; see alias, else. The second element 
comes fr. L. tant us, 'so great, so much', for 

which see tantamount. Cp. taunt, 'very tall', 
atavic, adj., of a remote ancestor. — Formed 

with suff. -ic fr. L. atams. See next word, 
atavism, n., reversion to a remote ancestral type. 

— Formed with suff. -ism fr. L. atavus, 'father 
of a great-grandfather, ancestor', fr. pref. at-, 
'beyond', and avus, 'grandfather'. See uncle and 
cp. avuncular. 

atavistic, adj., pertaining to atavism; tending to 
atavism. — Formed with suff. -istic fr. L. atavus. 
See prec. word. See atavism. 
Derivative: atavistic-al-ly, adv. 

ataxia, n., irregularity of bodily functions (med) 

— Medical L., fr. Gk. dxa^ta, 'want of order', 
fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) and xd!;^;, 'arrange- 
ment, disposition, order', from the stem of 
xdaaEiv, 'to arrange, put in order'. See tactic. 

ataxic, adj. — Formed fr. prec. word with suff. 

ate, past tense of eat. — ME. ate, formed on the 
analogy of brake, spake. 

Ate, n., the goddess of infatuation and evil in 
Greek mythology. — Gk. "Axi), fr. Sttj, 'in- 
fatuation, bane, ruin, mischief, which stands 
for *df dxrj and is rel. to dd&i, 'I hurt, damage', 
d-daxog, 'unhurt, uninjured'; of uncertain ety- 

-ate, suff. forming participial adjectives (as in se- 
date, ornate) and adjectives (as in chordate, stel- 
late). — L. -dtus, pp. suff. of verbs of the first 

-ate, verbal suff. — L. pp. suff. -dtus, hence deriv- 
atively identical with adj. suff. -ate (q.v.) Its 
original use consisted in the formation of verbs 
from participial adjectives in -ate. So e.g. from 
the participial adj. separate arose the verb to 

-ate, subst. suff. expressing office, dignity, rank, 
honor. — L. -dtus (gen, -dtus), a suff. formed 
from the participial suff. -dtus. Cp. e.g. consulate 
and see adj. suff. -ate. 

-ate, subst. suff. forming names of salts from 
acids whose names end in -ic, as nitrate, fr. 
nitric acid (chem.) — L. -dtum, neut. of pp. suff. 
-dtus. See adj. suff. -ate. 

atelectasis, n., incomplete expansion of the lungs 
(med.) — Medical L., compounded of Gk. 
dTeXTji;, 'incomplete', and ex-raaic, 'extension, 
expansion'. The first element is formed fr. d- 
(see priv. pref. a-) and xeXo?, 'end' ; see teleo-. 
For the second element see ectasis. 

atelier, n., workshop, studio. — F., fr. OF. aste- 
■' lier, fr. astelle, 'shiver of wood', fr. Late L. as- 
tella, fr. L. astula, which is prob. a blend of 
assula, 'shiver of wood' and hastula, 'a little 
spear'. Assula is a dimin. of assis, 'board, plank' ; 
see ashlar. Hastula is a dimin. of hasta, 'spear'; 
see hastate." 

Athanasius, masc. PN. — L., fr. Gk. ' A&avdaioi;, 
fr. dftdvaxoi;, 'immortal'. See next word. 

athanasy, n., immortality. — Gk. d&avauta, fr. 
d&dvaxo;, 'immortal', fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) 



and ^dvaxoc, 'death'. See thanato- and cp. 
euthanasia. For the ending see -y (representing 
Gk. -id). 

athanor, n., the self feeding furnace of the al- 
chemists. — F., fr. Arab, at-tann&r, 'the oven', 
fr. at-, assimilated form of al-, 'the', and tanniir 
'oven', borrowed fr. Heb. tanniir, which is rel. 
to Akkad. tinniiru, 'oven'. 

Atharvan, n., name of a fire priest, the eldest son 
of Brahma (Vedic mythol) — OI. atharvan, 
'fire priest', rel. to Avestic d&ravan-, 'fire priest', 
dtarsh, 'fire', dtrya-, 'ashes', and cogn. with L. 
dter, 'black, dark'. See atrabiliary. 

atheism, n. — F. atheisme, formed with suff. 
-ism fr. Gk. a^so;, 'without god', fr. d- (see 
priv. pref. a-) and fl-so?, 'god'. See theism. 

atheist, n. — F. atheiste. See prec. word and -ist. 
Derivatives: atheist-ic, athest-ic-al, adjs., athe- 
ist-ic-al-ly, adv. 

atheling, n., a noble, a prince. — OE. sdeling, 
'a noble', fr. sedele, 'noble', which is rel. to 
OFris. ethele, OS. edili, OHG. edili, MHG. 
edele, G. edel, 'noble'. The orig. meaning of 
these adjectives was 'noble by birth'. Cp. odal 
and the first element in Albert, allerion, Alphon- 
so, Athelstan, Audrey, edelweiss, Ethelbert, 
Etheldred, Ethelinda, Ulrica. 

Athelstan, masc. PN. — OE. Mdelstane, lit. 
'noble stone', fr. sedele, 'noble', and stan, 'stone'. 
For the first element see atheling and cp. words 
there referred to. For the second element see 

Athena, Athene, fem. PN., the goddess of wis- 
dom in Greek mythology, identified by the 
Romans with Minerva. — Gk. 'AiHjvv), a pre- 
Hellenic name of uncertain origin. 

Athenaeum, n., the temple of Athena at Athens; 
whence athenaeum 1) a Roman school of law; 
2) a literary club. — L., fr. Gk. 'AO-qvatov, the 
temple of the goddess Athene fr. 'A&rjvr). See 
prec. word. 

atherine, n., any of the fishes of the family Ather- 
inidae (ichthyol.) — ModL. atherina, fr. Gk. 
d&epfvy;, 'smelt', fr. dO-Tjprj, 'gruel, porridge', 
which is rel. to d&r)p, 'awn, chaff, barb of a 
weapon', dv&spixoc;, 'the asphodel'. See An- 
thericum and cp. atheroma. 

Atherinidae, n. pi., a family of fishes (ichthyol.) 

— ModL., fr. atherina. See prec. word and 

athermancy, n., impermeability to heat. — Form- 
ed with suff. -cy fr. Gk. d9-Epu.avxo<;, 'not 
heated', fr. d (see priv. pref. a-) and ^Ep^avxoi;, 
'capable of being heated', verbal adj. of &Ep- 
(xaiveiv, 'to warm, heat'. See therm and cp. 

athermanous, adj., not transmitting radiant heat. 

— Formed fr. priv. pref. a-, the stem of Greek 
dep(i.atveiv, 'to warm, heat', and suff. -ous. 
See therm and cp. diathermanous. The use of 
the suff. -ous is due to the analogy of joyous 
and other similar adjectives in which -ous corre- 

sponds to OF. -ous, -eus (= F. -eux), fr. L. 

atheroma, n., a kind of encysted tumor (med.) — 
L., fr. Gk. d&T)pci>[i<x, 'a tumor full of gruel-like 
matter', fr. dS-rjpT). See atherine and -oma. 

Atherosperma, n., a genus of trees of the boldo 
family (bot.) — ModL., formed fr. Gk. d<H)p, 
gen. d&spo;, 'awn, chaff', and ansptxa., 'seed'. 
See atherine and sperm. 

athetize, tr. v., to reject. — Formed with suff. 
-ize fr. Gk. d&Exciv, 'to deny, disprove, reject', 
fr. S&sxoi;, 'not fixed', fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) 
and -Stexo?, 'placed, set', verb. adj. of xl&evcci, 
'to put, place', fr. I.-E. base *dhe-, 'to place'. 
See theme and cp. words there referred to. 

athetosis, n., affection of the nervous system 
marked by involuntary movements of the fingers 
and toes (med.) — Medical L., coined by the 
American nerve specialist William Alexander 
Hammond (1828-1900) in 1871 fr. Gk. fidexoi;, 
'not fixed', and suff. -osis. See prec. word. 

athirst, adj. — ME. ofthurst, fr. OE. ofpyrsted, 
pp. of ofpyrstan, fr. of- (see of) and pyrstan, 
'to thirst'. See thirst, v. 

athlete, n. — L. athleta, fr. Gk. dftX^xTj?, 'com- 
batant, champion', fr. d&Xlu, 'I contend for a 
prize', fr. d&Xo?, contracted fr. Se&Xoi; (with 
the exception of Odyssey, 8, 160, this latter 
form alone is used by Homer), for orig. &Fe- 
•9-Xcx;. The first element of this word is perh. 
cogn. with OI. vd-yati, 'he fatigues himself; the 
second element is of unknown origin. Cp. the 
second element in pentathlon, hexathlon, de- 

athletic, adj. — L. athleticus, fr. Gk. d&X7)xix6i;, 
fr. dS-XY)XT)i;. See prec. word and -ic. 
Derivatives: athletic-al-ly, adv., athletic-ism, n., 
athlet-ics, n. 

afhrepsia, n., debility of children caused by lack 
of food (med.) — Medical L., lit, 'condition 
caused by the lack of nourishment', fr. Gk. 
(t&pzmoc,, 'ill-nourished, underfed', fr. d- (see 
priv. pref. a-) and &pettx6(;, 'fed, nourished', 
verbal adj. of xps9eiv, 'to feed, nourish' (whence 
also dpE^tq, 'nourishment'). See trophic and cp. 
thrombosis. For the ending see suff. -ia. 

athrill, adv. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and thrill. 

athrob, adv. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and throb. 

athwart, adv. and prep. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', 
and thwart. 

athymy, also athymia, n., despondency. — • Gk. 
d&5u.ld, 'faintheartedness, despondency', lit. 
'lack of spirit', fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) and 
&0(jl6i;, 'spirit, mind, soul'. See thio- and cp. 

-atic, adj. suff. of Greek origin, meaning 'per- 
taining to; of the nature of, as in dramatic, 
grammatic. — F. -atique, fr. L. -dticus, fr. Gk. 
-dxuto?. Cp. -etic. 

-atic, adj. suff. of Latin origin meaning 'per- 
taining to; of the nature of, as in erratic, 
aquatic. — F. -atique, fr. L. -dticus. This suff. 



arose from a misreading of -dt-icus (= pp. 
suff. of verbs of the ist conjugation and 
suff. -icus) into d-ticus. [Cp. e.g. L. ven-dt- 
icus, 'pertaining to the chase', (fr. vendtus, pp. 
of vendri, 'to chase'), misread into ven-d-ticus.] 
Accordingly suff. -atic is a compound of the 
adj. (orig. pp.) suffix -ate and of suff. -ic. 
Later the suff. -atic was also appended to nouns. 
Cp. -age. 

Derivative: -atic-al. 

-atile, adj. suff. expressing possibility. — F. -atile, 

fr. L. -dtilis, prop. suff. -His added to -dtus, pp. 

suff. of verbs of the first conjugation. See adj. 

suff. -ate and -ile. 
atilt, adv. and adj. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and 


-ation, subst. suff. denoting action, process, state 
or condition. — Fr. F. -ation, (or directly) fr. L. 
-dtidnem, acc. of -alio, a suff. forming nouns of 
action fr. -dtus, pp. suff. of verbs of the first 
Latin conjugation. See adj. suff. -ate and cp. 
suff. -ition. For the sense of suff. -ation cp. -osis. 

-ative, adj. suff. meaning 'tending to'. — F. -atif 
(fern, -ative), fr. L. -dtivus, prop. suff. -ivus add- 
ed to -dtus, pp. suff. of verbs of the first Latin 
conjugation. Accordingly suff. -ative is a com- 
pound of adj. suff. -ate and suff. -ive. 

atlantes, n. pi., figures of men supporting an en- 
tablature (archit.) — L., fr. Gk. "AxXocvxe;, pi. 
of "AxXi?. See Atlas. 

Atlantic, adj., pertaining to the Atlantic Ocean 
or to Mount Atlas. — L. Atlanticus, fr. Gk. 
'AxXavxixo?, fr. "AxXa?, 'the Atlas mountains'. 
See Atlas and -ic. 

Atlas, n., one of the Titans, son of Iapetus and 
Clymene, supporting the heavens on his shoul- 
ders; later, a king of Mauretania, changed by 
Perseus into Mt. Atlas (Greek mythol.) — L. 
Atlas (gen. Atlantis), fr. Gk. "AxXS<; (gen. "Ax- 
Xocvxoi;), which stands for "A-xX5<; and lit. means 
'the Bearer (scil. of Heaven)', fr. copul. pref. a- 
and the stem of xXSjvoa, 'to bear' (cp. ttoXu- 
tXS;, 'much-enduring'). Copul. pref. i- stands 
for I.-E. *sm-, a weak gradational form of I.-E. 
base *sem-, 'one, together' ; see same. Gk. xXTjvoci 
derives fr. *tj-, zero degree of I.-E. base *tel-, 
*tal-, *tol-, 'to bear, lift, suffer', whence xaXa?, 
gen. tcxXocvo<; and xaXavxo?, 'bearing, suffer- 
ing', xaXaaoai (aor.), 'to bear, suffer', L. tol- 
lere, 'to lift up, raise', tolerdre, 'to bear, sup- 
port'. See tolerate and cp. atlas, name of the 
first vertebra, atlantes, Atlantic, Atalanta, 

atlas, n., a collection of maps bound into a book. 
— First so called by the geographer Mercator 
because the figure of Atlas supporting the world 
was frequently put on the front page of such 
collections. (The first part of Mercator's Atlas, 
sive cosmographicae meditationes defabrica mun- 
di appeared in 1 585.) See prec. word. 

atlas, n., name of the first vertebra (anal.) — 
From Atlas (q.v.); so called because it bears the 

skull. This name was given to the first vertebra 
by the Belgian anatomist Andreas Vesalius 
(1514-64). See Joseph Hyrtl, Onomatologia 
anatomica, Vienna, 1880, p. 59. 

atlas, n., silk-satin. — Arab, atlas, lit. 'wiped 
smooth', fr. tdlasa, 'he wiped, smoothed away'. 

atle, atlee, n., the tamarisk salt tree. — Arab. 
dthla h , 'a species of tamarisk', prop, unit name 
of athl, rel. to Aram, athld, Heb. ishel, 'tama- 
risk tree'. 

atman, n., the supreme soul, the principle of life 
(Hinduism). — OI. dtmdn, prop, 'breath, soul', 
orig. 'cover, body', cogn. with OHG. dtum, 
MHG. dtem, G. Atem, MDu. ddem, OFris. 
ethma, OS. dthom, OE. sedm, 'breath'. Cp. the 
second element in mahatma. 

atmido-, before a vowel atmid-, combining form 
meaning 'vapor'. — Gk. dixu.180-, axjnS-, fr. 
axu.t;, gen. dtxuiSo?, 'steam, vapor', rel. to ax[xo<;, 
of s.m. See atmo-. 

atmidometer, n., an atmometer. — Compounded 
of atmido- and Gk. jxsxpov, 'measure'. See 
meter, 'poetical rhythm'. 

atmo-, before a vowel atm-, combining form 
meaning 'vapor'. — Gk. dtxjio-, dcxu.-, fr. axu.6<;, 
'steam, vapor', contraction of fitexu.61;, which 
prob. stands for *aFs-i-y.6-z and is rel. to 
6eeXXa (for *&F e-X-ia), 'tempest, whirlwind', and 
to Srjjxi (for *dcf7)u.i), 'I blow', fr. I.-E. base 
*we-, 'to blow', whence also OI. v&ti, 'blows', 
Goth, waian, OE. wdwan, 'to blow'. See wind, 
'air in motion', and cp. Aello. 

atmology, n., the study of the laws of aqueous 
vapor. — Compounded of atmo- and Gk. -Xoyia, 
fr. -Xoyoi;, 'one who speaks (in a certain man- 
ner); one who deals (with a certain topic)'. See 

Derivatives: atmolog-ic, atmolog-ic-al, adjs., at- 
molog-ist, n. 
atmolysis, n., separation of mixed gases. — Com- 
pounded of atmo- and Gk. 'a loosing; 
dissolution'. See -lysis. 

atmometer, n., an instrument for measuring the 
rate of evaporation. — Compounded of atmo- 
and Gk. [i£xpov, 'measure'. See meter, 'poetical 

Derivatives: atmometr-ic, adj., atmometr-y, n. 

atmosphere, n. — Compounded of Gk. axu.6?, 
'steam, vapor', and <j9atpoc, 'ball, sphere'; see 
atmo- and sphere. The word atmosphere was first 
used by the English bishop and scientist John 
Wilkins (1614-72) in 1638 with reference to the 
moon (which in reality has no atmosphere). 
Derivatives : atmospher-ic, atmospher-ic-al, adjs., 
atmospher-ic-al-ly, adv., atmospher-ics, 

atocia, n., sterility of the female (med.) — Medi- 
cal L., fr. Gk. axoxia, 'sterility', fr. Sxoxo.;, 
having never yet brought forth', fr. 4- (see priv. 
pref. a-) and xoxos, 'childbirth, parturition', 
which is rel. to xoxet!*;, 'father', in the pi., 
'parents'. See -tocia, toco-, and cp. anatocism. 

atoll, n., a coral island. — Malayalam. 


atom, n. — F. atome, fr. L. atomus, fr. Gk. axo[i.oi;, 
'atom', prop, 'uncut, indivisible', fr. a- (see 
priv. pref. a-), and -xo(jto?, fr. xefivetv, 'to cut'. 
See tome and cp. anatomy. The word axou.o<; 
was first used by the Greek philosopher 

Derivatives: atom-ic, adj., atom-ic-ity, n., atom- 
ism, n., atom-ist, n., atom-ize, tr. v., atom-iz- 
ation, n., atom-iz-er, n. 

atomy, n., skeleton. — From misdivision of ana- 
tomy into an atomy. See anatomy. 

atomy, n., pygmy. — L. atomi (pi. of atomus, 
'atom'), mistaken for a singular. See atom. 

atone, intr. v. — Short for 'to be at one'. 
Derivatives: atone-ment, n., aton-ing-ly, adv. 

atonic, adj. — Formed with suff. -ic fr. Gk. 
(itxovoi;, 'not stretched, slack; without tone', 
fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and xovoq, 'tone'. See 
tonic and cp. diatonic. 

atony, n., want of tone. — ML. atonia, fr. Gk. 
axcma, 'slackness, debility', fr. axovo?. See prec. 
word and -y (representing Gk. -15). 

atopic, adj., pertaining to atopy (med.) — Formed 
with suff. -ic fr. Gk. ihoizoq, 'out of place; un- 
usual', fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and xottoi;, 
'place'. See topic. 

atopite, n., calcium antimonate (mineral.) — 
Formed with subst. suff. -ite fr. Gk. axorax;. 
See atopic. 

atopy, n., allergy. — See atopic and -y (represent- 
ing Gk. -ioi). 

-ator, subst. suff. — L. -ator, forming masculine 
agential nouns from verbs of the first conjuga- 
tion. Accordingly the suff. -ator consists of -a-, 
the characteristic vowel of the first conjugation, 
and suff. -tor (q.v.) 

atrabiliary, adj., melancholy, hypochondriac. — 
Medical L. dtrabilidrius, 'suffering from black 
bile', fr. L. dtra bilis, 'black bile, melancholy', 
loan translation of Gk. |jiXaivoc x°Xy) (see me- 
lancholy). Atra is fern, of dter, 'black, dark', rel. 
to Umbr. atru, adro (neut. pi.), 'black', and 
prob. cogn. with OI. dtharvan-, Avestic d&ra- 
van-, 'fire priest', dtarsh, 'fire', dtrya-, 'ashes', 
Arm. airem, 'I light up, kindle'. Cp. atrocious. 
Cp. also Atharvan. For the etymology of L. bilis 
see bile. For the ending of atrabiliary see adj. 
suff. -ary. 

Derivative: atrabiliari-ous, adj. 

atrabilious, adj. — Formed with suff. -ous fr. L. 
dtra bilis. See prec. word. 

Atractaspis, n., a genus of African burrowing 
vipers (zool.) — ModL., lit. 'arrow snake', fr. 
Gk. £xpaxxo<;, 'spindle, arrow', and icmit;, 
'serpent, snake', The first element is cogn. with 
L. torquere, 'to twist, bend' ; see torque. For the 
second element see asp, 'snake'. 

Atragene, n., a genus of trees of the buttercup 
family (hot.) — ModL., fr. Gk. ASpaybrri, 'tra- 
veler's joy', compounded of S&pou;, 'chariot', 
and -Yevrj, 'of a certain kind'. The first ele- 


men^dands for *fA(v)$pac and is cogn. with 
OI. vandhurah, 'a hamper (made of wicker- 
work)', fr. I.-E. base *wendh-, *wndh-, 'to turn, 
twist', whence also ON. vinda, OE. windan, 
'to wind, twist'; see wind, 'to turn'. The 
second element is rel. to Gk. ybtoc,, 'race, 
descent, gender, kind'; see genus and cp. -gen. 
atresia, n., occlusion of a natural passage of the 
body (pathol.) — Medical L., fr. Gk. axpTjxo?, 
'not perforated', fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) and 
xprjxo?, verbal adj. of xexpaiveiv, 'to pierce, 
perforate', which is rel. to xetpsiv (for *x!pjeiv), 
'to rub, rub away, wear away', fr. I.-E. base 
*ter-, 'to bore, pierce, rub'. See throw and cp. 
words there referred to. For the ending see 
suff. -ia. 

Atreus, n., a son of Pelops and father of Aga- 
memnon and Menelaus (Greek mythol.) — L., 
fr. Gk. 'AxpEii?, a word of uncertain origin. 

atrip, adv. (naut.) — Formed fr. a- 'on', and trip. 

Atriplex, n., a genus of plants of the goosefoot 
family (bot.) — L. atriplex, 'orach', fr. Gk. 
dxpd9<xi;u<;, which is of unknown origin. Cp. 

atrium, n., 1) the central, courtlike room of the 
ancient Roman house; 2) (anat.) cavity in the 
heart or in the ear. — L. atrium; according to 
Varro, De Lingua Latina 5, § 161, a word of 
Etruscan origin and rel. to the Etruscan town 
Atria, as the place of origin of this kind of ar- 
chitecture. The connection of atrium with dter, 
'black, dark', is folk etymology. 

atrocious, adj., extremely cruel or wicked. — 
Formed with suff. -ous fr. L. atrox, gen. atrdcis, 
'cruel, fierce', prop, 'dark-looking, gloomy', 
and compounded of dter, 'black, dark', and 
-ox, gen. dcis, 'looking'. For the first element see 
atrabilious. The second element is cogn. with 
Gk. gen. 107165, ' eve > sight'. See -ops and cp. 
the second element in ferocious, velocity. 
Derivatives: atrocious-ly, adv., atrocious-ness. 

atrocity, n., atrociousness. — F. atrocite, fr. L. 
atrdcitdtem, acc. otatrdcitds, 'cruelty', fr. atrox. 
See prec. word and -ity. 

Atropa, n., a genus of plants of the potato family 
(bot) — ModL., fr. Gk. Sxporox, 'the deadly 
nightshade', which is rel. to "AxpoTioi;, name 
of one of the Fates. See Atropos. 

atrophy, n., a wasting away through lack of 
nourishment (med.) — F. atrophie, fr. L. atro- 
phia, fr. Gk. axpcxpta, 'want of food', fr. Sxpo- 
90?, 'not nourished, ill-fed', fr. &- (see priv. 
pref. a-) and -xpo<poq, fr. XP097), 'food, nourish- 
ment'. See trophic and cp. athrepsia. Cp. also 
dystrophy, hypertrophy. 

Derivatives: atrophy, intr. and tr. v., atroph-ic, 

atrophi-ed, adjs. 
atropine, also atropin, n., an alkaloid poison 

extracted from belladonna. — Formed with 

chem. suff. -ine, resp. -in, fr. Gk. ocxpoTta, 'the 

deadly nightshade*. See Atropa. 
Atropos, n., one of the Fates in Greek mythol- 



ogy. — Gk. "Atpotco?, lit. 'not to be turned 
away, inflexible', fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and 
the stem of Tplneiv, 'to turn', tpotoc, 'a turn'. 
See trope and cp. Atropa, atropine, 
attach, tr. and intr. v. — ME. attachen, fr. OF 
atachicr, attachier (F. attacker), lit. 'to tack or 
fasten to', fr. a, 'to' (see a), and tache, 'a nail, 
hook', a word of Teut. origin. See tack, 'a small 
nail', and cp. tache, 'a buckle', detach. Cp. also 
attack, which is a doublet of attach. Cp. also 
next word. 

Derivatives: attach-able, adj., attach-ed, adj., 
attach-ed-ly, a.dv.,attach-er, n., attachment (q.v.) 

attache, n., a member of the diplomatic staff at- 
tached to an embassy. — F., lit. 'attached', pp. 
of attacker, 'to attach'. See prec. word. 

attachment, n. — F. attachement, fr. attacker. See 
attach and -ment. 

attack, tr. v. — F. attaquer, fr. It. attaccare, prop, 
'to attach, join', whence 'to begin', attaccare bal- 
taglia, 'to begin a battle', whence elliptically 
attaccare, 'to attack' ; a doublet of attach (q.v.) 
Derivatives: attack, n., attack-able, adj., at- 
tack-er, n. 

attacus, n., a kind of edible locust. — Late L. 
(Vulg., Lev. 1 1 : 22), fr. Gk. dtTT<xx6;, mentioned 
by Philo (cp. aTTaxrjs, Sept., Lev. 11:22). 

attagen, n., the Pallas's sand grouse. — L., name 
of a kind of bird, possibly the francolin, fr. Gk. 
aTTayyjv (also axTxya;, a-rray^?); of uncertain, 
possibly imitative, origin. 

attain, tr. and intr. v. — ME. atteinen, attainen, 
from the stem of OF. ataindre, ateindre (F. at- 
teindrc), fr. VL. *attangere, corresponding to 
L. attingere, 'to touch, to arrive at', fr. ad- and 
tangere, 'to touch". See tangent and cp. attain- 
der, attaint, attinge. 

Derivatives: attain-abil-ity, n., attain-able, adj. 

attainder, n., the extinction of the civil and legal 
rights of a person sentenced to death or out- 
lawed (law). — OF. infinitive ataindre, ateindre, 
'to attain; to accuse, condemn', used as a noun. 
For the subst. use of Old French infinitives — 
esp. in legal terminology — cp. avoirdupois, 
cesser, demurrer, detainer, disclaimer, estovers, 
joinder, misnomer, ouster, oyer, rejoinder, re- 
mainder, retainer, tender, 'offer', terminer, user, 
'right of use', waiver. 

attaint, n. — OF. ataint, pp. of ataindre (see at- 
tain) ; confused with taint. 

Derivatives: attaint, n., attaint-ment, n., attaint- 
ure, n. 

attar, n., also otto, volatile oil. — Pers. 'alar, fr. 

Arab, 'itr, 'perfume', 
attemper, tr. v. — OF. atemprer (F. attemprer), 

fr. Late L. attemperare, 'to fit, adjust', fr. ad- 

and L. temperdre, 'to divide duly; to temper'. 

See temper, v. 

Derivatives: attemper-ed, adj., attemper-ment , n. 
attemperate, tr. v. (obsol.) — Late L. attemperdtus, 
pp. of attemperare. See prec. word and cp. 

Derivatives : attemperat-ion, n., attemperat-or, n. 
attempt, tr. v. — OF. atenter, also atempter (F. 
attenter), fr. L. attentdre, attemptdre (whence 
also It. attentare, OProvenc., Port, attentar, Sp. 
atentar), 'to attempt, try', fr. ad- and tentare, 
temptdre, 'to put to the test, try'. See tempt and 
cp. attentat. 

Derivatives: attempt, n., attempt-able, adj., at- 
tempt-er, n. 

attend, intr. and tr. v. — OF. atendre (F. atten- 
dre), 'to expect, wait for', fr. L. attendere (ani- 
mum), 'to stretch one's mind to', fr. ad- and 
tendere, 'to stretch, extend'. Cp. It. attendere, 
OProvenc. atender, which are of the same ori- 
gin. See tend, 'to move in a certain direction', 
and cp. tend, 'to attend'. Cp. also contend, in- 
tend, portend. 

Derivatives: attendance, attendant (qq.v.), at- 
tend-er, n., attend-ing-ly, adv. 
attendance, n. — OF. atendance, fr. atendant (F. 
attendant), pres. part, of atendre. See next word 
and -ce. 

attendant, adj. — F., pres. part, of attendre. See 
attend and -ant. 
Derivative: attendant, n. 

attent, adj., attentive (archaic). — L. atlentus, 
pp. of attendere. See attend. 

attent, n., attention (obsol.) — OF. atente (F. at- 
tente), fr. VL. *attendita, n., prop, subst. use 
of the fern, of *attenditus, pp. formed fr. L. at- 
tendere. See attend. 

attentate), n., 1) a criminal attempt (obsol.); 2) in 
law, a proceeding in court of judicature after an 
inhibition is decreed. — F. attentat, 'criminal 
attempt', fr. L. attentdtum, neut. pp. of attentdre, 
'to attempt'. See attempt. 

attention, n. — F., fr. L. attentidnem, acc. of at- 
tentid, 'attention, attentiveness', fr. atlentus, pp. 
of attendere. See attend and -ion. 
Derivative: attention-al, adj. 

attentive, adj. — F. attentif (fern, attentive), fr. 
VL. *attenditus. See attent, n., and -ive. 
Derivatives: attentive-ly, adv., attentive-ness, n. 

attenuant, adj., attenuating, diluent; n., an at- 
tenuating substance, a diluent. — L. attentions, 
gen. -amis, pres. part, of attenudre. See next 
word and -ant. 

attenuate, tr. v., to make thin; to make less; intr. 
v., to become thin; to become less. — L. at- 
tenuates, pp. of attenudre, 'to make thin, atte- 
nuate', fr. ad- and tenudre, 'to make thin', fr. 
tenuis, 'thin'. See tend, 'to move in a certain 
direction', and verbal suff. -ate and cp. tenuis, 

attenuate, adj.,. attenuated. — L. attenudtus pp. 

of attenudre. See attenuate, v. 
attenuation, n. — L. attenudtid, gen. -dnis, fr. 

attenudtus' pp. of attenudre. See attenuate, v., 

and -ion. 

atter, n., poison. — OE. dt(t)or, rel. to OFris. 
dt(t)er, OS. ettar, ON. eitr, 'poison', Swed., Du. 
etter, OHG. eittar, eitar, MHG., G. eiter, 'pus', 


and cogn. with Gk. oTSfAcc, olSoq, 'a swelling', 
oESav, oESeiv, 'to swell'. See edema. 
Derivatives: atter-n, atter-y, attr-y, adjs. 

attest, tr. and intr. v. — F. attester, fr. L. attes- 
tdri, 'to bear witness to, attest', fr. ad- and 
testdri, 'to bear witness', fr. testis, 'witness', 
See testament and cp. contest, detest. Derivatives : 
attestation (q.v.), attest-er, attest-or, n. 

attestation, n. — F., fr. L. attestdtidnem, acc. of 
attestdtid, 'an attesting, testimony', fr. attes- 
tdtus, pp. of attestdri. See attest and -ation and 
cp. contestation, detestation. 

Attic, adj., of, or pertaining to, Attica. — L. Atti- 
cus, fr. Gk. 'Atti>c6?, 'of Attica'. 

attic, n. — F. attique, 'attic', lit. 'Attic (story)'. 
See Attic. 

atticism, n., Attic style, elegant diction. — Gk. 
'ATTixiCTjxoi;, fr. 'Attixo?. See Attic and -ism. 

atticize, tr. v., to adapt to the dialect of Attica; 
intr. v., to imitate Attic style. — Gk. 'Attou- 
£eiv, fr. 'At-ux6<;. See Attic and -ize. 

attinge, tr. v., to touch upon (obsol.) — L. attin- 
gere. See attain. 

attire, tr. v. — ME. atiren, fr. OF. atirier, atirer, 
fr. a Here, a tire, 'into a row', fr. a, 'to' (see a), and 
tiere, 'row, rank, series'. See tier, 'row, series'. 
Derivatives: attire, n., attir-ed, adj., attir-er, n. 

attitude, n. — F., fr. It. attitudine, 'aptness, 
promptitude', fr. ML. aptitudinem, acc. of ap- 
titiidd; see aptitude. The word attitude was in- 
troduced into English by the diarist John Evelyn 
(1620- 1 706). 

Derivatives: attitudin-al, adj., attitudinarian, 
attitudinarianism, attitudinize (qq.v.) 

attitudinarian, n., one who attitudinizes. — Form- 
ed with suff. -arian fr. It. attitudine. See attitude. 
Derivative: attitudinarian-ism, n. 

attitudinize, intr. v., to strike an attitude; to pose. 
— Formed fr. It. attitudine (see attitude) with 
suff. -ize. 

attorn, intr. and tr. v., 1) orig., to transfer homage 
from one feudal lord to another; 2) to agree to 
become a tenant under a new landlord (law). — 
OF. atorner, 'to direct, attorn', lit. 'to turn to', 
fr. a, 'to' (see a), and torner (F. tourner), fr. L. 
torndre, 'to turn'. See turn, v. and cp. attorney. 

attorney, n., solicitor. — Lit. 'one authorized to 
act for another', fr. OF. atorne, pp. of atorner, 
'to turn to'. See prec. word and -ee. 

attornment, n., 1) a turning over, assignment; 
2) acknowledgment of the new landlord. — OF. 
atornement, fr. atorner. See attorn and -ment. 

attract, tr. v. — L. attractus, pp. of attrahere, 'to 
draw to, attract', fr. ad- and trahere, 'to draw'. 
See tract, 'region', and cp. attrahent. Cp. also 
contract, detract, protract, subtract. 
Derivatives: attract-er, n., attraction, attract- 
ive (qq.v.) 

attraction, n. — F., fr. L. attractidnem, acc. of 
attractio, 'a drawing together', fr. attractus, pp. 
of attrahere. See prec. word and -ion. 

attractive, adj. — F. attractif (fern, attractive), 


fr. ML. attractivus, fr. L. attractus, pp. of attra- 
here. See attract and -ive. 
Derivatives : attractive-ly, adv., attractive-ness, n. 

attrahent, adj., that which attracts. — L. attra- 
hens, gen. -entis, pres. part, of attrahere. See 
attract and -ent and cp. contrahent, subtrahend. 
Derivative: attrahent, n. 

attribute, tr. v. — L. attributus, pp. of attribuere, 
'to add, assign, bestow, give, impute, attribute', 
fr. ad- and tribuere 'to assign, allot, bestow, 
give, grant'. See tribute. 

attribute, n. — L. attribiitum, 'anything attri- 
buted', neut. of attributus, pp. of attribuere. 
See attribute, v. 

attribution, n. — F., fr. L. attributidnem, acc. of 
attributio, 'assignment, attribution', fr. attri- 
butus, pp. of attribuere. See attribute, adj., and 

attributive, adj. — F. attributif (fem. attributive), 
fr. attribut, 'attribute', fr. L. attribiitum. See 
attribute, n., and -ive. 

Derivatives: attributive, n., atlributive-ly, adv., 
attributive-ness, n. 

attrite, adj., worn away by rubbing. — L. attrl- 
tus, pp. of atterere, 'to wear away', lit. 'to rub 
against', fr. ad- and terere, 'to rub'. See trite. 

attrition, n. — L. attritio, gen. -dnis, lit. 'a rubbing 
against', fr. attritus, pp. of atterere. See prec. 
word and -ion. 

attune, tr. v. — Formed fr. at- and tunc. 

atwain, adv. (archaic). — Formed fr. a-, 'on', 
and twain. 

atween, adv. (archaic). — Formed fr. a-, 'on', 
and -tween (in between). 

auantic, adj., atrophic. — Formed with suff. -ic 
fr. Gk. auavTTj, 'a wasting, atrophy', fr. oaiot'.- 
veiv, 'to wither, be dry', fr. aikiv, 'to dry', fr. 
a5oq, 'dry', which stands for *sauso-s and de- 
rives fr. I.-E. base *saus-, *sus-, 'dry', whence 
also OE. sear, 'dry', OHG. soren, 'to become 
dry'. See sere, adj., and cp. austere. 

aubade, n., morning serenade. — F., fr. Proven?. 
aubada, fr. auba, 'dawn', fr. L. alba, fern, of 
albus, 'white', used as a noun. See alb and -ade. 

aubain, n., alien, foreigner. — F., orig. written 
aubene, fr. Frankish *aliban, lit. 'belonging to 
another ban'. The first element of this word is 
rel. to Goth, aljis, 'other', and to E. else (q.v.) 
The second element is rel. to E. ban, v. (q.v.) 
See Bloch-Wartburg, DELF., p. 43 s.v. aubain. 

aubergine, n., the eggplant. — G., fr. Catal. al- 
berginera, alberginia, fr. Arab, al-badinjan, 'the 
eggplant', fr. al-, 'the', and bddinjdn, 'eggplant', 
fr. Pers. badin-gan, fr. OI. vatin-ganah. Cp. 

aubin, n., canter. — F., fr. earlier hobin, fr. hauby 

(15th cent.), fr. E. hobby (q.v.) 
Aubrey, masc. PN. — F. Auberi, fr. G. Alberich, 

lit. 'ruler of elfs'. For the first element cp. ON. 

alfr, OE. self, 'elf, and see elf. For the second 

element see rich and cp. words there referred to. 
Aubrietia, n., a genus of plants of the mustard 



family (bot.) — ModL., named after Claude 
Aubriet, painter of flowers and animals (1668- 
1743). For the ending see stiff, -ia. 

auburn, adj., reddish-brown. — ME. auburne, 
'whitish', fr. OF. alborne, auborne, fr. VL. al- 
burnus, 'whitish', fr. L. albus, 'white'. The sense 
development of the word was influenced by a 
confusion with brown. See alb and cp. alburnum. 
Derivative: auburn, n. 

auchenium, n., part of a bird's neck (ornithol.) 
— ModL., formed with suff. -ium fr. Gk. aux^v, 
'neck, throat', which is rel. to Aeol. &w<)\>, of 
s.m., and cogn. with Arm. auji-k', 'necklace'. 

auction, n. — L. audio, gen. -dnis, 'an increase; 
a public sale, auction', fr. auctus, pp. of augere, 
'to increase', fr. I.-E. base *aweg-, *aug-, 'to 
grow, increase', whence also Lith. dugu, dugti, 
Lett, augu, aiigt, 'to grow', Lith. dukstas, Lett. 
augsts, 'high, of superior rank', OPruss. auck- 
timmien, 'chief, aucktai-rikyskan, 'authority', 
Lett, audzet, 'to bring up', Goth, aukan, 'to 
grow, increase', OE. eacian, 'to increase' ; see 
eke and cp. augment, augur, august, author. Cp. 
the related base *aw(e)ks-, *auks-, *weks-, 
*uks-, 'to grow, increase', whence OI. vaksdyati, 
'causes to grow', uksati, 'grows strong', Gk. 
afeSeiv, ae^eiv, au^av, au^aveiv, 'to increase', 
L. auxilium, 'help, aid', Goth, wahsjan, OE. 
weaxan, 'to grow'. See wax, v., and cp. auxiliary, 
auxano-, auxesis, auxetic, auxo-. 
Derivatives: auction, tr. v., auction-eer, n., auc- 
tion-eer-ing , n. 

aucupate, intr. and tr. v., to go fowling. — L. 
aucupdtus, pp. of aucupdre, later aucupdri, 'to 
go fowling', fr. auceps, 'fowler; spy, eaves- 
dropper', for *avi-cap-s, fr. avis, 'bird', and 
capere, 'to catch, seize, take, receive'. See auspice 
and captive. 

audacious, adj., daring, bold. — F. audacieux 
(fern, audacieuse), fr. L. auddcia, 'daring, bold- 
ness, courage, intrepidity', fr. auddx, gen. au- 
ddcis, 'daring, bold, courageous, intrepid', fr. 
audere, 'to dare', which stands for *avidere, 'to 
be eager', fr. avidus, 'eager'. The meaning 'to 
dare' first arose from the negative form: non 
audere orig. meant 'to wish or to have a mind 
not to do something', whence it came to denote 
'not to risk or dare to do something'. L. avidus 
is a derivative of avere, 'to wish, desire, long for, 
crave', whence also avdrus, 'greedy'. See avid 
and cp. avarice. 

Derivatives: audacious-ly, adv., audacious- 
ness, n. 

audacity, n., daring, boldness. — Formed with 
suff. -ity fr. L. auddx, gen. -dcis, "bold', fr. au- 
dere, 'to dare'. See prec. word and -ity. 

audible, adj. — ML. audibilis, fr. L. audio, audire, 
'to hear', which prob. stands for *awis-d-id, fr. 
I.-E. base *awei-, *au-, 'to perceive', whence also 
OI. dvifi, Avestic avish, 'openly, evidently', Gk. 
ala$dcvo[xoci (for *4fi<T-$ 'I perceive', 
atto (for *i?ita), 'I hear' (lit. 'I perceive by the 

ear'), OSlav. ave, jave, 'open, public', aviti, 
javiti, 'to reveal'. Cp. obedient, obeisance, obey, 
oyer, oyez. 

Derivatives: audibil-ity, n., audible-ness, n., 
audihl-y, adv. 

audience, n. — F., fr. L. audientia, 'a hearing, 
audience', fr. audiens, gen. -entis, pres. part, o 
audire. See audible and -ence. 

audient, n., a hearer, listener. — L. audiens, gen. 
-entis. See prec. word and -ent. 

audile, adj., auditory. — Formed with suff. -ile 
fr. L. audire, 'to hear'. See audible. 
Derivative: audile, n., a person whose imagery 
is chiefly auditory (psychol.) 

audiology, n., the science of curing defective hear- 
ing. — A hybrid coined fr. L. audire, 'to hear', 
and Gk. -Xoyia, fr. -Xoyo;, 'one who speaks 
(in a certain manner); one who deals (with a 
certain topic)'. See audible and -logy. 
Derivative : audiolog-ist, n. 

audiometer, n., an instrument for measuring the 
intensity of sounds. — A hybrid coined fr. L. 
audire, 'to hear', and Gk. [xexpov, 'measure'. See 
audible and meter, 'poetical rhythm'. 
Derivatives: audiometr-y, n., audiometr-ist , n. 

audiphone, n., an instrument for helping the deaf 
to hear. — A hybrid coined fr. L. audire, 'to hear' , 
and Gk. cpwvr), 'sound'. See audible and phone. 

audit, tr. v. and n. — Back formation fr. auditor 

audition, n. — L. auditid, gen. -dnis, 'a hearing', 
fr. auditus, pp. of audire. See audible and -ion 
and cp. auditor. 

auditive, adj. — F. audit if (icm. auditive), fr. L. 
auditus, pp. of audire, 'to hear'. See audible. 

auditor, n., a hearer. — AF. auditour, corre- 
sponding to F. auditeur, fr. L. auditdrem, acc. of 
auditor, 'a hearer', fr. auditus, pp. of audire. See 
audible and agential suff. -or. 

auditorium, n., a building or part of a building 
assigned to the audience. — L. auditorium, 
'lecture room, hall of justice', prop. neut. of the 
adjective auditdrius, 'relating to hearing', used 
as a noun, and lit. meaning 'the place where 
something is heard', fr. auditus, pp. of audire. 
See next word and cp. auditory, n. 

auditory, adj., pertaining to hearing. — L. audi- 
tdrius, 'relating to a hearer or hearing', fr. audi- 
tor, 'hearer'. See auditor. and adj. suff. -ory. 

auditory, n., an audience. — L. auditorium, 'lec- 
ture room'. See auditorium and subst. suff. 

Audrey, fern. PN. — Shortened fr. Etheldreda, 
latinization of OE. Edeldryd, lit. 'noble might', 
fr. sedele, 'noble", and dryd, 'strength, might'. 
For the first element see atheling. The second 
element is rel. to OHG. triuwen, 'to flourish', 
trouwen, 'fo grow', MHG. druo, 'fruit', ON. 
pro-ask, 'to thrive', proskr, 'strong'. Cp. tawdry. 

Augean, adj., pertaining to Augeas, king of Elis, 
whose stable remained uncleaned for thirty 
years until Hercules cleaned it in a day {Greek 



mythol.) — Formed with suff. -an fr. L. Augeas, 
fr. Gk. Auysia?, 'Augeas*. 

augelite, n., a hydrous aluminum phosphate (min- 
eral.) — Lit. 'the bright stone', formed with 
combining form -lite fr. Gk. auyvj, 'light of the 
sun, brightness'. See augite. 

auger, n. — ME. auger, earlier nauger, fr. OE. 
nafugdr, which is compounded of nafu, 'nave of 
a wheel' and gar, 'spear' ; see nave and gore, 'a 
triangular piece of land'. The loss of the initial 
n is due to a misdivision of ME. a nauger into 
an auger. For similar misdivisions cp. adder and 
words there referred to. 
Derivative: auger-er, n. 

aught, n. — ME. auht, fr. OE. dwiht, dwiht, lit. 
'ever a whit', fr. a, d, 'ever, always', and wiht, 
'creature, thing'. See aye, 'ever', and wight and 
cp. naught. 

augite, n., a variety of pyroxene (mineral.) — L. 
augites, fr. Gk. auyh-yj?, fr. auyr], 'light of the 
sun, ray, brightness, dawn, daybreak', which is 
cogn. with Alb. agdj, 'to dawn', agume, 'dawn', 
and prob. also with OSlav. jugu, 'south', lit. 
'the place where the sun shines', jutro, 'morn- 
ing'. Cp. augelite. Cp. also the first element in 

augment, tr. v., 1) to cause to increase; 2) to pre- 
fix the augment to (see next word). — F. aug- 
menter, fr. L. augmentdre, 'to increase', fr. aug- 
mentum, 'increase', fr. augere, 'to increase'. See 
auction and -ment. 

Derivatives: augment-ed, adj., augment-ed-ly, 
adv., augment-er, n. 
augment, n., a prefixed vowel or the lengthening of 
the initial vowel to form the past tense in Greek 
and Sanskrit (gram.) — F., fr. L. augment urn, 
'increase', fr. augere, 'to increase'. See aug- 
ment, v. 

augmentation, n. — F., fr. VL. augmentdtidnem, 
acc. of augmentdtid, 'an increasing', fr. L. aug- 
mentdtus, pp. of augmentdre, 'to increase'. See 
augment, v., and -ion. 

augmentative, adj. — F. augmentatif (fern, aug- 
mentative), fr. L. augmentdtus, pp. of augmentdre. 
See augment, v., and -ive. 
Derivative: augmentative-Iy, adv. 

augur, n., in ancient Rome, a priest who foretold 
events by interpreting omens. — L., 'augur, di- 
viner, soothsayer; a member of the college of 
priests in Rome, who foretold the future', trans- 
formation of OL. *augos, gen. *augeris, 'in- 
crease' (with assimilation of the e to the u of 
the first syllable), rel. to augere, 'to increase'. 
For the change of the neuter gender (in OL. 
*augos) to the masculine fin L. augur), cp. L. 
vetus, 'old', which derives from the noun *wetos, 
'year', and orig. meant 'of (many) years' (see 
veteran). The usual derivation fr. "avi-ger (avis, 
'bird', and gerere, 'to bear, conduct') is folk 
etymology. Cp. inaugurate. 

augur, tr. and intr. v., to foretell; to prophesy. — 
L. augur art, 'to perform the functions of an 

augur; to foretell by auguries; to foretell; to 
prophesy', fr. L. augur. See augur, n. 
augural, adj., pertaining to augurs or augury. — 
L. augurdlis, 'belonging to augurs, relating to 
soothsaying', fr. augur. See augur, n., and adj. 
suff. -al. 

augurate, n., the office of an augur. — L. augu- 
rdtus, 'the office of an augur', fr. augurdtus, 
pp. oiaugurdri. See augur, v., and subst. suff. -ate. 

augury, n. — OF. augurie, fr. L. augurium, 'di- 
vination; profession of an augur'. See augur, n., 
and -y (representing L. -ium). 

august, adj., majestic, venerable. — L. augustus, 
'majestic, venerable, august', lit. 'that which is 
made to increase', rel. to augere, 'to increase'; 
cp. Lith. dukstas, Lett, augsts, 'high, of superior 
rank'. See auction and cp. words there re- 
ferred to. 

Derivatives: august-ly, adv., august-ness, n. 
August, n., name of the eighth month of the 
year. — L. Augustus; named after Augustus 
Caesar, the first Roman emperor, lit. 'venerable, 
august'. See august. For sense development cp. 

Augusta, fem. PN. — L., fern, of Augustus. See 

Augustan, adj., 1) of, or pertaining to, Augustus 
Caesar or his times ; 2) of, or pertaining to, any 
age resembling that of Augustus Caesar. — L. 
Augustanus, 'of, or relating to, Augustus', fr. 
Augustus. See August and -an. 

Augustine, Augustin, Austin, masc. PN. — L. 
Augustinus, lit. 'of, or pertaining to, Augustus', 
fr. Augustus. See next word and -ine (representing 
L. -inus). 

Augustus, masc. PN. — L., fr. augustus, 'vener- 
able, august'; the name was first applied to 
Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. See august and 
cp. August. 

auk, n. — Scand. Cp. ON. dlka, Dan. alke, 
Swed. alka, which prob. derive from the I.-E. 
imitative base *el-, *ol-, 'to shout, cry', whence 
also L. olor (for *elor), 'swan', MIr. ela, 'swan', 
and possibly also Gk. ilia, 'a marsh bird', 
eXtoptoi;, 'a water bird'. Cp. Alca. 

auklet, n., any of small species of auks. — Form- 
ed fr. prec. word with dimin. suff. -let. 

auksinas, n., a money of account in Lithuania. — 
Lith., lit. 'gulden', fr. duksas, 'gold', fr. OLith. 
ausas, of s.m., which is rel. to OPruss. ausis and 
cogn. with L. aurum, of s.m.; see aureate. See 
Walde-Hofmann, LEW., I, p. 86 s.v. aurum. 

aula, n., a large hall. — L., 'the front court of a 
Grecian house', fr. Gk. ociXr,, 'open court, court, 
hall', fr. I.-E. base *au-, 'to rest', whence also 
Arm. ag-anim, 'I pass the night', Gk. Eauco (for 
•E-af -«o), 'I sleep', and prob. the second element 
in Gk. evia'jxog, 'year'. Cp. oriel. 

aulaco-, before a vowel aulac-, combining form 
meaning 'furrow'. — Gk. ocuAaxo-, auXax-, 
from the stem of aiXaf; (gen. auXaxoq), 'fur- 
row', which stands for *<x-FXax-s and is cogn. 



with OSlav. vlekg, vlesti, Lith. velku, vilkti, 'to 
draw, drag'. 

Aulacomnium, n., a genus of mosses (bot.) — 
ModL., compounded of Gk. aSXaS;, gen. aSXa- 
xo?, 'furrow' (see prec. word), and jxvtov, 'moss', 
which is cogn. with Lith. miniava, 'close-mown 

auld, adj., old. — OE. aid; a dial, variant of old 

aulic, adj., pertaining to a court. — F. aulique, fr. 

L. aulicus, fr. Gk. auXixoc, fr. ata.7), 'court'. See 

aula and -ic. 

Derivative: aulic-ism, n. 
aumbry, aumery, n. — Variants of ambry, 
aumil, n., a native revenue collector in India. — 

Hind, 'dmil, fr. Arab, 'am/7, 'worker, agent', 

partic. of 'dmila, 'he worked, labored, made', 

which is rel. to 'dmal, 'work, toil', and to Heb. 

'dmdl, Aram.-Syr. 'dmdl, 'he worked', Ethiop. 

md'mal, 'tool', Akkad. nlmelu, 'gain, possession'. 

Cp. omlah. 

aumildar, n., a revenue collector in India. — 
Hind, 'amalddr, lit. 'one holding an office', a 
hybrid coined fr. Arab, 'dmal, 'work' (see au- 
mil), and the Persian agential suff. -ddr, meaning 
'holder, possessor', which is rel. to Avestic 
ddrayeiti, 'holds, supports', OI. dhdrdyati, of 
s.m., fr. I.-E. base *dher(e)-, 'to hold, support', 
whence also L. firmus, 'firm, steadfast, stable, 
strong'. See firm, adj., and cp. the first element 
in Darius. Cp. also the second element in baha- 
dur, chobdar, chokidar, dizdar, dufterdar, en- 
amdar, foujdar, havildar, jaghiredar, jemadar, 
killadar, ressaldar, silladar, sirdar, subahdar, 
tahsildar, talukdar, thanadar, zemindar, 
auncel, n., a weight used in England in the Middle 
Ages. — AF. auncelle, fr. It. lancella, dimin. of 
lance, 'balance', fr. L. lanx, gen. lands, 'plate, 
dish; scale of the weighing machine'. See bal- 
ance. The loss of the initial / in E. auncel is due 
to the circumstance that the initial / in It. lan- 
cella was mistaken for the It. def. art. /' and 
consequently dropped. 

aunt, n. — AF. aunte, fr. OF. ante (F. tante), fr. 
L. amita, 'father's sister', which is formed with 
-ita, a suff. of prob. Etruscan origin, from the 
infantile imitative base *am(ma), 'mother, grand- 
mother, nurse'. Cp. Gk. du^i, a^a?, du,uXa, 
'mother', ON. amma, 'grandmother', OHG. 
amma, 'mother, nurse', MIr. ammait, 'old hag'. 
The base occurs also in the Semitic languages; 
cp. Heb. em, Aram.-Syr. em, Arab, umm, imm, 
Ethiop. em, Akkad. ummu, 'mother'. Cp. also 
the second element in begum. 

aura, n. emanation; aroma. — L., 'breeze, wind, 
air', fr. Gk. a'jpoc, 'air in motion, breeze', which 
is rel. to «rjp, 'air'. See air and cp. soar. 

aural, adj., of, or pertaining, to the ear. Formed 
with adj. surf, -al fr. L. auris, 'ear'. See auricle. 
Derivative: aural-ly, adv. 

aural, adj., pertaining to an aura. — Formed fr. 
aura with adj. suff. -al. 

auramine, auramin, n., a yellow dyestuff (chem.) 

Coined fr. L. aurum, 'gold' (see aureate), and 


aureate, adj., golden (rare). — L. auredtus, fr. 
aureus, 'golden', fr. aurum, 'gold', lit. 'the shin- 
ing metal', fr. I.-E. base *awes-, 'to shine', 
whence also OLith. ausas, Lith. duksas, OPruss. 
ausis, 'gold', and possibly also Toch. A was, of 
s.m. See aurora and cp. auksinas, auramine, au- 
relia, aureole, aurin, dorado, El Dorado, loriot, 
moidore, or, 'gold', ore, oriflamme, oriole, 
ormolu, oroide, orphrey, orpiment. 
aurelia, n., butterfly chrysalis. — ModL., fr. It. 
aurelia, prop. fem. of aurelio, 'shining like gold', 
fr. L. aurum, 'gold'. See aureate and cp. Aurelia. 
Derivative: aureli-an, adj. 
Aurelia, fem. PN. — L., fem. of Aurelius (q.v.) 
Aurelius, masc. PN. — L., the name of a Roman 

gens, rel. to aurum, 'gold'. See aureate. 
Aureobasidium, n., a genus of basidiomycetes 
(6 0f .) _ a ModL. hybrid coined fr. L. aureus, 
'of gold, golden', and basidium, a word of Greek 
origin. The correct form would be Chrysobasi- 
dium, in which both elements are of Greek ori- 
gin (see chryso- and cp. aureomycin). 
aureole, n., celestial crown. — L. aureola (corona), 
'golden crown', fem. of aureolus, 'golden', di- 
min. of aureus, fr. aurum, 'gold'. See aureate 
and cp. oriole. 

aureomycin, n., an antibiotic drug resembling 
penicillin (med.) — A hybrid coined fr. L. au- 
reus, 'golden' (so called from its color), Gk. 
IX'jxy)?, 'fungus', and chem. suff. -in; see aure- 
ate and myco-. The correct form would be 
chrysomycin, in which both elements are of 
Greek origin (see chryso- and cp. Aureobasi- 

auri-, combining form meaning 'gold'. — Fr. L. 
aurum, 'gold'. See aureate, 
auri-, combining form meaning 'ear'. — Fr. L. 
auris, 'ear'. See auricle, 
aurichalcite, n., a basic copper zinc carbonate 
(mineral.) — Formed with subst. suff. -ite fr. L. 
aurichalcum, 'yellow copper ore', popular alter- 
ation of orichalcum (as if related to aurum, 
'gold'), fr. Gk. opel/aXxo:;, 'a kind of copper', 
later 'brass', lit. 'mountain copper', fr. opo;, 
'mountain', and yaXxo?, 'copper'. See oro-, 
'mountain', and chalco- and cp. orichalc. For 
the change of the Greek masculine gender to 
Latin neuter cp. Gk. xaaat-repo;, 'tin', whence 
L. cassiterum (see cassiterite). 
auricle, n., i) the external ear; 2) chamber of the 
heart. — L. auricula, 'the external ear', dimin. 
of auris, 'ear', which stands for *ausis, fr. I.-E. 
base *awei-, *au-, 'to perceive'. See ear, 'the or- 
gan of hearing', and cp. aural, 'pertaining to the 
ear'. For the ending see suff. -cle. 
Derivative: auricl-ed, adj. 
auricula, n., the Alpine primula (bot.) — Lit. 'a 
little ear'. See auricle. 

Derivatives: auricular (q.v.), auricul-ate, adj. 



auricular, adj., 1) pertaining to the ear; 2) per- 
taining to an auricle. — ■ ML. auriculiiris, fr. L. 
auricula. See auricle and adj. suff. -ar. 

auriculo-, combining form meaning 'auricular'. 
— Fr. L. auricula. See auricle. 

auriferous, adj., containing gold. — Compounded 
of L. aurum, 'gold', and ferre, 'to bear, carry'. 
See aureate and -ferous. 

auriform, adj., earshaped. — Compounded of L. 
auris, 'ear', and forma, 'form, shape'. See auricle 
and -form. 

aurify, v. , to turn into gold. — See aureate and -fy. 

Auriga, n., the Charioteer (astron.) — L. auriga, 
'a charioteer, driver', compounded of aureae 
(pi.), 'bridle of a horse', and -iga, 'driver'. Aureae 
stands for dreae (pi.), a derivative of ds, gen. oris, 
'mouth' ; -iga derives fr. agere, 'to set in motion, 
drive, lead'. See oral and agent, adj. 

aurigal, adj., pertaining to a charioteer. — L. 
aurigdlis, fr. auriga. See prec. word and adj. 
suff. -al. 

Aurignacian, adj. and n. (archaeol.) — Named 
from Aurignac, in the department of Haute- 
Garonne in France, a place where many uten- 
sils of primeval man were first discovered. For 
the ending see suff. -ian. 

aurilave, n., earcleaner. — Compounded of L. 
auris, 'ear', and lavdre, 'to wash'. See auricle 
and lave. 

aurin, n., a poisonous red synthetic dye, — Form- 
ed with chem. suff. -in fr. L. aurum, 'gold'. 
See aureate. 

aurist, n., ear specialist, otologist. — ■ A hybrid 
coined fr. L. auris, 'ear' (see aureate), and -ist, a 
suff. of Greek origin. 

auro-, combining form meaning 'gold'. — Fr. L. 
aurum, 'gold'. See aureate. 

auro-, combining form meaning 'wind'. — Fr. 
Gk. aupa, 'breeze'. See aura. 

aurochs, n., the European bison. — G. Auerochs, 
fr. MHG. ur(ohse), fr. OHG. ur(ohso), rel. to 
ON. iirr (gen. urar), of s.m., ON. ur, 'fine rain, 
drizzle', ON. urigr, OE. (trig, 'wet', and cogn. 
with Gk. oupov, L. urina, 'urine', but OI. 
usrdh, 'ox', is not cognate; see urine. For the 
second element in aurochs see ox. L. urns, 
'aurochs', is a Tcut. loan word; see urus. 

aurora, n., the dawn of day; (cap.) the goddess 
of dawn in Roman mythology, identified with 
the Greek Eos. — L. aurora, 'dawn', for *au- 
sdsa (for the form cp. L. Flora, 'the goddess of 
flowers', fr. fids, gen. fldris, 'flower'), fr. I.-E. 
base *awes-, 'to shine', whence also Gk. stoq, 
Homeric yjcoj; (for *dusds), 'dawn', OI. usuh, 
Lith. ausrd, 'dawn', L. auster, 'south wind'. ON. 
ausir, OE. east, 'east'. See east and cp. words 
there referred to. Cp. also L. aurum, 'gold', 
which also derives fr. I.-E. base *awes-, 'to 
shine', and lit. denotes the shining metal (see 
aureate and cp. words there referred to). Cp. 
also the first element in Ostrogoth. 

aurora australis, the Southern Lights. — L., lit. 

'southern dawn'. See aurora and austral, 
aurora borealis, the Northern Lights. — L., lit. 

'northern dawn'. The term was introd'A^y 

Gassendi in 1621. See aurora and bortf^jP 
aurum, n., gold (term of chemistry). — L. See 


auscultate, tr. and intr. v., to examine by aus- 
cultation. — L. auscultdtus, pp. of auscultdre. 
See next word and verbal suff. -ate. 
Derivatives: auscultation (q.v.), auscult-at-ive, 
adj., auscultat-or, n., auscultat-ory, adj. 

auscultation, n., a listening to the sounds in the 
human body. — L. auscultdtid, gen. -dnis, fr. 
auscultdtus, pp. of auscultdre, 'to hear with at- 
tention, listen to'. L. auscultdre was prob. form- 
ed with metathesis fr. *aus-clutdre, fr. *aus- 
clutos, 'heard with one's (own) ears', fr. *aus-is 
(whence auris), 'ear', and *clutos, 'heard '(cp. 
in-clutus, 'celebrated, famous'). See auricle and 
loud. Accordingly auscultdre lit. means 'to hear 
with one's (own) ears'. Cp. Gk. coTaxoua-rctv, 'to 
hearken, listen to', fr. (iTocxouaTTjc;, 'hearkener, 
listener', which is compounded of ouc,, gen. 
(oto?, 'ear', and dcxoueiv, 'to hear', hence is 
analogous to L. aus-cultdre both in sense and 
form. Cp. scout, 'spy'. 

auslaut, n., final sound. — G. Auslaut, fr. aus, 
'out of, and Laut, 'sound, tone', G. aus derives 
fr. MHG. «j, fr. OHG. mj, which is rel. to Goth., 
ON., OE. lit; see out. G. Laut, 'sound, tone', 
comes fr. laut, 'loud'. Sec loud and cp. ablaut, 
anlaut, inlaut, umlaut. 

Ausonia, n., a poetic name for Italy. — L. Au- 
sonia, fr. Ausones (Gk. Aiiaovs;;), 'the Auson- 
ians', ancient inhabitants of Middle and Lower 
Italy; of lllyrian origin. 
Derivative: Ausoni-an, adj. and n. 

auspicate, tr. v., to predict. — L. auspiedtus, pp. 
of auspicdri, 'to take auspices', fr. auspex, gen. 
auspicis. See next word and verbal suff. -ate. 

auspice, n., an omen (usually a favorable one). — 
F., fr. L. auspicium, 'divination by observing the 
flight of birds', fr. auspex, gen. auspicis, 'diviner, 
augur', lit. 'bird seer', fr. avis, 'bird', and the 
stem of specere, spicere, 'to see, look at, watch'. 
For the first element see aviary and cp. auscul- 
tation, for the second see species and cp. spy. 

auspicious, adj. of good omen, favorable. — 
Formed with suff. -ous fr. L. auspicium. See prec. 
word. Derivatives: auspicious-Iy, adv., aus- 
picious-ness, n. 

Auster, n., the south w ind. — L., of uncertain 
origin. It is perh. cogn. with ON. austr, n., 
'east'; adv., 'eastward', OHG. dstar, "to the 
east' (whence dstar-rihi. G. Osterreich, 'Aus- 
tria'), Lett. *austrs, 'eastern' in austrums, 'east', 
OSlav. ustru, 'pertaining to summer', Avestic 
ushas-tara, 'eastern', and with OHG. dstan, OE. 
east, 'east'; see aurora and cp. austral; cp. also 
east. However, on the basis of this etymology, 
it is difficult to explain why L. auster denotes the 
'south wind' (and not the 'east wind'). See 



Walde-Hofmann, LEW., I, p. 87, where also an 
attempt is made to explain the meaning of L. 

austere, adj., stern, severe; very simple. — OF. 
austere (F. austere), fr. L. austerus, 'dry, harsh, 
sour, tart', fr. Gk. auax7]p6c., 'harsh, rough, 
bitter', fr. aueiv, 'to dry', fr. aooc., 'dry'. See 

Derivatives: austere-ly, adv., austere-ness, n., 
austerity, n. (q.v.) 

austerity, n., the quality of being austere. — OF. 

austerite (F. austiriti), fr. L. austeritdtem, acc. 

of austeritds, fr. austerus. See prec. word and -ity. 
Austin, masc. PN. — Abbreviation of Augustin 


austral, adj. southern; southerly. — L. australis, 
'southern', fr. auster, 'south wind'. See Auster 
and adj. suff. -al and cp. next word. 

Australia, n. — Lit. 'southern land', fr. L. austra- 
lis, 'southern', in Terra Australis, 'the Southern 
Land'. See prec. word. 

Derivatives: Australi-an, adj. and n., Australi- 

an-ize, tr. v., Australi-an-iz-ation, n. 
austro-, combining form meaning 'south'. — Fr. 

L. auster, 'south wind, the south'. See Auster. 
aut-, form of auto- before a vowel, 
autarchy, n., absolute sovereignty. — Gk. auxap- 

-/ta, fr. auxap/siv, 'to be an absolute ruler', 

which is compounded of aux6s, 'self', and 

ipxsiv, 'to rule'. See auto- and -archy. 
autarchy, n., autarky. — See next word ; influenced 

in form by prec. word. 

autarky, n., self-sufficiency. — Gk. auxapxeta, 
fr. auxapxcTv, 'to be self sufficient', compound- 
ed of auxo;, 'self, and apxeiv, 'to suffice'. 
For the first element see auto-. Gk. apxeiv is 
cogn. with L. arcere, 'to enclose, hold'; see ar- 

auth-, form of auto- before an aspirate, 
authentic, adj. authoritative; reliable; genuine. — 
OF. autentique (F. authentique), fr. Gk. au$cv- 
xix<k, 'original, genuine, principal', fr. au&evxY);, 
auTo-£vT7]<;, 'absolute master, ruler; murderer', 
lit. 'one who does a thing himself', compounded 
of aux6;, 'self ('see auto-), and *&/rr)<;, 'one 
who does (a thing) himself, which is rel. to 
ivuco, Att. ocvuco, 'I accomplish', and cogn. with 
OI. sandti, 'wins, gains', perhaps also with Hitt. 
shanh-zi, 'he seeks, strives'. Cp. effendi. 
Derivatives: authentic, n., authentic-al-ly, adv., 
authenticate (q.v.), authentic-it y, n., authentic- 
ly, adv., authentic-ness, n. 
authenticate, tr. v., to make authentic, verify. — 
ML. authenticate, pp. of authenticare, fr. Late L. 
authenticus. See prec. word and verbal suff. -ate. 
Derivatives : authentic-ation, n. , authentic-ator,n. 
author, n. — ME. autour, authour, fr. OF. autor 
(F. auteur), fr. L. auctdrem, acc. of auctor, 'he 
that brings about, master, supporter, leader, 
author', an agential noun formed fr. auctus, pp. 
of augere 'to increase*. See auction and cp. words 
there referred to. Cp. also octroi. 

Derivatives: author, tr. v., author-ess, n., author- 
ial, adj., author-ial-ly, adv., authority (q.v.), 
authorize (q.v.) 
authority, n. — F. autorite, fr. L. auctdritdtem, 
acc. of auctdritds, 'invention, advice, opinion, in- 
fluence, command', fr. auctor, 'master, leader'. 
See prec. word and -ity. 

Derivatives : authorit-arian, adj. and n., authorit- 
ative, adj., authorit-ative-ly, adv., authorit-ative- 
ness, n. 

authorize, tr. v. — OF. autorizer (F. autoriser), 
fr. ML. auctdrizare, fr. L. auctor. See author 
and -ize. 

Derivatives: authoriz-able, adj., authoriz-ation, 
n., authoriz-ed, adj., authoriz-er, n. 
autism, n., morbid admiration of oneself {psy- 
choid — g. Autismus, coined by the Swiss psy- 
chiatrist Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939) fr. Gk. 
aux6<;, 'self, and suff. -ismus. See auto- and 

autist, n., one who morbidly admires oneself 

(psychoid — Coined fr. Gk. aux6?, 'self, and 

suff. -ist. See prec. word. 

Derivative: autist-ic, adj. 
auto, n. (colloq.) — Short for automobile, 
auto-, before a vowel aut-, before an aspirate 

auth-. — Gk. auxo-, aux-, au$-, fr. aux6g, 'self, 

same', of uncertain origin, 
autobiographer, n. — Compounded of auto- and 


autobiography, n. — Compounded of auto- and 
biography ;first used by the English poet and prose 
writer Robert Southey (1774- 1843) in 1809 with 
reference to the autobiography of the Portu- 
guese painter Francisco Vieira (in Quarterly 
Review, I, 283). 

Derivatives: autobiographic-ic, autobiograph- 
ical, adjs., autobiograph-ical-ly, adv. 
autocade, n., a procession of automobiles. — A 
modern word formed fr. auto on analogy of ca- 
valcade (q.v.) See also -cade and cp. the syno- 
nym motorcade. 

autocar, n., an automobile. — A hybrid coined 
fr. auto and car. 

autocephalous, adj., having its own head or chief. 
— Compounded of auto- and Gk. xeqraX-/;, 
'head'. See cephalic and -ous. 

autochthon, n., an aboriginal inhabitant. — L. 
autochthon, fr. Gk. aux6y$ov, 'from the land it- 
self, which is compounded of auxo- (see auto-) 
and x&aw, gen. x&°v6i;, 'earth, soil'. See chthon- 

Derivatives: autochthon-al, autochthon-ic, au- 
tochthonous, adjs., autochthon-ism, n. 
autoclave, n., a container used for sterilizing and 
cooking. — F. , lit. 'self-locking', a hybrid coined 
fr. Gk. a6r6q, 'self, and L. cldvis, 'key'. See auto- 
and clavicle, 
autocracy, n., supreme political power; dictator- 
ship. — F. autocratic fr. Gk. auxoxpaxeia, fr. 
oturoxpa-rric. See next word and -cracy. 
autocrat, n., a ruler with supreme power; dicta- 



tor. — F. autocrate, fr. Gk. auxoxpaxr)?, 'ruling 
by oneself, which is compounded of auxo- (see 
auto-) and xpaxos, 'strength, power, rule'. See 
-crat. Derivatives: autocrat-ic, adj., autocrat- 
ic-al-ly, adv. 

auto-da-fe, n., the sentence passed by the Inquisi- 
tion. — Port., lit. 'act of faith', fr. L. actus de 
fide, 'an act concerning faith'. L. actus derives 
fr. actus, pp. of agere, 'to do, act'. L. fide is the 
abl. of fides, 'faith'. See act, de- and fidelity. 

autodidact, n., one self-taught. — Gk. auxo- 
SiSaxroi;, 'self-taught', fr. auxo- (see auto-) and 
8i8axx6<;, 'taught', verbal adj. of SiSaoxstv, 'to 
teach'. See didactic. 
Derivative: autodidact-ic, adj. 

autoecious, adj., passing through all stages of 
growth on the same host [said of certain fungi] 
(bot.) — Compounded of auto- and Gk. o!xo<;, 
'house'. See economy. 

autogamous, adj., self-fertilizing (bot.) — Com- 
pounded of auto- and Gk. y<xu.o<;, 'marriage'. 
See -gamous. 

autogamy, n., self-fertilization (bot.) — Com- 
pounded of auto- and Gk. -yauia, fr. yau.o<;, 
'marriage'. See -gamy. 

autogenesis, n., spontaneous generation. — Com- 
pounded of auto- and genesis. 

autogenetic, adj., pertaining to autogenesis. — 
Compounded of auto- and genetic. 
Derivative: autogenetic-al-ly, adv. 

autogenous, adj., self-generated. — Coined by the 
English biologist Sir Richard Owen (1804-92) 
in 1846 fr. Gk. auxoyevr)?, 'self-produced', fr. 
auxo- (see auto-) and the stem of yevvav, 'to 
produce'. See -genous. 
Derivative: autogenous-ly, adv. 

autogeny, n., autogenesis. — See autogenesis and 

autograph, n., signature. — L. autographum, fr. 
Gk. aux6ypa<pov, neut. of aux6ypa<poi;, 'written 
with one's own hand', compounded of auxo- 
(see auto-) and -ypa<po<;, fr. ypacpciv, 'to write'. 
See -graph. 

Derivatives: autograph-y, n., autograph-ical,zc\). 
autogravure, n., a kind of photogravure. — A 
hybrid coined fr. Gk. auxo;, 'self and F. gra- 
vure, fr. graver 'to grave'. See auto-, grave, v., 
and -ure. 

autogiro, n., a type of airplane. — Sp., compound- 
ed of auto- and Gk. yupog, 'ring'. See gyre. 

autointoxication, n., self-poisoning (med.) — 
Compounded of auto- and intoxication. 

automatic, adj. — Formed with suff. -ic fr. Gk. 
aux6u.axo<; (see automaton); first used by the 
English physician and philosopher David Hart- 
ley (1705-57) in 1748. 

Derivatives: automatic, n., automatic-al , adj., 
automatic-al-ly, adv. 
automation, n., a method in which manufacturing 
processes are automatically performed by self- 
operating devices. — A hybrid coined by D. S. 
Harder, a vice-president of the Ford Motor 

Company, fr. automatic and suff. -tion. 

automatism, n., the state of being automatic; in- 
voluntary action. — Gk. auxou.axiau.6;, 'that 
which happens of itself, fr. aux6fi.axo<;. See next 
word and -ism. 

automaton, n., 1) any automatic device; 2) any 
living being that acts automatically. — Gk. 
aux6u.axov, neut. of auxojjiaxoi;, 'acting of one's 
own will, happening of itself, compounded of 
auxo- (see auto-) and I.-E. *mntds > 'thinking', 
fr. base *men-, 'to think', whence also Gk. 
uivxcap, 'adviser'. See mind and cp. mentor. 

Automedon, n., a friend and charioteer of Achil- 
les (Greek mythol.) — Gk. AuxofieSoiv, lit. 
'ruling by himself, compounded of auxo- (see 
auto-) and uiSuv, [isSeoiv, 'guardian, ruler' 
(prop. pres. part, of the ancient verb uiSsiv, 
'to protect, rule over'), fr. I.-E. base *mld-, 'to 
measure, limit, consider', which is a -rf-enlarge- 
ment of base *me-, 'to measure'. See meditate 
and cp. the second element in Andromeda and 
in words there referred to. 

automobile, adj. and n. — Lit. 'moving of itself, 
a hybrid coined fr. Gk. auxoc,, 'self, and L. 
mdbilis, 'movable' ; see auto- and movable. The 
modern Greek calls it auxoxtvTjxo, 'moved of 
itself (see cinema). 

Derivatives: automobile, n. and intr. v., auto- 
mobil-ism, n., automobil-ist, n. 

automotive, adj., self-moving; automobile; per- 
taining to automobiles. — A hybrid coined fr. 
Gk. auxo?, 'self, and L. mdtivus, 'moving'. See 
auto- and motive. 

autonomic, adj. — See autonomous and -ic. 

autonomist, n. — Formed with suff. -ist fr. Gk. 
oa>x6vou.oi;. See next word. 

autonomous, adj. self-governing. — Gk. auxo- 
vou-og, 'living by one's own laws', compounded 
of auxo- (see auto-) and v6u.oi;, 'law'. See nomo-. 
For E. -ous, as equivalent to Gk. -oq, see -ous. 

autonomy, n., self-government. — Gk. auxovopiia, 
'independence', fr. auxovojio;. See prec. word 
and -y (representing Gk. -iS), 

autonym, n., a person's own name. — Lit. 'one's 
own name', formed fr. auto- and Gk. ovujix, 
dialectal form of ovo^a, 'name'. See name and 
cp. onomato-. Cp. also antonym and words there 
referred to. 

autonymous, adj x --- See prec. word and -ous. 

autonymy, n., a word used as a name for itself. — 
Compounded of auto-, Gk. fivuu.*, dialectal 
form of 6vou.a, 'name', and suff. -y; introduced 
by Rudolf Carnap (born in 1891). See autonym 
and -y (representing Gk. -ta). 

autoplasty, n. (surg.) — Compounded of auto- 
and -plasty. Derivative: autoplast-ic, adj. 

autopsy, n., post-mortem examination of a body. 
— Gk. auxotjjCa, 'a seeing with one's own eyes', 
compounded of auxo- (see auto-) and 
'sight'. See -opsis. 

Derivatives: autopsy, tr. v., autops-ic, autops-ic- 
al, adjs. 



autoptic, adj., based on personal observation. — 
Gk. x'j-roTtTixo?, fr. ctu-zomrfc, 'seeing oneself', 
which is compounded of avko- (see auto-) and 
the stem of 6i>ou.oc'„ 'I shall see', o+is, 'sight'. 
See -opsis and cp. prec. word. 

autosuggestion, n. — A hybrid coined fr. Gk. 
auTo;. 'self, and L. suggestid. See auto- and 

autotelic, adj., doing something for its own sake. 

— Formed with suff. -ic fr. Gk. auTOTeXr)?, 
'ending in itself, which is compounded of au-ro- 
(see auto-) and tIXo?, 'end'. See tele-. 

autotoxin,n., toxin formed within the body(m«/.) 

— Compounded of auto- and toxin, 
autotype, n., a facsimile. — Compounded of 

auto- and type. 

autotypography, n., a process of drawing designs 
on gelatin. — Compounded of auto- and typo- 

autumn, n. — OF. autompne (F. automne), fr. L. 
aiitumnus, which is prob. of Etruscan origin. Cp. 
It. aiiltmno. Rum. toamnd, Provenc. autom, Sp. 
otono, OPort. atuno, Port, outono, 'autumn', 
which all derive fr. L. aiitumnus. Cp. also 

autumnal, adj. — L. autumndlis, fr. autumnus. 
See autumn and adj. suff. -al. 

autumnity, n., the quality of autumn. — L. autum- 
nitas, 'the season of autumn', fr. autumnus. See 
autumn and -ity. 

autunite, n., a hydrous uranium calcium phos- 
phate (mineral.) — Named after Autun in 
France. For the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

auxano-, combining form meaning 'increase, 
growth', as in auxano meter. — Gk. au^avo-, fr. 
xicavsiv, 'to increase', which is rel. to ai£eiv, 
of s.m., and cogn. with L. augere, pp. auctus, 'to 
increase'. See auction and cp. auxesis, auxetic, 

auxanometer, n., an instrument for measuring 
the growth of plants. — Compounded of auxa- 
no- and Gk. jjixpov, 'measure'. See meter, 'poeti- 
cal rhythm'. 

auxesis, n., amplification, hyperbole (rhet.) — 
Gk. x-'jir,c;. from the stem of ocj;av£'.v, 'to in- 
crease'. See auxano-. 

auxetic, auxetical, adj., pertaining to auxesis. — 
Gk. a'j;r,T'.zo;, fr. au;r,T(k, 'that may be in- 
creased', verbal adj. of ocj^ivsiv. See auxano-. 
Derivative: auxeiical-Iy, adv. 

auxiliary, adj. — L. auxilidris, 'helpful', fr. auxi- 
lium, 'help, aid, assistance, support', which is 
rel. to augere, pp. auctus, 'to increase'. See auc- 
tion and adj. suff. -ary. 
Derivative: auxiliary, n. 

auxin, n., a substance that stimulates stem growth 
(biochem.) — Coined fr. Gk. au£siv, 'to increase' 
(see :<uxo-), and chem. suff. -in. 

auxo-, combining form meaning 'stimulating 
growth'. — Gk. ocu£o-, fr. au^etv, 'to increase*. 
See auxano-. 

avail, intr. and tr. v. — ME. availen, fr. OF. a, 

'to' (see a), and vail-, the pres. stem of valoir, 'to 
be worth', fr. L. valere, 'to be well, be strong, 
be worth'. See valiant. 

Derivatives: avail, n., avail-abil-ity, n., avail- 
able, adj., avail-able-ness, n., avail-abl-y, adv., 
avail-ing-ly, adv. 
aval, n., endorsement on a bill. — F., fr. It. avallo, 
of s.m., fr. Arab. hawala h , 'money order', fr. 
hila, 'he changed'. 

avalanche, n., mass of snow sliding down a moun- 
tain. — F., fr. dial. Swiss avalantse, formed un- 
der the influence of F. a val, 'downhill', avaler, 
'to descend', fr. Savoy, lavantse, fr. VL. *labanca, 
'avalanche', which is prob. of pre-Latin origin 
(cp. the suff. -anca in *labanca, which is of Li- 
gurian origin). Cp. OProvenc. lavanca, 'ava- 
lanche', which also derives fr. VL. *labanca. For 
another related word of pre-Latin origin see 
moraine. The derivation of VL. *labanca fr. L. 
labl, 'to glide down', is prob. folk etymology, 
avale, tr. v., to cause to descend. — F. avaler, fr. 
a val, 'downhill', lit. 'to the valley', fr. a, 'to' 
(see a), and val, 'valley', fr. L. vallis, 'valley'. 
See vale, n., 'valley', and cp. vendaval. 
avant-courier, n., a herald. — For F. avant-cour- 
rier, 'forerunner'. See avaunt and courier, 
avarice, n., greed. — OF. (= F.) avarice, fr. L. 
avdritia, 'greed', fr. avdrus, 'greedy', which is 
rel. to avere, 'to long eagerly for, wish, de- 
sire'. See avid and -ice. 

avaricious, adj., greedy. — F. avaricieux (fern. 
avaricieuse), 'greedy', fr. avarice, 'greed'. See 
prec. word and -ous. 

avast, interj., hold! stop! (naut.) — Prob. cor- 
ruption of Du. houd vast, 'hold fast'. Sec hold, 
v., and fast, adj. 
avatar, n., descent of a Hindu deity {Hindu my- 
thol.) — OI. avatdrah, 'descent', fr. ava, 'down', 
and tdrati, 'crosses over'. The first element is rel. 
to OI. avuh, 'down, downward', Avestic ava, 
'down', and cogn. with Gk. au- (in ctj/xttelv, 
'to go back, retire'), L. au-, 'away' (in auferre, 
'to carry away", etc.), Lith., Lett., OPruss. priv. 
pref. au-, OSlav. u, 'at, with', Olr. o, ua, 'down, 
from'; cp. the first element in vesania and in 
vesper. OI. tdrati derives fr. I.-E. base *ter-, 
'to pass beyond, cross over'. See term and cp. 
words there referred to. 
avaunt. interj., begone. — F. avant, 'forward', fr. 
L. ab ante, 'from before', whence also It. avanti, 
OSp., Port, avante, Catal. avant, OProvenc. 
avans. See advance and cp. ci-devant. Cp. also 
the first element in vambrace, vamp, 'front part 
of a boot', vamplate, vanguard, vanward. 
ave, interj., i) hail! ; 2) farewell! ; n., the salutation 
ave. - L. ave, in vulgar speech have, 'hail, fare- 
well', fr. Phoen. -Punic, hdwi, corresponding to 
Heb. hdyi", imper. sing. masc. of Phoen. -Punic 
liawd, resp. Heb. hdyd", 'he lived'. Cp. Plautus, 
Poenulus, 994, 998, tool, and see Walde-Hof- 
mann, LEW., I, pp. 80-8 1 . — The identity of the 



Semitic bases h-w-h (h-w-') and h-y-h is illustrat- 
ed in Gen. 3 : 20, 'And the man called his wife's 
name Eve (Hawwd' 1 ), because she was the mother 
of all living (hdy)\ See Eve. For sense de- 
velopment cp. Heb. y e hi adhont hammelekh 
Ddwidh I'dldm: 'Let my lord king David live for 
ever!' (I Kings 1:31; cp. Dan. 2:4 and passim), 
E. 'Long live the King!', F. 'Vive le roi', etc., 
all used as formulas of greeting. 
(The origin of L. ave being thus established, we 
shall be able to find the exact meaning of the 
words with which the gladiators greeted the 
emperor : 'Ave, Imperator, morituri te salutant' 
(see Suetonius, Claudius 2 1). The usual rendering 
is: 'Hail, Emperor, who are about to die salute 
you'. In fact, however, the Latin words express 
a perfect antithesis. According to my opinion, 
their original meaning was: 'Live, Emperor! 
They who are about to die salute you.') 

avellan, avellane, adj . , pertaining to, or resembling, 
a filbert or hazel. — Fr. L. avelldna, 'filbert', 
shortened from nux avelldna, lit. 'nut of Avella', 
fr. Avella, Abella, name of a town in Campania, 
abounding in nuts. See apple. 

Avena, n., a genus of grasses; the oat grass (bot.) 

— L. avena, 'oats', prob. formed fr. orig. *avig- 
snd, but influenced in form by the ending of 
arena, 'sand'; cogn. with OSlav. ovisu, 'oats', 
Russ. oves, Lith. avizd, Lett, duza, OPruss. 
wyse, of s.m. Cp. avener. 

avenaceous, adj., pertaining to, or resembling, 

oats. — L. avenaceus, 'of oats, oaten', fr. avena. 

See prec. word and -aceous. 
avenalin, n., a globuline occurring in oat kernels 

(biochem.) — Formed with chem. suff. -in fr. 

L. avena, 'oats'. See Avena. 
avener, n., a chief officer of the stable who had 

the charge of the provender for the horses (hist.) 

— OF. avenier, fr. L. avendrius 'pertaining to 
oats', fr. avena. See Avena and agential suff. -er. 
Derivatives: aven-ary, aven-ery, n. 

avenge, tr. and intr. v. — OF. avengier, fr. a, 'to' 
(see a), and vengier (F. venger), fr. L. vindicdre, 
'to lay claim to, avenge, punish'. See vindicate 
and cp. vengeance, revenge. 
Derivatives : aveng-er, n., avenge-ful, adj., aveng- 
ing, adj., aveng-ing-ly, adv. 

avens, n., a plant of the genus Geum (bot.) — 
ME. avence, fr. OF. avence. 

aventail, n., ventail. — Formed — with change of 
pref. — fr. OF. esventail, fr. es- (fr. L. ex), 'out 
of (see 1st ex-), and ventail. 

aventurine, n., a kind of Venitian glass. — F., fr. 
It. avventurino, fr. avventura, 'chance', fr. VL. 
adventura (see adventure) ; so called because the 
filings used in the fabrication of this glass are 
thrown over the melting glass at random. 

avenue, n. — F., prop. fern. pp. of avenir, 'to come 
to', fr. L. advenire, fr. ad- and venire, 'to come'. 
See venue, 'arrival', and cp. advene, advent. 

aver, tr. v. — F. averer, fr. OF. averer, fr. a, 'to' 
(see a), and voire, 'true', fr. L. virus, 'true'. Cp. 

OProvenc. averer, aveirar, It. averare, and see 

average, n., 1) loss incurred by damage at sea; 
2) an equitable division of such loss among all 
the parties interested; 3) an arithmetical mean. 
— F. avaric, 'damage to ship', fr. It. avaria, 
fr. Sp. averia, fr. Arab, 'awdrtya", 'merchandise 
damaged by sea water', fr. 'awdr, 'rent, tear; 
flaw; damaged goods'. 
Derivatives: average, adj. and tr. v. 

average, n., feudal service (Old English law) — 
ME., fr. ML. averagium, fr. ML. avera, fr. OF. 
oevre, ovre (F. ceuvre), 'work', fr. L, opera. See 
opus and cp. opera. ML. avera was prob. in- 
fluenced in form by OF. aver, aveir, 'property', 
prop. inf. used as a noun, fr. L. habere, 'to have' 
(see habit). 

averah, n., transgression, sin (Jewish religion). — 
Heb. 'dbherd n , 'transgression', lit. 'a passing 
over', fr. 'dbhdr, 'he passed over'. See Hebrew. 

averment, n. — MF. averement, fr. averer (F. 
averer). See aver and -ment. 

Averroism, n., the teachings of the Arab philo- 
sopher Averroes (= Ibn Rushd) (1126-98). For 
the ending sec suff. -ism. 

averruncate, tr. v., to avert. — L. dverrunedtus, 
pp. of dverruncdre, 'to avert, remove', fr. a 
'away from', and verruncare, 'to turn', which is 
rel. to verrere 'to sweep'. See a-, 'away from', 
verricule and verbal suff. -ate. 
Derivatives: averruncat-ion, n., averruncut-or, n. 

averse, adj. — L. dversus, 'turned away", pp. of 
dvertere. See avert. 

Derivatives: averse-ly, adv., averse-ness, n. 

aversion, n. — F., fr. L. dversionem, acc. of dver- 
sid, 'a turning away', fr. dversus, pp. of dver- 
tere. See next word and -ion. 

avert, tr. v., to prevent, ward off. — L. dvertere, 
'to turn away', fr. a, 'away from', and vertere, 
'to turn'. See a-, 'away from', and version. 
Derivatives: avert-ed, adj., avert-ed-ly, adv., 
avert-ible, adj. 

Aves, n. pi., the class of birds (zool.) — L. aves 
pi. of avis, 'bird'. See aviary. 

Avesta, n., the sacred books of the Parsees. — 
Pers., earlier form Avistdk, lit. 'text'. Cp. Zend- 

Derivatives: Avest-an, Avest-ic, adjs. 

aviarist, n., one who keeps an aviary. — See next 
word and -ist. 

aviary, n., a place in which birds are kept. — 
L. avidrium, 'a place where birds are kept, an 
aviary', fr. avis, 'bird', which is cogn. with OI. 
vih, vgfi, Avestic vish, 'bird', OI. vdyas-, 'fowl, 
bird', Gk. otteTo;, Att. Setoc (for *irie-oc), 
'eagle', and prob. also with Arm. hav, 'bird'. 
(For the insertion of the h cp. Arm. hot 'odor', 
which is cogn. with L. odor, and hum. 'raw', 
which is cogn. with Gk. u>\if,-l) Cp. aviation, 
avion, the first element in aucupate, auspice, 
aviculture, bustard, ocarina, ostrich, and the 
second element in pettitoes. Cp. also ovum, egg. 



aviation, n. — F., coined by G. de la Landelle (in 
his Aviation ou Navigation aerienne, Paris, 1863) 
fr. L. avis, 'bird' (see prec. word), and suff. 

aviator, n. — Refashioned after F. aviateur. See 
prec. word and agential suff. -or. 

aviatress, aviatrix, n., a woman aviator. — For- 
med fr. aviator with suff. -ess, resp. -trix. 

Avicennism, n., the teachings of the Arab, philo- 
sopher Avicenna (= Ibn Sina) (980-1037). For 
the ending see suff. -ism. 

aviculture, n. — Compounded of L. avis, 'bird', 
and cultura, 'cultivation, culture'. See aviary 
and culture. 

avid, adj., eager. — F. avide, fr. L. avidus, 'long- 
ing eagerly for; desirous, eager', fr. avere, 'to 
long eagerly for, to wish, desire', which is prob, 
cogn. with Co. awel, awell, 'wish, desire', W. 
ewyll, 'will, volition', OI. dvati, 'wishes, favors, 
protects', avitdr, 'protector', Gk. bi-rfyc, (for 
*b)-a.Trf), 'benevolent, affable'. Cp. avarice, 

Derivatives: avid-ly, adv., avid-ious, adj., avid- 

ious-ly, adv., avidity (q.v.) 
avidity, n., eagerness. — F. avidite, fr. L. avidi- 

tdtem, acc. of aviditds, 'eagerness, avidity', fr. 

avidus. See prec. word and -ity. 
avidya, n., relative knowledge. — OI. avidyd, lit. 

'non-knowledge', fr. pref. a-, 'not', and vidyd, 

"knowledge'. See priv. pref. an- and vidya. 
avifauna, n., all the birds of a region, regarded 

collectively. — Compounded of L. avis, 'bird' 

(see aviary), and fauna, 
avion, n., an airplane. — F., coined by the French 

engineer Clement Ader (1841-1925) in 1875 fr. 

L. avis, 'bird'. See aviary, 
avital, adj., ancestral. — Formed with adj. suff. 

-al fr. L. avitus, 'pertaining to a grandfather, 

ancestral', fr. avus, 'grandfather', whence avun- 
culus, 'uncle on the mother's side'. See uncle, 
avitaminosis, n., lack of vitamins in one's food 

(biochem.) — A ModL. hybrid coined fr. priv. 

pref. a-, vitamin and suff. -osis. 
avizandum, n., consideration (Scot. law). — ML., 

gerundive of avizdre. See advise. For other Latin 

gerundives used in English cp. agenda and 

words there referred to. 
avocado, n., a tropical pear-shaped fruit. — Sp., 

fr. aguacate, fr. Nahuatl ahuacatl. Cp. alligator 


avocation, n., business; occupation; hobby. — L. 
avoedtid, gen. -onis, 'a calling off', fr. dvoedtus, 
pp. of dvocdre, 'to call off', formed fr. a, 'away 
from', and vocdre, 'to call'. See a-, 'from', and 
vocation and cp. advocate. 

avocet, avoset, n., a bird with webbed feet (genus 
Recurvirostra). — F. avocette, fr. It. avocetta, 
which is of unknown origin. 

avogadrile, n. , fluoborate of potassium and cae- 
sium (mineral.) — Named after the Italian phy- 
sicist Amedeo Avogadro (1776-1856). For the 
ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

avoid, tr. v. — ME. avoiden, formed — with 
change of pref. — fr. OF. esvuidier, 'to empty', 
fr. pref. es- (fr. L. ex), 'out of, and OF. voit, 
voide, dial, forms otvuit, vuide (F. vide), 'empty', 
fr. VL. *vocit-(um), for *vacit-(um), for L. 
vacdt-(um), pp. stem of vacdre, 'to be empty'. 
See 1st ex- and void, adj. 
Derivatives: avoid-able, adj., avoid-abl-y, adv., 
avoid-ance, n., avoid-er, n., avoid-less, adj., 
avoid-ment, n. 
avoirdupois, n., a system of weights. — Incorrect 
for ME. avoir de pais, fr. OF. aveir de pois, 
'goods of weight'. OF. aveir, 'goods', is prop, 
the inf. aveir (F. avoir), 'to have', used as a 
noun, fr. L. habere, 'to have'; OF. (= F.) de, 
'from, of, derives fr. L. de, 'from, away from' ; 
OF. peis, pois (F. poids), 'weight', comes fr. L. 
pensum, 'weight', which is prop, the neut. pp. 
of pendere, 'to weigh'. See habit, de- and poise. 
For the subst. use of the infinitive cp. attainder 
and words there referred to. 
Derivative: avoirdupois, adj. 
avouch, tr. and intr. v. — ME. avouchen, fr. 
OF. avochier, fr. L. advocdre, 'to summon to a 
place', fr. ad- and vocdre, 'to call'. See vouch, 
avoue, n., lawyer, solicitor. — F., 'solicitor', fr. 
L. advoedtus, 'advocate', prop, 'one called to 
aid', pp. of advocdre. See next word, 
avow, tr. v. — OF. avoer, avouer (F. avouer), fr. 
L. advocdre, 'to call to ; to summon to a place', 
fr. ad- and vocdre, 'to call', which is rel. to vox, 
gen. vocis, 'voice'. See voice and cp. advocate, 
advowee, avoue. 

Derivatives: avow-able, adj., avow-al, n., avow- 
ed, adj., avow-ed-ly, adv., avow-ed-ness, n., avow- 
er, n., avowry (q.v.) 

avowry, n. — ME. avoerie, fr. OF. avoer, avouer. 
See prec. word and -ry. 

avulsion, n., a pulling away; a part torn off. — L. 
dvulsid, gen. -onis, 'a tearing off, a plucking off, 
fr. dvulsus, pp. of dvellere, 'to tear off, pluck off, 
pull away', fr. a, 'away from', and vellere, 'to 
tear, pull, pluck'. See a- 'away from', and velli- 
cate. For the ending see suff. -ion. 

avuncular, adj., pertaining to an uncle. — Formed 
with adj. suff. -ar fr. L. avunculus, 'uncle 
on the mother's side'. See uncle and cp. words 
there referred to. 

await, tr. v. — ME. awaiten, fr. ONF. awaitier, 

fr. a, 'to' (see a), and waitier, 'to watch'. See 

ad- and wait, 
awake, tr. and intr. v. — Partly fr. ME. awaken, 

fr. OE. dwacan (fr. a, 'on', and wacan, 'to arise, 

awake'), partly fr. ME. awakien, fr. OE. dwacian 

(fr. d, 'on', and wacian, 'to be awake, watch'). 

See a-, 'on', and wake, v. 
awake, adj. — ME. awaken, earlier pp. fr. OE. 

dwsecnan. See awaken, 
awaken, tr. and intr. v. — OE. dwsecnan, fr. a- 

'on', and wsecnan, 'to waken'. See waken. 

Derivatives: awaken-er, n., awaken-ing, adj. and 

n., awaken-ing-ly, adv. 



award, tr. v. — AF. awarder, formed — with 
change of prefix — fr. ONF. eswarder, which 
corresponds to OF. esgarder (MF. egarder), 'to 
regard, examine', fr. es- (fr. L. ex), 'out of, and 
warder, resp. garder, 'to observe'. See 1st ex- 
and ward, v., and cp. guard, v. 
Derivatives: award, n. (q.v.), award-er, n. 

award, n. — AF. award, fr. ONF. eswart, which 
corresponds to esgart, fr. esgarder. See award, 

aware, adj. — ME. iwar, ywar, fr. OE. gewxr, 
which is formed fr. pref. ge- (see y-) and wser, 
'aware, cautious'. See ware, 'alert'. 
Derivative: aware-ness, n. 

awaruite, n., a natural alloy of iron and nickel 
(mineral.) — Named after Awarua Bay in New 
Zealand. For the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

awash, adv. and adj. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and 

away, adv. — ME. away, aweie, fr. OE. on weg, 
lit. 'on the way'. See a-, 'on', and way. 

awe, n. — ME. aghe, awe, fr. ON. agi, rel. to OE. 
ege, 'fear', OHG. agiso, 'fright, terror', Goth. 
agis, 'fear, anguish', prob. also to OHG. z-agen, 
MHG., G. zagen, 'to fear, hesitate', and cogn. 
with Gk. &x°?> 'P a in> grief, &xoy.a:i, 'I am af- 
flicted', Olr. -dgor, 'I fear'. 
Derivatives: awe, tr. v., awe-less, adj., aw-ful, 
adj., aw-ful-ly, adv., aw-ful-ness, n. 

aweather, adv. and adj., on the weather side; 
toward the wind (naut.) — Formed fr. a-, 'on', 
and weather. 

awhile, adv. — ME., fr. OE. dne hwile. See a-, 
indef. art., and while. 

awkward, adj. — ME. awkwarde, lit. 'turned the 
wrong way', formed fr. auk-, awk-, 'wrong, con- 
trary', and suff. -warde (see -ward). ME. auk- 
is borrowed fr. ON. ofugr, 'turned backward, 
wrong, contrary', which is a derivative of af, 
'of, off. See of, off. 

Derivatives: awkward-ly, adv., awkward-ness, n. 
awl, n. — ME. al, alia, alle, fr. OE. sel, rel. to 

ON. air, MLG. al, Du. aal, OHG. dla, MHG. 

die, G. Ahle, fr. Teut. *eld, corresponding to 

I.-E. *eld, whence OI. drd, 'awl'. Lith. yla, Lett. 

Hens, OPruss. ylo, 'awl', are borrowed fr. Goth. 

*ela. Cp. anlace. 
awn, n. — ME. awne, agune, fr. ON. dgn, pi. 

agnar, which is rel. to OE. egenu, OHG. agana, 

MHG. agene, G. Ahne, Goth, ahana, and cogn. 

with OI. asdni-, 'arrowhead', Gk. &yyn\ (for 

*ak-s-nd), 'husk of wheat, foam, froth', pi. 

*x va i> 'chaff, dbtoa-rr), 'barley', lit. 'the awny 

one', OL. agna (for *ac-na), 'ear, straw', L. 

acus, gen. aceris, 'chaff, OPruss. ackons, 'awn, 

beard', Lith. akuotas, Lett, akudts of s.m., fr. 

I.-E. base *ak-, *aq-, 'sharp'. See acrid and cp. 

ear, 'corn'. Cp. also acerose. 

Derivatives: awn, tr. v., awn-ed, adj., awn-er, n., 

awn-less, awn-y, adjs. 
awning, n. — Of uncertain origin ; perhaps formed 

with suff. -tag fr. F. auvent, 'shed, pent roof. 

which is rel. to OProvenc. amban, anvan, 'a kind 
of parapet'. 

awoke, past tense of awake. — See awake and 

awry, adv. and adj. — Formed fr. a-, 'on', and 

ax, axe, n. — OE. eax, sex, rel. to OS. accus, acus, 
ON. ex, ox, ox, Dan. ekse, Norw. 0ks, Swed. 
yxa, OFris. axe, OHG. ackus, MHG. ackes, 
G. Axt, Goth, aqizi, and cogn. with Gk. iSJ-vr^ 
'ax', L. ascia (for *acsid-), 'ax; mason's trowel'. 
All these words are prob. of Sem. origin; cp. 
Akkad. has(s)innu, Aram.-Syr. fiatzind, 'ax'. Cp. 
axinite, adz. 
Derivative: ax, tr. v. 

axial, adj. pertaining to an axis. — Formed with 
adj. suff. -al fr. L. axis. See axis and cp. the 
second element in coaxial, uniaxial. 

axil, n., upper angle between a leaf, branch, etc., 
and the stem (6or.) — L. axilla, 'armpit'. See 
aisle and cp. words there referred to. 

axile, adj., pertaining to an axis (bot.) — Formed 
with suff. -ile fr. L. axis. See axis. 

axilla, n., armpit (anat. and zool.) — L. See axil. 
Derivative: axill-ary, adj. and n. 

axinite, n., a borosilicate of aluminum and cal- 
cium (mineral.) — Formed with subst. suff. -ite 
fr. Gk. dc^fvr], 'ax'. See ax. 

axiom, n. — F. axiome, fr. L. axioma, fr. Gk. 
a^to)(ia, gen. a|cco(jtaTo?, 'that which is thought 
worthy', fr. d^iotiv, 'to think worthy', fr. a^toq, 
'worthy', prop, 'weighty', from the base of 
Syciv, 'to lead', used in the sense of 'to weigh', 
which is cogn. with L. agere, 'to set in motion, 
drive, lead'. See agent, adj., and cp. words there 
referred to. Cp. also the second element in 
chronaxy. For the ending see suff. -oma. 

axiomatic, axiomatical, adj. — Gk. a^wna-uxo;. 
fr. a|tw(ia, gen. a^icifxaxoc;. See prec. word and 
1st -atic. 

Derivative: axiomatical-ly, adv. 
axis, n. — L., axletree, 'axle, chariot, wagon, 
axis', cogn. with Gk. a*uv, 'axis, axle, wagon', 
Gk. a(jL-a5a, 'carriage', prop, 'that which has 
one axle', OI. dksah, 'axis, axle', L. axilla, 'arm- 
pit', dla (for *acs-ld), 'wing', OSlav. osi, Lith 
ails, OPruss. assis, Lett, ass, 'axle', Ir. aiss, 
'cart', W. echell, 'axle', OE. eax, OFris. axe, 
OS., OHG. ahsa, MHG. ahse, G. Achse, ON. 
bxull, 'axis, axle'. All these words are deriva- 
tives of I.-E. base *ag-, 'to lead'. See agent, 
adj., and cp. axilla, axle, axon, ala, aisle, ailer- 
on, axial. 

axle, n. — ME. axel in the compound axeltre, 
fr. ON. oxul-tre, 'axletree', rel. to ON. 6x1, OE. 
eaxl, OS. ahsla, OHG. ahsala, G. Achsel, 'shoul- 
der', and cogn. with L. axilla, 'armpit'. See prec. 
word and cp. aisle. 
Derivative: axl-ed, adj. 

Axminster, n., name of a kind of carpet. — 
Named after Axminster, England, where it was 
orig. made. 



axo-, before a vowel ax-, combining form mean- 
ing 'axis'. — Gk. a^o-, AE,-, fr. a^wv, 'axis, axle'. 
See axon. 

axolotl, n., any of several salamanders. — Sp., fr. 
Nahuatl, lit. 'servant of the water'. 

axon, n., axis of the vertebrate body. — ModL., 
fr. Gk. ci^ojv, 'axis, axle, vertebra', which is 
cogn. with L. axis, 'axis, axle'. See axis. 

Axonopus, n., a genus of plants of the family 
Poaceae (bot.) — ModL., compounded of Gk. 
&Z,o>v, 'axis', and ttouc;, gen. 7ro86<;, 'foot'. See 
axon and podo-. 

axunge, n., lard. — Earlier F. axunge (F. axonge), 
fr. L. axungia, 'axletree grease, grease, fat', 
which is compounded of axis, 'axletree, axis', 
and ungere, 'to grease'. See axis and unguent. 

ay, aye, interj., yes. — Of uncertain origin. 
Derivative: ay, aye, n. 

ayah, n., a native Hindu nurse. — Hind, aya, 
aya, fr. Port, aia, 'nurse, governess', which, to- 
gether with Sp. aya, of s.m., derives fr. L. avia, 
'grandmother', used in the sense of 'an aged 
woman who takes care of the children'. L. avia 
derives fr. avus, 'grandfather', whence avunculus, 
'uncle on the mother's side'. See uncle and cp. 
words there referred to. 

ayah, n., a verse (in the Koran). — Arab. dya h , 
lit. 'a sign', contraction of *dwaya h , rel. to Hcb. 
6th, Aram. -Syr. dthd, 'sign'. 

aye, ay, adv., ever, always. — ME. ei, ai, ay, fr. 
ON. ei, which is rel. to OE. a, 6, OS. eo, 'always, 
ever', OHG. eo, later io, MHG. ie, G.jc, Goth. 
am, 'ever' and cogn. with Gk. c/id, Cyprian, 
Phocian, I.ocrian cdFel (for *xlr£ai), 'always', 
Gk. alcjv (for *aifcov), 'age. eternity', L. aevum, 
'space of time, eternity'. See aeon and cp. each, 
ever, the first element in either and the second 
element in nay. Cp. also Aeolus, age, eternal. 

aye-aye, n., a small rodent (Daubentunia mada- 
gaseariensis). — F.. fr. Malagasy aiai, imitative 
of the animal's cry. 

ayin, n., name of the 1 6th letter of the Hebrew 
alphabet. — Heb. 'dyin, 'eye'; so called in al- 
lusion to the ancient form of this letter. Cp. 
Aram, 'aynd, 'end, Syr. 'aynd, Ugar. '/;, Arab. 
'arn, Ethiop. 'ayn, Akkad. emi, 'eye'. 

az-, form of azo- before a vowel. 

Azalea, n.. a genus of plants of the heath family 
(bot.) — ModL., fr. Gk. i"y./io;, 'dry', fr. a"a, 
'dryness, mold', rel. to yZv.v, 'to dry up', fr. 
L-E. base *ds, 'to be dry, to be hot', whence also 
Goth, azgd, OE. cisce, A-sce, 'ashes'. See ash, 
'powdery substance", and cp. the first element 
in Azolla. This genus of plants was called Azalea 
(lit. 'dry plant") because it grows best in a 
dry soil. 

azam, n., Persian title of respect. — Arab, d'zam, 
'greater', al-a'zam, 'the greatest', elative of 
'aztm, 'great', fr. 'dzuma, 'was great", rel. to 'azm, 
Ethiop. adm, 'bones', Heb. 'dtzdm, 'was migh- 
ty', 'etzem, 'bone', Aram.-Syr. 'afmd (in Baby- 
lonian Aram, weakened into afmd), 'thigh', 

Akkad. esemtu, 'bones', esenseru, 'backbone, 

Azariah, masc. PN. (Bible) — Heb. 'Azaryd' 1 , lit. 
'God has helped'. See Ebenezer and cp. Ezra. 

azarole, n., fruit of the Neapolitan Medlar (Cra- 
taegus Azarolus); the tree itself. — F. azerole, 
fr. Sp. acerola, fr. Arab, az-za' rtira h , 'the med- 
lar', fr. az-, assimilated form of al-, 'the', and 
za'rura'', name of unity fr. za'rur, which is rel. 
to Mishnaic Heb. 'uzrdr, 'medlar'. 

Azazel, n., place to which the scapegoat was sent 
(Bible). — Heb. 'Azazel; in the Talmud 
(Yoma 67b) explained as a compound of 'az, 
'firm, rough', and el, 'strong'. (Cp. Gesenius- 
Buhl, HWAT., p. 576a.) 

azedarach, n., the China tree and its bark. — 
F. azedarac, fr. Pers. dzad dirakht, 'free (i.e. 
noble) tree'. 

Azilian, adj., pertaining to one of the transition 
periods of the Old Stone Age. — From the name 
of the village Mas d'Azil in the French Pyre- 
nees, where remains were found. For the ending 
see stiff, -ian. 

azimuth, n., distance of a star from the North or 
South point of the meridian (astron.) — F. azi- 
mut, fr. Arab, as-sum&t, pi. of as-samt, 'the way', 
fr. as-, assimilated form of al-, 'the', and saint, 
'way'. See zenith and cp. altazimuth. 

azo-, before a vowel az-, combining form de- 
noting the presence of nitrogen (chem.) — Short- 
ened fr. azote (q.v.) Cp. dlazo-, thiazine. 

azoic, adj., without life. — Formed with suff. -ic 
fr. Gk. aCcooc, 'without life', fr. a- (see priv. 
pref. a-) and £cot„ 'life'. See zoo- and cp. azote. 

Azolla, n., a genus of plants of the salvinia family 
(bot.) — ModL., compounded of Gk. dc"et,v, 'to 
dry', and oXX'jvoa, 'to destroy'. For the first 
element see Azalea, for the second see Apollyon. 

azonic, adj., not pertaining to a particular zone. 
— Gk. aZwvw.oc, fr. otscovoc, 'not confined to 
a zone", fr. d- (see priv. pref. a-) and £covr,, 'belt, 
zone'. See zone and -ic. 

azorite, n., a variety of zircon (mineral.) — 
Named afterthe /fzoicy.Fortheendingsecsubst. 
sufT. -itc. 

azote, n., nitrogen. — F., lit. 'without life'; 
coined by the French chemist Antoine-Laurent 
de Lavoisier (1743-94) in 1776 fr. priv. pref. a- 
and Gk. Icor,. 'life' (see zoo- and cp. azoic): so 
called by him because this element is incapable 
of supporting life. 

Derivatives: azot-ic, adj., azotite (q.v.), azol-ize, 
tr. v. 

azote, n., a whip. — Sp., fr. Arab, as-saut, lit., 
'the whip', fr. as-, assimilated form of al-, 'the', 
and saut, 'whip', which is rel. to Heb. shot, 
Aram, shotd, Syr. shuts, Ethiop. saut, 'whip', 
Heb. shiis, 'to rove about', Akkad. shdtu, 'to 

azotea, n., a flat roof. — Sp., fr. Arab, as-sath, 
lit. 'the roof, fr. as-, assimilated form of al-, 
'the', and safh, 'roof, fr. sdtaha, 'he spread out*, 



which is rel. to Heb. shatah, Aram.-Syr. sh'tah, 
'he spread out'. 

azotite, n., salt of nitrous acid (chem.) — Formed 
fr. azote with subst. suff. -ite. 

azulene, n., blue hydrocarbon (chem.) — Formed 
with suff. -ene fr. Sp. azul, 'blue'. See next word. 

azure, adj. — ME. asur, fr. OF. azur, fr. Med. 
Lat. azura (whence also Ital. azzurro, Sp. azur, 
azul, Port, azul), fr. Arab, al-ldzaward, fr. Pers. 
Idjwdrd, 'lapis lazuli' ; so called from Lajward, 
a place in Turkestan, mentioned in Marco 
Polo's Travels. The initial / was mistaken for the 
definite article and consequently dropped in the 
Romanic languages. Cp. azulene. Cp. also 
lapis lazuli. 

azurite, n., hydrous carbonate of copper (min- 
eral.) — Formed fr. azure with subst. suff. -ite; 
so called from its color. 

azygo-, combiningformmeaning 'azygous". — Gk. 
a£i)Y0-, fr. &Z,uyoc,. See azygous. 

azygous, adj., odd. — Gk. S^uyo?, 'odd. not 
forming a pair', fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and 
£uy6v, 'yoke'. See zygo-, yoke. For E. -ous, as 
equivalent to Gk. -oq, see suff. -ous. 

azyme, azym, n., unleavened bread. — Late L. 
azymus, fr. Gk. a^o?, 'unleavened', formed 
fr. a- (see priv. pref. a-) and ftju.^ 'leaven'. 
See zyme. 

Derivatives: azym-ic, azym-ous, adjs. 


baa, intr. v., to bleat. — Imitative of the cry of 
the sheep. 
Derivative: baa, n. 

Baal, n., the name of many deities of the Semitic 
peoples. — Heb. Bd'al (pi. B^dltm), lit. 'owner, 
master, lord', fr. bd'dl, 'he took possession of, 
he married', rel. to Akkad. Belu (whence Heb. 
Bel, Gk. BijXos), name of Marduk (lit. 'Ruler'), 
balu, 'rule', Arab, bd'ala, 'he possessed (esp. a 
wife)', ba'l, 'husband', Ethiop. ba'dla, 'he mar- 
ried'. Cp. Bel and Beulah and the first element 
in Beelzebub. 

Bab, n., title given to the founder of Babism. — 
Pers. bdb, 'door, gate', fr. Arab, bdb, of s.m., 
fr. Aram, bdbh, bdbhd, fr. Akkad. bdbu, 'door, 
gate', which is shortened fr. *nebdbd, lit. 'hole, 
aperture', from Sem. stem n-b-b, 'to make hol- 
low, to hollow out', whence also Heb. n e bhubh, 
'hollowed', Aram. -Syr. abbubhA, Akkad. imbubu, 
'flute', Arab, anbub, 'part of reed between 
knots'. Cp. Babel. 
Derivatives: Bab-ism, n., Bab-ist, n. 

babacoote, n., a Madagascan lemur (zool.) — 

Babbitt, babbitt, n., a conventional businessman. 

— So called after George Babbitt, the title 
character of a novel by Sinclair Lewis (1922). 
Derivative: Babbit-ry, babbit-ry, n. 

Babbitt metal. — Named after its inventor Isaac 
Babbitt (1799-1862). 

babble, intr. and tr. v. — ME. babelen, from the 
I.-E. imitative base *bab-, whence also ON. 
babba, Swed. babbla, Norw. babble, LG. bab- 
beln, Du. babbelen, G. babbeln, 'to prattle', L. 
babulus, 'babbler', F. babiller, 'to stutter, stam- 
mer' ; cp. babe, baboon, bauble. Cp. the related 
imitative base *balb-, whence L. balbus, 'stam- 
merer' ; see balbuties, booby. Cp. also the related 
imitative base *barb-, 'to stammer', whence Gk. 
fiipfixpoc,, 'foreign, barbarous'; see barbaric, 

Derivatives: babble, n., babbl-er, n., babbl-ing, 
n. and adj., babbl-ing-ly, adv., babbl-ish, adj., 
babbl-ish-ly, adv., babbl-ish-ness, n., babbl-y, adj. 

babe, n. — ME., of imitative origin. See prec. 
word and cp. baby. Cp. also boy. 

Babel, n., name of the capital of Babylonia. — 
Heb. Bdbhel, fr. Akkad. Bdb-ilu, lit. 'the gate of 
God', prop, a literal translation of Sumerian 
Ka-dingir. Akkad. Bdb-ilu is compounded of 
bdb, 'gate', and ilu, 'god'. The first element is 
rel. to Aram, bdbh, bdbhd, 'door, gate' ; see Bab. 
For the second element see EL Cp. the second 
element in Zerubbabel. Cp. also Babylon. 

babiroussa, babirussa, n., a species of wild swine. 

— Malay, compounded of bdbi, 'hog', and 
riisa, 'deer'. 

baboo, n., Master, Mr. — Hind. bdbu. 

baboon, n. — ME. baboin, fr. OF. babuin, ba- 
bouin (F. babouiri), a blend of babine, 'the pen- 
dulous lip of certain animals, esp. monkeys' (the 
baboon has prominent lips), and baboue, 'wry, 
ugly face'; both babine and baboue are of imi- 
tative origin. See Bloch-Wartburg, DELF., p. 49 
s. v. babouin. MDu. baubijn (whence Du. baviaari) 
is an OF. loan word. G. Pavian is borrowed fr. 
Du. baviaan. 

Derivative: baboon-ery, n. 

babouche, n., a heelless Oriental slipper. — F., 
fr. Arab, bdbOsh, fr. Pers. pdpush, lit. 'foot- 
covering', fr. pa, 'foot', and the verb pushiden, 
'to cover'. Pers. pd is rel. to Avestic pad-, 'foot' ; 
see foot. The change of p to b proves that the 
word came into Europe through the medium of 
the Arabic, which having no p, regularly chan- 
ges the p of foreign words into b. 

baby, n. — Dimin. of babe. 
Derivatives: baby, adj. and tr. v., baby-hood, n., 
baby-ish, adj., baby-ish-ly, adv., baby-ish-ness,n. 

Babylon, n., the capital of Babylonia. — L., fr. 
Gk. Ba|3uXtiv, fr. Akkad. Bdb-ildni, 'the gate 
of the gods', fr. bdb, 'gate', and Hani, pi. of ilu, 
'god'. Compared with Akkad. Bdb-ilu (see 
Babel), Bab-ildni is a later form, occurring in 
texts dating from the Neo-Babylonian period. 

Babylonia, n. — L., fr. Gk. BafJuXcovia, fr. Ba- 
[3uXa>v. See prec. word. 
Derivatives: Babyloni-an, adj. and n. 

bacalao, n., a West Indian fish, Mycteroperca 
falcata. — Sp., 'codfish', fr. L. baculum, 'a stick, 
a staff', whence also ODu. bakeljauw. See bacil- 
lus and cp. cabilliau. For sense development 
cp. stockfish. 

Bacbuc, n., name of the Holy Bottle in Rabelais' 
Pantagruel. — Heb. baqbuq, 'flask', a word of 
imitativeorigin ; so called from the gurgling sound 
of emptied liquid (cp. Arab. bdqbaqa h , 'gurgling 
noise'). Cp. Syriac buq, 'a two-handled vase or 
jug', and see beaker. 

baccalaureate, n., the academic degree of bach- 
elor. — ML. baccalauredtus, fr. baccalaureus, 
fr. baccaldrius, 'the holder of a small farm; a 
young man', which is of uncertain origin; influ- 
enced in form by L. bacca, 'berry', and laureus, 
'of laurel', fr. laurus, 'laurel'. Cp. bachelor. For 
the ending see subst. suff. -ate. 

baccara, baccarat, n., a gambling card game. — 
F., of unknown origin. 

baccate, adj., bearing berries. — L. bdcdtus, bac- 
cdtus, fr. bdca, bacca, 'berry'. See bacci- and 
adj. suff. -ate. 

Bacchae, n. pi., the female attendants of Bacchus. 
— L., fr. Gk. Bdixx ", P 1 - of B<fat 3CT> fr - Edx/os. 
See Bacchus. 



bacchanal, adj., pertaining to Bacchus; pertaining 
to a reveler. — L. bacchdndlis, fr. Bacchus. See 
Bacchus and adj. suff. -al. 
Derivative: bacchanal, n., a reveler. 

Bacchanalia, n. pi., the orgies of Bacchus; revel- 
ry. — L., neut. pi. of bacchdndlis. See prec. 

Derivative: Bacchanali-an, adj. 
bacchant, n., a devotee of Bacchus. — L. bacchdns, 
gen. -antis, pres. part, of bacchdri, 'to celebrate 
the festival of Bacchus', fr. Bacchus. See Bacchus 
and -ant. 

baccharis, n., name of an aromatic plant. — 
ModL., fr. baccar, 'plant with a fragrant root', 
prob. identical with Gnaphalium sanguineum 
L., fr. Gk. (Jdxxapi?, which is a Lydian loan 
word. See Scholia Aristoph. Pers., p. 42. 

Bacchic, adj., pertaining to Bacchus. — See 
Bacchus and -ic. 

Bacchus, n., the god of wine in Greek mythology. 
— L., fr. Gk. Bax/oi;, 'the god of wine', orig. 
prob. 'the god of grapeberries', and cogn. with 
L. bdca, bacca, 'berry'. See next word. 

bacci-, combining form meaning 'berry'. — L. 
bad-, bacci-, fr. bdca, bacca, 'berry', which prob. 
meant orig. 'grape*, and is cogn. with Gk. 
Bdxxo?- See prec. word and cp. asara bacca, ba- 
gasse, bagatelle, bay, 'the laurel'. 

bacciferous, adj., bearing berries. — Formed 
with suff. -ous (as if fr. L. *bacciferus) fr. L. 
bacdfer, which is compounded of bacca, 'berry', 
and ferre, 'to bear, carry'. See bacci- and 

bacciform, adj., berry-shaped. — Compounded 
of bacci- and L. forma, 'form, shape'. See form, n. 

baccivorous, adj., berry-eating. — Compounded 
of bacci- and -vorous. 

bache, n., stream, rivulet (dial. E.) — OE. baec, 
rel. to OS. beki, ON. bekkr, Dan. bxk, Swed. 
back, MDu. beke, Du. beek, OHG. bah, 
MHG., G. bach, and cogn. with Mir. bual (for 
*bhogld), 'flqwing water', OI. bhahgdh, Lith. 
bangd, 'wave'. Cp. beck, 'brook'. 

bachelor, n. — ME. bachelere, fr. OF. bacheler, 
'squire, a young man aspiring to knighthood; 
a young man' (whence F. bachelier, 'bachelor'), 
fr. ML. baccaldris (the usual form is baccald- 
rius). See baccalaureate. 

Derivatives: bachelor-dom, n., bachelor-hood, n. 
bacillary, adj., pertaining to, or resembling, 
bacilli. — Formed fr. L. bacillum (see bacillus) 
with adj. sufl". -ary. 

bacUliform, adj., shaped like a bacillus. — Com- 
pounded of bacillus and L. forma, 'form, shape'. 
See form, n., and cp. baculiform. 

bacillus, n. — Late L. bacillus, 'a little staff', di- 
min. of baculus, var. of L. baculum, 'stick, staff', 
which stands for *bac-thm and is cogn. with 
Gk. pdx-rpov, 'staff', (taxTTjpiov, 'a little staff'. 
See bacterium and cp. baculus, baguette, bail, 
'crossbar', debacle, imbecile. As a term of bac- 
teriology the word bacillus was introduced by 

the German botanist Ferdinand Conn (1828-98) 
in 1853. 

back, n., the hinder part of the human body. — 
ME. bak, fr. OE. b£c, rel. to OS., ON., MDu. 
bak, OHG. bah, 'back', OHG. bahho, 'ham, 
haunch', MHG., G. backe, 'buttock'. Cp. bacon. 
Derivatives: back, tr. and intr. v., adj. and adv., 
back-ed, adj., back-er, n., back-ing n., back-ward, 
adj., backwardation (q.v.), back-wards, adv. 

back, n., vat, tub. — Du. bak, fr. F. bac, fr. VL. 
bacca, 'water vessel', whence *baccinum, 'basin'. 
See basin. 

back formation (philol.) — Coined by the English 
lexicographer and linguist Dr. (later, Sir James) 
Murray (1837-1915). 

backgammon, n. — Prop, a game, in which the 
pieces are put back; compounded of back, 'the 
hinder part of the body', and gammon, 'game'. 

backsheesh, backshish. — Variants of baksheesh. 

backward, backwards, adv. — Formed fr. back, 
adv. (see back, 'the hinder part of the body'), 
and -ward, resp. -wards. 
Derivative: backward, adj. 

backwardation, n., postponement of delivery 
(London Stock Exchange). — A hybrid coined 
fr. backward and -ation, a suff. of Latin origin. 

bacon, n. — ME., fr. OF. bacon, bacoun, fr. ML. 
bacdnem, acc. of baco, fr. OHG. bahho, 'ham, 
haunch'. See back, 'the hinder part of the body'. 

Baconian, adj., pertaining to Lord Verulam Bacon 
(1561-1626) or his philosophy. For the ending 
see suff. -ian. 

Bacopa, n., a genus of plants of the figwort fam- 
ily; the water hyssop (bot.) — ModL., of 
American Indian origin. 

bacteria, — The pi. of bacterium. 

Bacteriaceae, n. pi., a family of rod-shaped bac- 
teria (bacteriol.) — ModL., formed with suff. 
-aceae fr. L. bacterium. See bacterium. 

bacterial, adj., pertaining to bacteria. — Formed 
with adj. suff. -al fr. ModL. bacterium. See 

bactericide, n., a substance destroying bacteria. 
— A hybrid coined fr. Gk. (iaxTTjpiov and L. 
-clda, 'killer', fr. caedere, 'to kill'. See bacterium 
and -cide. 

bacterio-, before a vowel bacteri-, combining form 
meaning 'bacteria'. — See bacterium. 

bacteriology, n., the study of bacteria. — Com- 
pounded of bacterio- and Gk. -Xofti, fr. -X6yoi;, 
'one who speaks (in a certain manner) ; one who 
deals (with a certain topic)'. See -logy. 
Derivatives: bacteriolog-ical, adj., bacteriolog- 
ist, n. 

bacteri oscopy, n., investigation of bacteria. — 
Compounded of bacterio- and Gk. -axoma, fr. 
<jxo7retv, 'to look at, examine'. See -scopy. 

bacterium, n., in the pi. bacteria. — ModL., 
coined by the German naturalist Christian Gott- 
fried Ehrenberg (1795-1876) in 1838 fr. Gk. 
(3<xxT»)piov, 'a little staff', which is rel. to pdx- 
Tpov, 'staff', fr. I.-E. *bak-, 'staff', whence also 



L. baculum, 'rod, staff'. Olr. bacc, 'hook, cro- 
sier', is prob. a loan word fr. L. baculum and 
derived from it through back formation. See 
Frisk, GEW., I, p. 211-12 s.v. paxxvjpta. Cp. 
bacalao, cabilliau, Kabbeljaws. 

bacteroid, adj., resembling bacteria. — Com- 
pounded of bacterium and Gk. -oei8r)<:, 'like', fr. 
eTSo?, 'form, shape'. See -oid. 
Derivatives: bacteroid, n., bacteroid-al, adj. 

Bactrian, adj. and n. — Formed with suff. -an 
fr. L. Bactria, lit. 'the Eastern province', fr. 
Persian bakhtar, 'the east'. For sense develop- 
ment cp. Levant. 

Bactris, n., a genus of plants of the palm family. 

— ModL., fr. Gk. paxTpov, 'staff'. See bac- 

baculiform, adj., rod-shaped. — Compounded of 
L. baculum, 'a rod', and forma, 'form, shape'. 
See next word, and form, n., and cp. baciUiform. 

baculus, n., a rod, esp. as an emblem of authority. 

— L. baculus, also baculum. See bacillus. 

bad, adj. — ME. bad, badde, prob. fr. OE. bxddel, 
'hermaphrodite'. Cp. OE. bxdling, 'effeminate 

Derivatives: bad, n. and adv., badd-ish, adj., 
badd-ish-ly, adv., badd-ish-ness, n., bad-ly, adv., 
bad-ness, n. 

baddeleyite, n., zirconium dioxide (mineral.) — 
Named after its discoverer Joseph Baddeley. For 
the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

bade, v., past tense of bid. — ME. bad, bade, fr. 
OE. bmd, fr. biddan. The ME. form bade prob. 
developed fr. orig. bad, on analogy of spake. 

badge, n. — ME. bage, bagge, of unknown origin. 

badger, n,, the animal. — Earlier bageard, prob. 
formed fr. badge with the suff. -ard, lit. 'the 
animal with a mark', and so called in allusion 
to the white mark on its face. For sense develop- 
ment cp. F. blaireau, 'badger', which derives fr. 
OF. blcr, 'marked with a spot'. 

badger, tr. v., to worry. — Lit. 'to treat like a 
badger'; formed fr. prec. word. 

badger, n., a huckster. — ME. bager, perh. re- 
lated to bag. 

badia, monastery, abbey. — It., aphetic fr. Eccles. 
L. abbatia, 'abbey', fr. abbas, abbdtis, 'abbot". 
See abbacy, abbot. 

badian, n., the Chinese anise. — F. badiane, fr. 
Pers. badian, 'anise'. 

badinage, n., banter. — F., fr. badiner, 'to jest, 
joke', fr. OProvenc. badin, 'simpleton, fool', a 
derivative of badar, 'to gape', fr. VL. batare, 'to 
gape'. See bay 'part in the wall', and cp. words 
there referred to. For the ending see suff. -age. 
Derivative: badinage, intr. v. 
badminton, n., name of a game played with 
shuttlecocks. — Fr. Badminton, seat of the Duke 
of Beaufort in Gloucestershire, England, 
bactulus, n., a meteorite (antiq.) — L., fr. Gk. 
Pod-raXo?, a sacred meteoric stone, fr. Heb. 
beth El, 'house of God' ; see bethel. The form 
Pai-ruXo? shows that the name came to the 

Greeks through the medium of the Phoenicians 
who pronounced it bet-iil. See Muss-Arnolt, 
Semitic words in Greek and Latin, in Trans- 
actions of the American Philological Associa- 
tion, 1892 (volume XXTTI), pp. 5 1-52, and p. 52, 
Note 1. 

baetyl, n., a baetulus. — Gk. [JatTuXoc. See prec. 

Derivative: baetyl-ic, adj. 

baff, tr. and intr. v., to beat, strike. — Of imi- 
tative origin. Cp. the next two words. 

baffle, tr. v. — Prob. rel. to OF. beffler, 'to ridi- 
cule, mock at', bafouer, 'to set at nought", dial. 
E. baff, 'useless', G. baff in baff machen, 'to 
astound, flabbergast'. All these words seem to 
be derivatives of the I.-E. imitative base *baf. 
Cp. prec. and next word. 
Derivatives: baffl-er, n., baffl-ing, adj., baffl-ing- 
ly, adv., baffl-ing-ness, n. 

baffy, n., a wooden golf club. — Formed from 
the verb baff with suff. -y. 

baft, bafta, n., a course kind of cotton cloth. — 
Pers. bafta, 'woven', rel. to Avestic ubdaena, 
'woven fabric', OI. urna-vdbhih, 'spider', fr. 
I.-E. base *webh-, 'to weave'. See weave, and 
cp. words there referred to. 

bag, n. — ME. bagge, fr. ON. baggi, of Celtic 
origin. The word was brought to England by 
the Normans. See J. M. D. Meiklejohn,The Eng- 
lish language, its grammar, history and literat- 
ure, London, 1923, P-I34- Cp. badger, 'huck- 
ster', baggage. 

Derivatives: bag, tr. v., to inclose in a bag; intr. 
v., to swell like a bag, bagg-er, n., bagg-y, adj., 
bagg-i-ly, adv., bagg-i-ness, n. 
bag, tr. v., to cut (grain, weeds). — Of uncertain 

bagasse, n., sugar cane crushed in the mill. — 
F., fr. Sp., bagazo, 'dregs', derivative of baga, 
'pod, husk', fr. L. baca, 'berry'. See bacci- and 
cp. next word. Cp. also megas, megasse. 

bagatelle, n., a trifle. — F., fr. It. bagatella, of s.m., 
dimin. of L. baca, 'berry'. For sense develop- 
ment cp. It. bagattino, 'a kind of small coin', 
which is of the same origin. See bacci- and cp. 
prec. word. 

baggage, n. — F. bagage , fr. OF. bague, 'bundle', 
which, together with OProvenc. baga, of s.m., 
is prob. borrowed from Teutonic. See bag, n., 
and -age. 

Derivative: baggag-er, n. 
bagnio, n., a bath. — It. bagno, fr. L. balneum, 
whence also F. bain, 'bath'. See balneal and 
cp. baignoire. 

baguette, n., a small molding. — F., prop, a 
small rod', fr. It. bacchelta, dimin. of bacchio, 
'rod', fr. L. baculum. See bacillus, 
bahadur* n., a title given to European officers in 
India. — Hind, bahadur, 'hero', which accord- 
ing to Benfey (in Orient und Occident I 137, 
quoted in Hobson-Jobson 49a) derives fr. OI. 
bhaga-dhara-, 'happiness-possessing'. The first 



element is cogn. with Gk. <payeiv, 'to eat' ; see 
-phagous and cp. baksheesh. For the second ele- 
ment see aumildar and cp. words there referred to. 

Bahaism, n., the teaching of the religious sect of 
the Bahaists. — Formed with suff. -ism fr. Pers. 
bahd, 'splendor', fr. Arab. bahd\ of s.m. 

bahar, n., a weight. — Arab, bahdr, a weight used 
in India, ultim. fr. OI. bhdrah, 'load, weight', 
which is rel. to bhdrati, bhdrate, 'carries', and 
cogn. with Gk. tplpeiv, L. ferre, 'to bear, 
carry'. See bear, 'to carry', and cp. words there 
referred to. 

bahur, n., young man, youth, unmarried man. — 
Hebrew bdfrar, 'young man', rel. to Akkad. 
bahulati, 'warriors'. 

bahuvrihi, n., name of a class of compounds 
(Old Indian gram.) — OI. bahuvrlhih, 'having 
much rice', compounded of bahuh, 'much, 
numerous, abundant', and vrihih, 'rice'. The 
first element is rel. to Avestic bazah-, 'height, 
depth', and cogn. with Gk. Tzoc/iz, 'thick'; see 
pachy-. For the second element see rice. 

baignoire, n., box at a theatre. — F., 'bath, bath- 
tub; box at a theatre', fr. baigner, 'to bathe', fr. 
bain, 'bath', fr. L. balneum. See balneal and cp. 

baikalite, n., a dark-green variety of hedenbergite 
(mineral.) — Named after Lake Baikal in Si- 
beria, near which it was first discovered. For the 
ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

bail, n., security. — OF. bail, 'custody' (whence 
F. bail, 'lease'), fr. baillier, 'to seize, carry, give', 
fr. L. bdjulare, 'to bear a burden', fr. bajulus, 
'porter', which is of uncertain origin. Cp. bail, 
'to dip water', and bailiff. 
Derivatives: bail, tr. v., bail-ee, n., bail-er, n. 
(law), bail-ie, n., baili-er-y (also baili-ar-y) n., 
bail-ment, n. 

bail, n., fortification; crossbar. — ME., fr. OF. 
bail, 'stake; palisade', which prob. derives fr. 
L. baculum, 'rod, staff'. See bacillus and cp. 

bail, also bale, n., a bucket used to dip water out 
of a boat; tr. v., to dip water out of; intr. v., to 
dip out water. — F. bailie, 'bucket', fr. ML. 
*bdjula (aquae) lit. 'porter (of water)', used in 
the sense of 'water jar'; *bajula is the fern, of 
bajulus. See bail, 'security'. 

bailey, n., walls, resp. courts of a feudal castle. — 
ME. variant of bail. See bail, 'fortification'. 

bailiff, n. — ME. baillif, fr. OF. baillif 'custodian, 
magistrate', fr. ML. bdjulivus, fr. L. bajulus, 
'porter'. See bail, 'security', and -ive. 
Derivative: bailiff-ry, n. 

bailiwick, n., the district of a bailiff. — ME. 
baillifwik, compounded of baillif (see prec. 
word) and wick, 'village'. 

baillone, adj., holding a staff in the mouth (her.) 
— F. bdillonne, lit. 'gagged', pp. of bdillonner, 
'to gag', fr. bdiller, 'to gape, yawn', fr. VL. bata- 
culdre, fr. batare, 'to gape, yawn'. Cp. OProv- 
enc. badalhar, It. badigliare, sbadigliare, 'to 

yawn', which also derive fr. VL. bataculdre, and 
see bay, 'part in the wall', 
bain-marie, n. double pan for holding food. — 
F., 'water bath', fr. ML. balneum Mariae, lit. 
'bath of Mary (sister of Moses)', to whom var- 
ious works dealing with alchemy were attributed. 
See balneal. 

Bairam, n., the name of two Mohammedan fes- 
tivals following the fast of Ramadan. — Turk. 

bairn, n. (Scot) — OE. beam, barn, child', rel. 
to bear, 'to carry' (q.v.) 
Derivative: bairn-ish, adj. 

bait, tr. v. — ME. bait en, bey ten, fr. ON. beita, 
'to cause to bite', causative of bita, 'to bite' ; rel. 
to bxtan, 'to bait', OS. betian, OHG. beizzen, 
'to bait'. MHG. beitzen, 'to bait; to hawk', G. 
beizen, 'to hawk; to cauterize, etch'. OE. bx- 
tan, OS. betian, etc., are causatives of OE. bxtan, 
resp. OS. bitan, OHG. bi^an, etc., and lit. mean 
'to cause to bite'. See bite and cp. words there 
referred to. 

bait, n. — ON. beita, 'food', beit, 'pasture', fr. 

beita, 'to cause to bite' (see prec. word) ; in some 

meanings derived directly fr. prec. word, 
baize, n., a coarse woolen cloth. — F. bales, pi. of 

baie, prop. fem. of bai, 'bay colored'. See bay, 


Derivative: baize, tr. v. 

bake, tr. and intr. v. — ME. baken, fr. OE. bacan, 
rel. to ON. baka, Swed. baka, Dan. bage, 
MDu. backen, Du. bakken, OHG. bahhan, 
backan, MHG., G. backen, fr. I.-E. base *bhdg-, 
'to warm, roast, bake', whence also Gk.cpwysiAi, 
'to roast'. Cp. batch, batz and the second ele- 
ment in zwieback. Base *bhog- is a -^-enlarge- 
ment of base *bhe-, 'to warm' ; see bath. 
Derivatives: bake, n., bak-ed, adj., baker (q.v.), 
bak-ing, n., bak-ing-ly, adv. 

bakelite, n., synthetic resin. — Named after its 
inventor Leo Hendrik Baekeland (1 863-1944). 
For the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

baker, n. — ME. bakere, fr. OE. bzcere, fr. bacan, 
'to bake'. See bake and agential suff. -er and 
cp. baxter. 

Derivative: bak-ery, n. 

baksheesh, n., a gratuity ; a tip. — Pers. bakhshish, 
lit. 'gift', a derivative of the verb bakhshidan, 'to 
give', fr. I.-E. base *bhag-, 'to distribute, share 
out', whence also OI. bhdjati, 'assigns, allots, 
apportions, enjoys, loves', bhdgah, 'allotter, dis- 
tributor, master, lord', Gk. 9ay£iv, 'to eat'. 
See -phagous and cp. Bhaga and the first ele- 
ment in Bhagavadgita, and in bahadur. 

Balaena, n., a genus of whales, the Greenland 
whale. — L. ballaena, balaena. See baleen. 

balaghat, balaghaut, n., tableland above the pas- 
ses (Anglo-Ind.) — Formed fr. Pers. bald, 
'above', and Hind, ghat, 'a pass'. 

balalaika, n., a Russian stringed instrument with 
a triangular body. — Russ. balalaika, which, 
according to Erich Berneker, Etymologisches 



Worterbuch der russischen Sprache, I, p. 40, 
Heidelberg, 1908-13, is rel. to Russ. balabdlit', 
'to chatter, babble', from the I.-E. imitative base 
*balb-, whence also L. balbus, 'stammering'. See 
booby and cp. words there referred to. 

balan-, form of balano- before a vowel. 

balance, n. — OF. (= F.) balance, fr. L. bi-, 
'two, twice', and VL. *lancia, fr. L. lanx, gen. 
lands, 'plate, dish; scale of weighing machine', 
which prob. stands for *l l nk-s, fr. I.-E. base 
*HSq-, 'to bend', whence prob. also Gk. Xlxo?, 
Xexavr), 'dish', Xi/pioi;, 'slanting, crosswise', 
Xo^?, 'slanting, crooked, bent'; see Walde- 
Hofmann, LEW., I, p. 761 s.v. lanx. See bi- and 
loxo- and cp. the second element in auncel. Cp. 
also Lecanium, Lecidea, lekane. The first a in 
balance is prob. due to an association of this 
word with F. bailer, 'to dance', fr. Gk. paXXeiv, 
'to throw' (see ballistic). 

Derivatives: balance, tr. v., balanc-ed, adj., 

balanc-er, n., balanc-ing, adj. 
balaniferous, adj., acorn-bearing. — Compound- 
ed of L. balanus, 'acorn', and 'L.ferre, 'to bear, 

carry'. See balano- and -ferous. 
balano-, before a vowel balan-, combining form 

meaning 'acorn'. — Gk. [JaXavo-, [3aXav-, fr. 

(3aXavo;, 'acorn', which is cogn. with L. gldns, 

gen. glandis, 'acorn'. See gland and cp. the 

second element in myrobalan. 
balanoid, adj., acorn-shaped. — Compounded of 

balan- and Gk. -oeiS-fe, 'like', fr. eZSo?, 'form, 

shape'. See -oid. 
balas, n., a variety of spinel ruby. — F. balais, 

fr. Arab, bdlakhsh, fr. Balakhshdn, fr. Pers. 

Badhakhshdn, name of a region in Central Asia 

(near Samarkand), where this variety of spinel 

ruby is found. 

balatron, n., jester, buffoon. — L. balatro, gen. 
-dnis, of Etruscan origin; not related to L. 
blaterd, 'babbler'. 

balaustine, n., the pomegranate tree. — Formed 
with sun", -ine fr. Gk. (3ocXau(mov, 'flower of 
the wild pomegranate', a word of Sem. origin. 
Cp. Aram, baldtz, said of the blossoming of the 
pomegranate tree. For the correspondence of 
Greek if to Semitic s, tz, cp. Gk. a-nipa!;, fr. 
Heb. tzdrt (see styrax). Cp. baluster. 

balbriggan, n., a cotton fabric used for hosiery. — 
Prop, 'fabric made in Balbriggan (in Ireland)'. 

balbuties, n., stammering (med.) — Medical L., 
fr. L. balbutire, 'to stammer', fr. balbus, 'stam- 
merer', from the I.-E. imitative base *bal-, 'to 
stutter'. See booby and cp. words there re- 
ferred to. 

balcony, n. — It. balcone, formed with the aug- 
mentative suff. -one fr. balco, 'scaffold', which 
is borrowed fr. OHG. balcho, 'beam' (whence 
MHG. balke, G. Balken, 'beam'). See balk, 

bald, adj. — ME. balled, orig. 'white', fr. I.-E. 
base *bhel-, 'to shine', whence also OI. bhalam, 
'brightness; forehead', Gk. 90X65, 'white', 

9aX6ip<k, 'having a patch of white', ipaXapt?, 
'coot' (so called from a white spot on its head), 
L. fulica, 'coot', Alb. bah, 'forehead', OSlav. 
belii, 'white', Lith. bdlnas, bdltas, Lett, bals, 
'pale', OE. bxl, 'a blazing fire, a funeral pyre', 
OHG. belihha, MHG., G. belche, 'coot'. Cp. 
balefire, Beltane, beluga, blaze, 'flame', Fulica, 
full, 'to thicken cloth', Phalaris, phalarope. 
Derivatives: bald-en, tr. and intr. v., bald-ish, 
adj., bald-ly, adv., bald-ness, n. 

baldachin, n., canopy. — F. baldaquin, fr. It. bed- 
dacchino, fr. Baldacco, 'Bagdad', fr. ML. Bal- 
dac. It. baldacchino orig. denoted richly woven 
silk stuff brought from Bagdad. Cp. baudekin. 

balderdash, n., 1) nonsense; 2) a poor mixture of 
liquors. — The first element is prob. identical 
with Dan. balder, 'noise, clatter', the second is 
the English word dash. Dan. balder is rel. to 
Dan. baldre, dial. Norw. baldra, dial. Swed. 
ballra, MLG., earlier Du. balderen, Dan. buldre, 
Swed. bullra, 'to make a noise, rattle*, MHG. 
buldern, G. poltern, 'to knock, rattle, bluster'. 
These words derive from a dental enlargement 
of I.-E. base *bhel-, 'to sound', whence OE. 
bellan, bylgan, 'to bellow'. See bellow, 'to make 
a loud noise', and cp. words there referred to. 
baldric, n., a belt worn over one shoulder. — 
ME. baldric, baudric, baudry, fr. OF. baldre, 
baldrei, baldroi, (whence F. baudrier and MHG. 
balderich), fr. L. balteus, 'belt'. See belt and cp. 
words there referred to. 

Baldwin, masc. PN. — OF. Baldoln (F. Bau- 
douin), of Teut. origin. Cp. OHG. Baldawin, lit. 
'bold friend', fr. OHG. bald, 'bold', and wini, 
'friend'. For the first element see bold and cp. 
the second element in Theobald. OHG. wini, 
'friend', is rel. to OE. wine, ON. vinr, 'friend', 
and to OE. winnan, 'to strive, struggle, fight'. 
See win and wish and cp. the first element 
in Winfred and the second element in Edwin. 

bale, n., bundle, package. — ME., fr. OF. bale, 
balle (F. balle), fr. OHG. balla, 'ball'. See ball 
'a round body'. 

Derivatives: bale, tr. v., bal-er, n. 
bale, n., misfortune. — ME., fr. OE. bealu, bealo, 
balu, 'injury, calamity', rel. to OS. balo, 'evil', 
ON. bbl, 'misfortune', OFris. bealu, 'evil', OHG. 
balo, 'destruction', Goth, balwjan, 'to torment', 
balweins, 'pain, torture', balwa-wesei, 'wicked- 

Derivatives: bale-ful, adj., bale-ful-ly, adv., bale- 
ful-ness, n. 

bale, n., bucket, v., to dip water. — See bail, 

bale, n., balefire. — OE. bsel. See balefire. 

baleen, n., whalebone. — ME. balene, baleyne, 
'whale, whalebone', fr. OF. baleine, of s.m., fr. 
L. balldena, 'whale', which was borrowed fr. Gk. 
9dcXXociva, of s.m., through the medium of the 
Illyrian language, a fact which explains the tran- 
sition of Gk. 9 into L. b (instead of p). Gk. 
9aXXawa is related to 9<xXX<5i;, 'penis', fr. I.-E. 



base *bhel-, 'to swell'. See ball, 'a round body', 
and cp. Balaena, balinger. 

balefire, n. — OE. bselfyr, 'funeral fire', com- 
pounded of bxl, 'a blazing fire, a funeral pile', 
and fyr, 'fire'. The first element is rel. to ON. bdl, 
'a great fire', fr. I.-E. base *bhel-, 'to shine'; see 
bald. For the second element see fire. 

balinger, n., a whaleship (pbsol.) — OF. balen- 
gier, 'whaleship', fr. baleine, 'whale'. See baleen. 

balk, also baulk, n., ridge of land left unplowed 
between furrows : a beam. — ME. balke, 'beam', 
fr. OE. balca, 'ridge between furrows, beam, 
rafter', rel. to OS. balko, ON. bjdlki, Dan. bjelke, 
Swed. bjalke, OFris. balka, OHG. balko, balcho, 
MHG. balke, G. Balken, 'beam, rafter' (cp., 
with vowel gradation, OE. bolca, 'wooden 
gangway of a ship'), ON. bob, 'trunk of a tree'; 
fr. I.-E. base *bhel e g-, 'beam, plank', whence 
also Gk. <p<xXixy5, 'trunk, log; line of battle, 
battle array', 9aXx7]<;, 'beam', L. fulcire, 'to 
prop', fulcrum, 'bedpost', Lith. balziena, 'cross- 
bar', Lett, balziens, 'prop, stay'. Cp. balcony. 
Cp. also block, bole, 'trunk', bulk, 'projection', 
debauch, ebauchoir, fulcrum, phalange, phalanx, 
planch, planchet, plancier, plank. 
Derivatives: balk v. (q.v.), balk-er, n., balk-ing- 
ly, adv., balk-y, adj. 

balk, also baulk, tr. v., to hinder, thwart; intr. 
v., to refuse. — Formed fr. prec. word and lit. 
meaning 'to put a beam in the way'. Cp. bilk. 

Balkanize, tr. v. — Coined by the English jour- 
nalist and editor James Louis Garvin (1868- 
1947) in allusion to the political condition in the 
Balkans in 19 12-13. 

ball, n., a round body; a sphere. — ME. balle, 
fr. ON. bdllr, which is rel. to OHG. ballo, balla, 
MHG. balle, bal, G. Ball, fr. I.-E. base *bhel-, 
'to swell'. See belly and cp. Balaena, bale, 
'bundle', baleen, balinger, balloon, ballot, bil- 
low, bulk, 'size', and the first element in bill- 
berry and in pall-mall. 

Derivatives: ball, tr. v., to form into a ball, 
ball-er, n. 

ball, n., a party for social dancing. — F. bal, fr. 

OF. bailer, 'to dance', fr. VL. balldre, fr. Gk. 

fiaXX^eiv, 'to dance', which prob. derives fr. 

fJaXXew, 'to throw'. See ballistic and cp. ballad, 

ballerina, ballet, bayadere, 
ballad, n., 1) a sentimental or romantic song; 2) a 

narrative song. — ME. balade, prop, 'a song 

written for a dance', fr. OF. balade (F. ballade), 

fr. OProvenc. balada, lit. 'dance', later used in 

the sense of 'dancing song', fr. balar, 'to dance'. 

See ball, 'party for dancing', 
ballade, n. a poem with three stanzas of eight or 

ten lines each and an envoy of four. — F. See 

prec. word. 

balladry, n., ballad poetry. — Formed fr. ballad 
with suff. -ry. 

ballast, n., heavy material used to steady a ship. 
— Dan. and Swed., assimilated fr. earlier bar- 
last lit. 'bare load'. The first element of this 

compound is rel. to the E. adjective bare; the 
second is rel. to last, a unit of weight. 
Derivatives: ballast-er, n., ballast-ing, n. 

ballerina, a woman ballet dancer. — It., fr. bal- 
lare, 'to dance'. See ball, 'party for dancing'. 

ballet, n. — F., fr. It. balletto, dimin. of ballo, 
'dance'. See ball 'party for dancing', and -et. 
Derivative: ballet, tr. v. 

ballista, n., an ancient military engine {Roman 
antiq.) — L., lit. 'a throwing machine', fr. Gk. 
PaXXeiv, 'to throw'. See next word 

ballistic, adj., pertaining to projectiles. — Formed 
with suff. -istic fr. Gk. fWXXeiv, 'to throw', 
which stands in gradational relationship to 
(3oXt|, p6Xo?, 'a throw', (3£Xo?, 'bolt, arrow, 
dart', lit. 'something thrown', fr. I.-E. base 
*g w el-, whence also OI. apa-gurya-, 'swinging', 
Avestic ni-yrd-'re, 'they are being hurled down', 
Toch. AB kid-, 'to fall', and perhaps also OI. 
gdlati, 'trickles', OHG. quellan, MHG., G. quel- 
len, 'to well up'. Cp. ball, 'party for dancing', 
ballista, amphibole, amphibology, anabolism, 
belemnite, Belostoma, bolide, bolometer, boule, 
'council', catabolism, devil, diabolic, discobolus, 
Eblis, ecbolic, Elaphebolion, emblem, embolism, 
emboly, hyperbola, hyperbole, metabolism, pa- 
rable, parabola, parlance, parley, parliament, 
parlor, parol, parole, periblem, problem, scy- 
balum, symbol, Tribolium, Tribulus. 

ballistics, n., the study of projectiles. — See prec. 
word and -ics. 

ballonet, n., an auxiliary gas or air bag in a bal- 
loon or airship. — F. ballonnet, lit. 'a small 
balloon', fr. ballon. See next word and -et. 

balloon, n. — F. ballon, fr. It. pallone, which is 
formed with augment, suff. -one fr. palla, 'a 
ball', a word of Teut. origin; see ball, 'a round 
body', and -oon. The b in F. ballon (fr. It. pal- 
lone) is due to the influence of F. balle, 'ball'. 
Cp. pallone. 

Derivatives: balloon, tr. and intr. v., and the 
hybrid noun balloon-ist, n. 
ballot, n. — F. ballotte, fr. It. ballotta, 'little ball', 
dimin. of balla, 'ball' (see E. ball, 'a round 
body'); so called in allusion to the small balls 
formerly dropped into the voting um. 
Derivatives: ballot, intr. and tr. v., ballot-age 

Ballota, n., a genus of plants of the mint family 
(bot.) — ModL., fr. Gk. (3aXXo>Tr), 'the black 
horehound'; of unknown origin. 

baUotage, n. — F. ballottage, fr. ballotter, 'to bal- 
lot', fr. ballotte. See prec. word and -age. 

ballyhoo, n., 1) outcry; 2) noisy advertising 
(slang). — Of uncertain origin; possibly fr. 
Ballyhooly, a village in County Cork, Ireland. 
Derivative : ballyhoo, tr. and intr. v. 

ballyrag, tr. and intr. v. — A variant of bullyrag. 

balm, n. — ME. basme, baume, fr. OF. bausme, 
baume (F. baume), fr. L. balsamum, 'gum of the 
balsam tree, balsam', fr. Gk. (SdtXaa(j.ov. See 
balsam and cp. embalm. 


Derivatives: balm-y, adj., balm-i-ly, adv., balm- 
i-ness, n. 

Balmoral, n., name of various objects. — Named 
after Balmoral Castle in Scotland. 

balneal, adj., pertaining to baths. — Formed with 
adj. suff. -al fr. L. balneum, balineum, 'bath', fr. 
Gk. paXavEiov, of s.m., which is of uncertain 
origin. Cp. bagnio, baignoire and the first ele- 
ment in bain-marie. 

balneo-, combining form meaning 'bath'. — Fr. 
L. balneum, 'bath'. See balneal. 

balneology, n., the study of bathing. — Com- 
pounded of balneo- and Gk. -Xoyta, fr. -Xoyoc, 
'one who speaks (in a certain manner) ; one who 
deals (with a certain topic)'. See -logy. 
Derivatives : balneolog-ic-al,adj., balneolog-ist, n. 

balsam, n. — L. balsamum, 'gum of the balsam 
tree, balsam', fr. Gk. [iaXaau.ov, fr. Heb. bdsdm, 
which is rel. to Heb. bOsem, Aram, busmd, Syr. 
besmd, Arab, bashdm, 'balsam, spice, perfume'. 
Cp. balm, embalm. 

Derivatives : balsam, tr. v., balsam-er, n., balsam- 
ic, adj. and n., balsam-itic, adj., balsam-ize, 
tr. v. 

Balsaminaceae, n. pi., a family of plants (bot.) — 

ModL. See next word and -aceae. 
balsamine, n. the garden balsam. — F., fr. Gk. 

[iaXaajiivY), 'the balsam plant', fr. (WXaoc^ov. See 

balsam and -ine. 

balteus, n., girdle or belt worn by ecclesiastic 
dignitaries. — L., of Etruscan origin. Cp. belt, 

Balthasar, masc. PN. — F., fr. L., fr. Gk. BaX- 
-riaap, fr. Heb. Belthhatztzdr (Dan. 10 : i), fr. 
Babyl. Baldt-shar-usur, lit. 'save the life of the 
king'. In Hebrew the name has been assimilated 
in form to that of Belshatztzdr (see Belshazzar). 

baluster, n., support for a railing. — F. balustre, 
fr. It. balaustro, fr. L. balaustium,fr. Gk. [JxXao- 
g-t'.ov, 'flower of the wild pomegranate', a 
word of Syrian origin (see balaustine); so called 
from the shape of the capital. Cp. next word 
and banister. 

Derivatives: baluster-ed, adj., balustrade (q.v.) 
balustrade, n., a row of balusters. — Prop, 'a set 

of balusters', fr. F. balustrade, fr. It. balaustrata, 

lit. 'provided with balusters', fr. balaustro (see 

prec. word and -ade); introduced into English 

by the diarist John Evelyn (1620-1706). 

Derivatives: balustrad-ed, adj., balustrad-ing,n. 
bam, tr. and intr. v., to bamboozle. — Abrevia- 

tion of bamboozle, 
bambino, n., a little child; an image of the infant 

Jesus. — It., 'baby', dimin. of bambo, 'simple', 

which is of imitative origin, 
bamboo, n. — Malay bambu. Cp. Bambusa. 

Derivative: bamboo, tr. v. v., 1 ) to hoax; 2) to confuse, puzzle. 

— Of uncertain origin. 
Bambusa, n., a genus of bamboos (bot.) — ModL. 

See bamboo, 
ban, tr. v., to prohibit; to curse (archaic). — ME. 


bannen, fr. OE. bannan, 'to summon, proclaim, 
command', rel. to ON. banna, 'to forbid, pro- 
hibit', OHG. bannan, 'to command or forbid 
under threat of punishment', MHG., G. bannen, 
'to put under the ban, banish, expel, curse'; 
formed with -n- formative element fr. I.-E. base 
*bhd-, 'to speak, tell, say', whence also Gk. 
<ptxvca, L. fori, 'to say', Arm. ban, 'word', Olr. 
bann, law'. See fame and cp. ban, 'edict', banish, 
banal, bandit, banns, abandon, aubain, boon, n., 

ban, n., edict. — ME., partly fr. bannen, 'to sum- 
mon, proclaim' (cp. ON. bann, 'prohibition', 
OHG. ban, 'commandment or prohibition under 
threat of punishment, jurisdiction', MHG. ban, 
G. Bann, 'public proclamation, jurisdiction, ban, 
ostracism, curse*, which derive fr. ON. banna, 
resp. OHG. bannan, MHG., G. bannen); partly 
fr. OF. (= F.) ban, 'public proclamation', fr. 
Frankish *ban, which is rel. to OHG. ban 
(see above). See ban, v. 

ban, n., a governor of Croatia. — Serbo-Croatian 
ban, 'lord, master, ruler', fr. Pers. ban, 'prince, 
lord, chief, governor' (prob. through the medium 
of the Avars). As a suff. -ban (var. -wan) means 
'keeper, guardian'. Pers. ban, is rel. to OPers. 
pd(y)-, 'to guard, protect', OI. pdti, 'guards, 
protects', pand-, 'guarding, protecting' (see 
P.Horn, GrundriB der neupersischen Etymo- 
logie, StraBburg, 1893, No. 176). See food and 
cp. banat and the second element in durwaun 
and in satrap. 

Bana, n., son of Bali, a thousand armed giant 
(Hindu mythol.) — OI. Bdndh, lit. 'arrow', prob. 
a loan word fr. Austroasiatic. 

banal, adj., trite, commonplace. — OF. banal, 
fr. ban, 'proclamation'. See ban, 'edict'. Banal 
orig. meant 'compulsory', whence it came to 
denote 'common to all, commonplace'. 

banal, adj., pertaining to a ban or the banat. — 
Formed fr. ban, 'governor', with adj. suff. -al. 

banality, n., 1) triteness; 2) a platitude. — F. ba- 
nalite, fr. banal. See banal, 'trite', and -ity. 

banana, n. — Sp. and Port., fr. earlier Congo- 
lese banam. 

banat, also banate, n., the district governed by a 
ban. — A hybrid coined fr. ban, 'governor' and 
suff. -ate (fr. L. -dtus). Cp. G., F. banat, which 
are of the same meaning and origin. 

banausic, adj., proper for an artisan; trivial. — 
Gk. pavaijciy-oq, 'relating to artisans', fr. (iava'j- 
aia, 'handicraft', fr. ^ivauaoc;, 'artisan', which 
is of uncertain origin. The usual explanation 
that fiivauao; is a dissimilated form of *J}-xu- 
vauaoi;, and compounded of (iauvoc;, 'furnace, 
forge', and auew, 'to dry', is folk etymology. 

Banbury cake. — Named after Banbury in Ox- 

banc, n., bench, esp. bench on which judges sit. — 

F. See banco, 
banco, n., bank. — It., fr. Teut. *banki-. Cp. ME. 

banke and see bank, bench. Cp. also banc and 

the last element in charabanc, mountebank, 
band, n., a tie. — ME., fr. ON. band, rel. to OS., 
Swed., Du., G. band, OHG., MHG. bant, Goth. 
bandi, lit. 'that which binds', fr. I.-E. base 
*bendh-, 'to bind', whence also OI. bandhdlf, 'a 
tying, fastening; band, bandage', Mir. bainna, 
'bracelet' ; F. bande, 'band', is a Teut. loan word. 
See bind and cp. bend, bond. Cp. also bandage, 
bandanna, bandhava, bandhu, bandoleer, and 
the second element in ribband, ribbon, roband, 

Derivatives: band, tr. and intr. v., band-ed, adj., 
band-er, n., band-ing, n. 
band, n., troop. — F. bande, fr. OProvenc. banda, 
fr. Goth, bandwa, bandwd, 'sign, signal'. See 
banner and cp. disband. 

bandage, n. — F., fr. bande, fr. OF. bende, fr. 
ML. benda, 'a band', fr. Goth. *binda, which is 
rel. to E. band, 'tie' (q.v.) For the ending see 
suff. -age. 

Derivatives: bandage, tr. v., bandag-er, n., 
bandag-ist, n. 

bandanna, bandana, n., a colored and spotted 
handkerchief. — Hind, bdndhnu, 'a mode of 
dyeing in which the cloth is tied in various 
places to prevent these places from receiving 
the dye', rel. to bandhdh, 'a tying, fastening; 
band, bandage'. See bind and cp. band, 'tie'. 
Cp. also bandhu, pandal. 

bandeau, n., a narrow band, fillet. — F., fr. earlier 
bandel, dimin. of bande, 'band, ribbon', of Teut. 
origin. See band, 'tie'. 

banderilla, n., a small dart with a streamer thrust 
into the bull by the banderillo. — Sp., dimin. of 
bandera, 'banner'. See banner and cp. next word. 

banderole, banderol, n., a small streamer at- 
tached to a lance. — F. banderole, dimin. of 
bandiire, banniere, 'banner'. See banner and 
cp. prec. word. 

bandhava, n., a kinsman (Hindu law). — OI. 
bdndhavah, rel. to bdndhuh 'relationship, kins- 
man'. See next word. 

bandhu, n., related through females. — OI. bdn- 
dhuh, 'relationship, kinsman', rel. to bandhdh, ' a 
binding; band, tie', fr. I.-E. base *bendh-, 'to 
bind'. See band, 'tie'. 

bandicoot, n., a kind of a large rat. — Telegu 
pandi kokku, lit. 'pig rat'. 

bandit, n. — F., fr. It. bandito, prop. pp. of ban- 
dire, 'to banish', which arose from a blend of 
Frankish *bannjan, 'to banish' (whence F. ban- 
nir, E. banish), and Goth, bandwa, 'sign, signal'. 
See banner. 

banditi, n. pi., sometimes used as sing., bandits; 
bandits collectively. — It., pi. of bandito. See 
prec. word. 

bandog, n., a dog kept tied up as a watchdog or 
because of its ferocity; a mastiff or bloodhound. 
— Contracted fr. band-dog (see hand, 'a tie', 
and dog). For sense development cp. F. limier, 
'bloodhound; sleuthhound', lit. 'a dog held 

with a leash', fr. Hem, ancient form of lien, 

bandoleer, also bandolier, n., a shoulder belt. — 
F. bandouliire, fr. Sp. bandolera, fr. banda, 
'scarf, sash', which is a Teut. loan word. See 
band, 'tie'. 

Derivative: bandoleer-ed, bandolier-ed, adj. 

bandore, n., a stringed musical instrument. — 
Port, bandurra, fr. ~L.pandura, fr. Gk. iravSoupa, 
'a musical instrument of three strings'. See pan- 
dore and cp. banjo. Cp. also mandolin. 

bandy, tr. v., to toss. — F. bander, 'to bind, bend, 
bandy', of Teut. origin. See bend, 'to curve', and 
cp. next word. 

bandy, n., 1) a form of hockey; 2) the bent stick 
used in this game. — F. bande, pp. of bander. 
See prec. and cp. next word. 

bandy, adj., bent, crooked, bandy-legged. — De- 
rivatively identical with prec. word. 
andy,n., bullock cart or carriage. — Telugu bandi. 

bandy-legged, adj. — Compounded of bandy, 
adj., leg and suff. -ed. 

bane, n. — OE. bana, 'murderer, slayer', rel. to 
OE. benn, 'wound', OS. bano, OFris. bona. 
OHG. bano, 'murderer', OHG. bana, 'murder', 
ON. bani, 'murderer, murder, death', ben. 
'wound', Dan., Swed. bane, 'death, murder'. 
Goth, banja, 'stroke, wound', and cogn. with 
Avestic banta, 'ill', bqnay l n, 'they make sick' 
Derivatives: bane-ful, adj., bane-ful-ly, adv., 
bane-ful-ness, n. 

bang, tr. and intr. v. — Of. Scand. origin. Cp. 
ON. banga, 'to hammer', Swed. bdnga, to make 
a noise', Icel. banga, Dan. banke, 'to beat', Cp. 
also Lith. bungdt, 'to nudge in the ribs', MHG, 
bunge, 'drum', G. Bengel, 'cudgel; a clumsy 
fellow, a fool', Du. bengel, 'a naughty boy'. 
All these words are of imitative origin. Cp. 
bungle. Cp. also whang, whiz-bang. 
Derivative: bang, n. 
bang, interj. — Of imitative origin. See prec. 

bang, n. — A variant of bhang. 

bang, n., hair cut across the forehead. — Of un- 
certain origin. 

bangle, n., a ring-shaped bracelet. — Hind 

bangy, banghy, n., a shoulder yoke for carrying 
loads. — Marathi bangi, fr. Hind, bahangi, fr. 
OI. vihangamd, vihangikd. See Yule-Burnell, 
Hobson-Jobson, p. 60b. 

banian, n., a Hindu merchant. — Hind, vdnija. 
'a trader', fr. OI. vdnij, 'merchant'. Cp. bany- 
an tree. 

banish, tr. v. — ME. banishen, fr. OF. baniss-. 
pres. part, stem of banir, 'to proclaim ; to banish' 
(F. bannir, 'to banish; to expel'), fr. Frankish 
*bannjan, which is rel. to Goth, bandwjan, 'to 
make a sign, to signal', whence It. bandire. 
OProvenc. bandir, 'to proclaim; to banish'. See 
banner and cp. band, 'troop'. For the ending see 
verbal suff. -ish. OF. banir, etc., were influenced 



in meaning by a confusion with OF. ban, 'public 
proclamation' (see ban, 'edict'). See Bloch- 
Wartburg, DELF., p. 55 s.v. bannir and Dauzat, 
DELF., p. 72 s.v. bannir. 

banister, n. — Corruption of baluster. 

banjo, n., a musical instrument. — Fr. earlier 
banjore, banjer, banshaw, Negro alterations of 
bandore (q.v.) 

Derivatives : banjo, intr. v., banjo-ist, n. 
bank, n., the edge of a river. — ME. banke, of 
Scand. origin. Cp. ON. bakki, 'river bank, ridge', 
and next word, and see bench. Cp. also bunk, 
'sleeping berth'. 

Derivative: bank, tr. and intr. v., to pile up in 
a bank. 

bank, n., a bench. — ME. banck, prob. fr. OF. 
banc, 'a bench', which is of Teut. origin. See 
bench and cp. prec. word and banc, banco. 

bank, n., an institution for the custody of money. 
— F. banque, fr. It. banca, orig. 'bench, table, 
counter' (scil. of a money changer), which is 
of Teut. origin. Cp. bank, 'the edge of a river', 
bank, 'bench', and see bench. Cp. also bankrupt, 
bunco, embankment. 

Derivatives: bank, intr. v., to keep a bank; to 
keep money in a bank; tr. v., to keep (money) 
in a bank ; bank-able, adj . ,bank-er,n.,bank-ing,n. 

banket, n., the conglomerate in the Witwaters- 
rand gold district in the Transvaal. — S. Afr. 
Du., lit. 'sweetmeat', fr. F. banquet. See banquet. 

bankrupt, n. and adj. — Refashioned after L. 
rupta, fr. F. banqueroute, fr. It. banca rotta, lit. 
'a broken bench', fr. banca, 'bench', and rotta 
(fr. L. rupta), fern. pp. of rompere, 'to break', 
fr. L. rumpere, (see bench and rupture); so called 
from the habit of breaking the bench of bank- 

Derivatives: bankrupt, tr. v., bankrupt-cy, n., 
bankrupt-ly, adv. 
bankshall, n., 1) a warehouse; 2) the office of a 
harbor master (Anglo-Ind.) — Hind, bangsdl, 
'store room', prob. fr. OI. bhdndasdla-, 'store- 
house'. See Yule-Burnell, Hobson-Jobson, 

Banksia, n., a genus of Australian evergreen 
t rees . — Named after the famous English na- 
turalist and traveler, Sir Joseph Banks (1743- 
1820). For the ending see suff. -ia. 

banner, n. — ME. banere, fr. OF. baniere (F. ban- 
niere), which is prob. a blend of WTeut. "banda, 
corresponding to Goth, bandwa, bandwo, 'sign, 
signal' (whence also It., OProvenc. banda, 'band, 
troop', Late L. bandum, 'banner', banderia, ba- 
neria, 'place where the banner is set up', OPro- 
venc. bandiera (whence It. bandiera, F. ban- 
diere, Sp. bandera), 'banner', and of OF. ban, 
'public proclamation'. Goth, bandwa, prob. de- 
rives fr. I.-E. base *bendh-, 'to bind'. See band, 
'tie', and cp. band, 'troop', banderilla, banderole, 
banish, pandour. For the etymol. of OF. ban see 
ban, 'edict'. MHG. banier(e) (whence G. Banner 
and Panier), 'banner', is an OF. loan word. 

Derivatives: banner, tr. and intr. v. \(obsol.), 
banner-ed, adj., bann-er, n. (obsol.), banneret 

banneret, n., order of knighthood; orig., a knight 
who could lead his men into battle under his 
own banner. — ME. baneret, fr. OF. baneret 
(F. banneret), a derivative of baniere (F. ban- 
niire). See banner. 

banneret, bannerette, n., small banner. — OF. 
banerete, dimin. of baniere (F. banniere). See 
banner and -et, -ette. 

bannerol, n., banner borne at a funeral and placed 
over the tomb. — A variant of banderole. 

bannock, n., a thick flat cake. — OE. bannuc, 
'cake', fr. Gael, bonnach, of s.m. 

banns, bans, n. pi., public announcement of a 
marriage. — PI. of ban, 'edict'. 

banquet, n. — F., fr. It. banchetto, dimin. of ban- 
co, 'bench'. See bench and -et and cp. banc, 
banco, banket, banquette. 
Derivatives: banquet, v., banquet-er, n. 

banquette, n., the foot bank of a trench (fort.) — 
F., fr. Languedoc banqueta, dimin. of banc 
'bench'. See prec. word and -ette. 

banshee, n., a female spirit supposed to warn 
families of the death of a member. — From Ir. 
bean sidhe, lit. 'woman of the fairies'. Bean 
comes fr. OE. ben, which is cognate with E. 
quean and queen. 

banstickle, n., the stickleback. — Compounded 

of ME. ban, 'bone', and stickle (in stickleback), 

'prickle'. See bone and stickleback, 
bantam, n., a kind of small fowl. — Fr. Bantam, 

name of a town, west of Jakarta in Java, 
banter, tr. and intr. v. and n. — Of unknown 


Derivatives: banter-er, n., banter-ing-ly, adv., 
banter-y, adj. 

banting, n., a system for reducing weight. — 
Named after William Banting (1797-1878), its 
inventor and propagator. 
Derivatives: banting-ism, n., banting-ize, intr. v. 

bantling, n., a brat; a bastard. — G. Bdnkling, 
'bastard', lit. 'conceived on a bench', fr. Bank, 
'bench'; see bench and subst. suff. -ling. For 
sense development cp. bastard. 

Bantu, n., a group of African languages com- 
prising most of those spoken south of the Equa- 
tor. — Coined by W. H. I. Bleek fr. native 
Ba-ntu, fr. plur. pref. ba- and ntu, 'a man, a 
person', hence Ba-ntu lit. means 'the men, the 
people, mankind'. 

banyan, n. — See banian. 

banyan tree, also banyan, n. — Orig. 'the tree 
under which the banyans (= Hindu merchants) 
settled near Gombroon (now called Bandar 
Abbas); see banian. See Yule-Buinell, Hobson- 
Jobsen, p. 65. 

banzai, interj., form of greeting addressed to the 
Emperor of Japan. — Jap. 'may you live ten 
thousand years'. Cp. Chin, wan, 'myriad', sui, 


baobab, n., name of an African tree. — Native 

bap, n., a small roll of bread (Scot.) — Of un- 
certain origin. 

Baphia, n., a genus of trees and shrubs of the pea 
family, (bot.) — ModL., fr. Gk. pacfrf), 'a dip- 
ping, a dyeing', which is rel. to Pa7rreiv, 'to 
dip, dye', (Ja7rrf£et.v, 'to dip'. See baptism and -ia. 

Baptisia, n., a genus of plants of the pea family 
(bot.) — ModL., fr. Gk. pairaau;, 'a dipping', 
fr. pairri^eiv, 'to dip' (see next word) ; so called 
from the use of some species for dyeing. For 
the ending see suff. -ia. 

baptism, n. — ME. bapteme, fr. OE. baptesme 
(F. bapteme), fr. Eccles. L. baptisma, fr. Gk. 
PareTio^a, 'a dipping in water', in Eccles. Gk. 
'baptism', fr. Poctct^siv, 'to dip', in Eccles. Gk. 
'to baptize', fr. Pootteiv, 'to dip, steep, dye, 
color', which is rel. to p<x<p-r], 'a dyeing', and 
cogn. with ON. kvefja, 'to plunge', OSwed. kvaf, 
'a deep place'. For sense development it should 
be borne in mind that baptism orig. consisted 
in immersion. E. baptism has been refashioned 
after Eccles. L. baptisma, Gk. ^&nzia[icn. For 
the ending see suff. -ism. Cp. Baphia, Baptisia, 
baptist, baptistery, baptize and the second ele- 
ment in phlobaphene. 

Derivatives :baptism-al, adj., baptism-al-ly, adv. 

baptist, n. — OF. (= F.) baptiste, fr. Eccles. L. 
baptista, fr. Gk. |3a7maTr)c;, 'one who dips'. See 
baptism and -ist. 

baptistery, baptistry, n. — OF. baptisterie (F. bap- 
tistere), fr. Eccles. L. baptisterium, fr. Gk. P<xtc- 
TiaTYipiov, 'bathing place', in Eccles. Gk., bap- 
tistery'. See baptist and -ery, resp. -ry. 

baptize, tr. and 1 intr. v. — ME. baptisen, fr. F. 
baptiser, fr. Eccles. L. baptizdre, 'to baptize', fr. 
Gk. (3<x7m£Etv. See baptism and -ize. 

bar, rod of metal or wood. — ME. barre, fr. OF. 
(= F.) barre, fr. VL. *barra, a word of Gaulish 
origin. See forum and cp. barrier, barrister, bar- 
rulet, debar, disbar, embargo, embarrass. 

bar, tr. v. — ME. barren, fr. OF. barrer, fr. barre. 
See prec. word and cp. barrage. 
Derivatives: barr-ed, adj., barr-er, n., barr-ing, 
n. and prep., barr-y, adj. 

bar, n., the maigre (Sciaena aquila). — F. bar, fr. 
MDu. ba(e)rse, which is rel. to OS., MHG. bars, 
G. Barsch and E. barse (q.v.) 

Barabbas, masc. PN. — L., fr. Gk. BapappSi;, fr. 
Aram, bar abba, 'son of the father, son of the 
master', fr. bar, 'son', which is rel. to Heb. ben, 
'son', and fr. Aram, abbd, 'the father', emphatic 
state of abh, which is rel. to Heb. dbh, 'father'. 
For the first element see ben, 'son', and cp. bar 
mitzvah and words there referred to. For the 
second element see Aboth and cp. Abba, abbot. 

barad, n., the unit of pressure in the centimeter- 
gram-second system (physics). — Fr. Gk. p<xpo<;, 
'weight'. See baro-. 

barathrum, n., 'pit, gulf', esp. that near Athens 
into which criminals condemned to death were 

thrown. — L., fr. Gk. papaftpov, 'pit, gulf, 
cleft', rel. to Homeric pepeftpov, of s.m., fr. I.-E. 
base *g w er-, 'to devour', whence also Popo?, 
'voracious', (JpSfjux, 'food', lit. 'that which is 
eaten', L. vorare, 'to devour'. See voracious and 
cp. words there referred to. 

barato, n., money given to bystanders by a winner 
at the gaming table. — Sp., from the adj. barato, 
'cheap', fr. baratar, 'to barter, traffic', which 
prob. derives fr. Gk. npa-crew, 'to do, perform*- 
See practical. 

barb, n., beard, a beardlike appendage. — OF. 
(= F.) barbe, fr. L. barba, 'beard', which is cogn. 
with OE. beard. See beard and cp. words there 
referred to. 

Derivatives: barb, tr. v., to supply with a barb; 
barb-ed, adj. 

barb, n., name of a breed of horse. — F. barbe, 
shortened fr. Barbaric, prop, 'horse introduced 
from Barbary in North Africa'. 

Barbara, fem. PN. — L., prop. fern, of barbarus, 
'strange, foreign, barbarous', fr. Gk. (Bappapo;. 
See barbaric. 

Barbarea, n., a genus of plants of the mustard 
family (bot.) — ModL., named after St. Barbara. 

barbarian, n. and adj. — Formed with suff. -ian 
fr. Gk. papPapo?. See barbaric. 

barbaric, adj. — OF. barbarique, fr. L. barbari- 
cus, 'foreign, strange, outlandish', fr. G. pap- 
Papixo?, fr. pippapoi;, 'non-Greek, foreign, 
barbarous', which is cogn. with OI. barbarah, 
'stammering (designation of the non-Aryan 
nations), from the I.-E. imitative base *barb-, 
'to stammer, stutter; unintelligible'. Cp. brave. 
Cp. also Berber and the second element in rhu- 
barb. For *balb-, a collateral base of *barb-, see 
balbuties, booby. For the imitative base *bab- 
see babble. 

Derivative: barbaric-al-ly, adv. 
barbarism, n. — F. barbarisme, fr. L. batbarismus, 

ir. Gk. pappapiajj.6;, 'unintelligible speech', fr. 

pipPapo?. See prec. word and -ism. 
barbarity, n. — See barbaric and -ity. 
barbarize, tr. and intr. v. — Gk. pappapi^siv, 

'to speak like a barbarian', fr. pappapo:. See 

barbaric and -ize. 

Derivative: barbariz-ation, n. 
barbarous, adj. — L. barbarus, fr. Gk. pippapo;. 

See barbaric. For E. -ous, as equivalent to Gk. 

-oq, see -ous. 

Derivatives: barbarous-ly, adv., barbarous- 
ness, n. 

Barbary, n., the countries in North Africa west 
of Egypt. — OF. Barbarie, fr. L. barbaria, 'a 
foreign country', fr. barbarus, 'strange, foreign, 
barbarous'. See barbaric and -y (representing 
OF. -ie). 

Barbary ape. — Lit. 'ape of North Africa', fr. 

barbasco, n., the wild cinnamon. — Sp., fr. L. 
verbascum, 'mullein', a word of Ligurian origin. 
Cp. Verbascum. 



barbate, adj., i) bearded; 2) (bot.) having hair- 
like tufts or awns. — L. barbdtus, 'bearded', 
fr. barba, 'beard 1 . See barb, 'appendage', and 
adj. suff. -ate and cp. barbituric. 
Derivative: barbat-ed, adj. 

barbecue, n., an animal roasted whole; a social 
gathering at which animals are roasted whole. 
— Sp. barbacoa, orig. 'a framework to sleep on; 
a framework for roasting meat', fr. Taino bar- 

Derivative: barbecue, tr. v. 

barbel, n., a large fish, Barbus fluviatilis. — OF. 
(F. barbeau), fr. VL. *barbellus, dimin. of Late 
L. barbula, which itself is dimin. of L. barbus, 
'barbel' (whence OHG. barbo, MHG., G. barbe, 
of s.m.), fr. L. barba, 'beard'. See barb, 'beard'. 

barber, n. — ME. harbour, fr. OF. barbeor (as 
if fr. VL. *barbStor), fr. L. barba, 'beard'. Cp. 
F. barbier (fr. VL. *barbdrius) and see barb, 

barberry, n., any plant of the genus Berberis. — 
OF. barbere, barberis, fr. ML. berberis, barbaris, 
fr. Arab, barbaris, in vulgar pronunciation ber- 
beris, 'barberry'. Cp. Berberis. 

barbet, n. — F., fr. L. barbdtus, 'bearded'. See 

barbette, n., mound for mounting guns (fort.) — 
F., dimin. of barbe, 'beard' (see barb, 'beard', 
and -ette) ; so called from a fanciful comparison 
of the mounted guns with a beard. 

barbican, n., outer defense of a city or castle. — 
ME. barbecan, fr. OF. barbacan, barbican (F. 
barbacane), which prob. derives ult. fr. Pers. 
bdla-khdna, 'upper chamber, balcony on the top 
of a house', lit. 'a high house', fr. bdla, 'high', 
and khdna, 'house'. The first element is rel. to 
Avestic b e r e zant-, OI. brhdnt-, 'high'; see 
borough. The second element derives fr. stem 
khan-, 'to dig'. 

barbicel, n., a little process on the barbule of a 
feather. — ModL. barbicella, dimin. of barba, 
'beard'. See barb, 'beard'. 

barbiton, n., an ancient many-stringed instru- 
ment resembling a lyre. — Gk. flapfk-rov, earlier 
form fSdpg'.To;, a loan word from a foreign, 
prob. the Phrygian, language. 

barbituric, adj., designating, or pertaining to, a 
crystalline acid, CH 2 (CO.NH)jCO (Am.) — 
Coined fr. L. barbdta (in ML. Usnea barbdta, 
lit. 'bearded moss'), and uric. L. barbdta is fern, 
of barbdtus, 'bearded' ; see barbate. (ML. usnea 
derives fr. Arab, ushna", 'moss'). 

barbule, n., a minute barb; a process at the edge 
of the barb of a feather. — L. barbula, 'a little 
beard', dimin. of barba. See barb 'beard', and 
-ule and cp. barbicel. 

barcarole, barcarolle, a song sung by Venetian 
boatmen. — F. barcarolle, fr. It. barcarola, fr. 
barcarolo, 'gondolier', a derivative of barca, 
'boat'. See bark, 'vessel'. 

bard, n , a Celtic minstrel-poet. — C 'el. bard, 
fr. Gaul. *bardo-, 'singer', whence ilso Gk. 

PapSo;, L. bardus, 'bard', bardala, 'the copped 
lark' (lit. 'the singer'). 
Derivative: bard-ic, adj. 
bard, also barde, n., armor for the breast and 
flanks of a warhorse. — F. barde, 'armor for 
horses', fr. Sp. barda, 'horse armor', albarda, 
'packsaddle', fr. Arab. (al-)bdrdaa" , '(the) stuffed 
packsaddle of an ass'. 

bardash, n., a catamite. — F. bardache, fr. It. 
bardascia, fr. Arab, bdrdaj, 'slave', ult. fr. Pers. 
bardah, of s.m. 

bardolater, n., a worshiper of the Bard, i.e. Shake- 
speare. — Formed fr. bard, 'poet*, on analogy of 

bardolatry, n., worship of Shakespeare. — Form- 
ed fr. bard, 'poet', on analogy of idolatry. 

Bardolph, masc. PN. — OHG. Berhtolf, com- 
pounded of beraht, 'bright', and wolf, 'wolf. See 
bright and wolf. 

bare, adj. — ME. bare, fr. OE. bser, rel. to OS., 
OHG., MHG., G. bar, ON. berr, Du. baar, 
(fr. Old Teut. *baza-), and cogn. with Arm. bok 
(for*bhos-ko-), 'naked', OSlav. bosu, Lith.Mms, 
Lett, bass, 'barefoot'. Cp. the first element in 

Derivatives: bare, tr. v., bare, n., bare-ly, adv., 
bare-ness, n., bar-er, n. 

barege, barege, n., 1) a gauzelike fabric; 2) a min- 
eral water from Bareges. — F. barege, so 
called fr. Bareges, a village situated in the 
department of the Hautes-Pyrdnees in France. 

baresark, adv., without shirt. — Alternation of 
berserk (as if deriving from bare sark, i.e. 'bare 
shirt'). See berserker. 

baret, n. — A var. of barret. 

bargain, n. — ME. bargayn, fr. OF. bargaigne, 
fr. bargaigner. See bargain, v. 

bargain, intr. and tr. v. — OF. bargaignier (F. bar- 
guigner), 'to waver, be irresolute', orig. 'to bar- 
gain', prob. fr. Frankish *borganjan, 'to borrow, 
to lend', which is rel. to OHG. borgen, OE. 
borgian, 'to borrow, to lend'. See borrow. 
Derivative : bargain-er, n. 

barge, broad, flat boat. — OF., fr. OProvenc. 
barca, fr. L. barca, 'a small boat, bark', short- 
ened fr. *bdrica, fr. Gk. pipit;, fr. Copt, ban, 
'boat'. Cp. bark, 'sailing ship', and words there 
referred to. 

Derivatives : barge, intr. v. 
bargeer, n., a trooper who is riding another man's 

horse (Anglo-Ind.). — Pers. bdrgir, lit. 'burden 

taker', fr. bar, 'burden', and -gir, stem of girif- 

tdn, 'to seize, take', 
barite, n., barytes (mineral.) — See barytes. 
baritone, barytone, n., a male voice between bass 

and tenor. — F. baryton or It. baritono, fr. Gk. 

papuTovo?, 'heavy-toned, low-toned', which is 

compounded of Pap'i;, 'heavy' (see bary-), and 

t6vos, 'tone'. See tone. 

Derivative : barytone, baritone, n. 
barium, n., a metallic element (chem.) — ModL., 

fr. Gk. Papus, 'heavy', which is rel. to (Wpos, 



'weight'; see baro-. The element was so called 
by its discoverer, the English chemist Sir Hum- 
phrey Davy (1778-1829) because of its presence 
in barytes or heavy spar. 

bark, n., rind of a tree. — ME. barke, fr. ON. 
barker (whence also Dan., Swed. bark), which is 
rel. to LG. borke (whence G. Borke). According to 
Petersson (in Indogerm. Forschungen 23,403), 
these words derive from a -^--enlargement of 
I.-E. base *bher-, 'to cut', for which see bore, 
'to pierce' and words there referred to. For 
sense development cp. L. cortex, 'bark of a 
tree', fr. I.-E. base *(s)qer-, 'to cut' (see cortex). 
Derivatives: bark, tr. v., bark-en, tr. and intr. v., 
bark-en, adj. (poet), bark-er, n., bark-er-y, n. 

bark, n., a kind of sailing ship. — F. barque, fr. 
It. barca, fr. L. bdrca, 'a small boat, bark'. See 
barge, 'boat', and cp. barkentine, barque, de- 
bark, disembark, embark. 

bark, intr. v., to cry as a dog. — ME. berken, fr. 
OE. beorcan, rel. to ON. berkja, 'to bark' ; prob. 

Derivatives: bark-er, n., bark-ing, adj. and n. 

barkentine, barquentine, n., a kind of three- 
masted vessel. — Formed fr. bark, resp. barque, 
"sailing vessel', on analogy of biigantine. 

barkevikite, n., a variety of amphibole (mineral.) 
— Named after Barkevik, on the Langesund 
fiord, in Norway. For the ending see subst. suff. 

barley, n. — ME. barly, fr. OE. bxrlic, orig. 
an adjective meaning 'like barley', fr. bere, 
'barley', and -lie, 'like'. The first element is rel. 
to ON. ban, 'barley', Goth, barizeins, 'of bar- 
ley', and cogn. with L. far, gen. farris, 'coarse 
grain, meal'. See farina, farrage, and cp. barn, 
barton. For the second element see adj. suff. -ly 
and like, adj. 

barm, n., yeast. — ME. berme, fr. OE. beorma, 
rel. to Du. berm, MLG. berm, barm, LG. barme 
(whence G. Barme), and cogn. with L. fermen- 
tum, 'substance causing fermentation', fr. I.-E. 
base *bher-, 'to boil, seethe', whence also OI. 
bhurdti, 'moves convulsively, quivers', Mir. 
berbaim, 'I boil, seethe'. Cp. brand, bread, brew, 
broil (in both senses), broth. Cp. also ferment. 

bar mitzvah, a male person who has completed 
his thirteenth year, when he reaches the age of 
religious responsibility (Jewish religion). — 
Heb. bar mitzvd", lit. 'son of command', fr. bar, 
'son', which is rel. to Heb. ben, and mitzvd h , 
"command, commandment', which is rel. to'tziv- 
vd h , 'he commanded'. For the first element see 
ben, 'son', and cp. the first element in Barabbas, 
Barnabas, Bartholomew. For the second element 
see mitzvah. 

barn, n. — ME. bern, fr. OE. bern, shortened fr. 
orig. bere-ern, lit. 'barley house', fr. bere, 'bar- 
ley' and em, sern, 'house'. For the first element 
see barley. The second element is a metathesized 
form of *ran(n) (for *rasn), 'house', and rel. to 
ON. rann, Goth, razn, 'house', and to OE. rest, 

rsest, 'resting place'. See rest, 'repose', and cp. 
the first element in ransack. 
Barnabas, n., a surname of Joseph, the Levite of 
Cyprus (Acts 4: 36). — Eccles. L., fr. Gk. Bap- 
vapas, lit. 'son of exhortation', fr. Aram, bar, 
'son', and ndbha, 'prophecy, exhortation'. For 
the first element see bar mitzvah and cp. words 
there referred to. The second element is rel. to 
Heb. nabht, 'prophet', n e bhu'd", 'prophecy'. See 

barnacle, n., an instrument for pinching a horse's 
nose. — ME. bernak, bernacle, bernakile, fr. OF. 
bernac, which is of uncertain origin. 

barnacle, n., i)the barnacle goose; 2) shellfish. — 
Bret, bernic, 'shellfish' (whence also F. bernkle, 
'barnacle goose; shellfish'), prob. fr. Olr. bern, 
'cleft, crack, fissure' (according to popular 
belief, the goose was supposed to be born from 
the shellfish). 

baro-, before a vowel bar-, combining form de- 
noting the pressure of the atmosphere. — Gk. 
Papo-, fr. pdcpo?, 'weight', rel. to papu?, 'hea- 
vy', fr. I.-E. base *g w er-, 'heavy', whence also 
L. gravis. See grave, 'weighty', and cp. bary-, 
Briareus, and the second element in centrobaric, 

barograph, n., a recording barometer. — Com- 
pounded of baro- and Gk. -ypa<po<;, fr. Ypacpe'.v, 
'to write'. See -graph. 
Derivative: barograph-ic, adj. 

barology, n., the study of weight or gravity. — 
Compounded of baro-, and Gk. -Xoyia, fr. 
-Xiyoq, 'one who speaks (in a certain manner) ; 
one who deals (with a certain topic)'. See -logy. 

barometer, n., an instrument for measuring the 
pressure of the atmosphere. — Compounded of 
baro- and Gk. jjixpov, 'measure'. See meter, 
'poetical rhythm'. The term barometer was prob. 
used first by the English chemist and physicist 
Robert Boyle (1627-91) in 1665. 
Derivatives: barometr-ic, adj., barometr-y, n. 

baron, n. — ME. baron, barun, fr. OF. baron, 
oblique case of ber, fr. ML. bard, gen. -dnis, 
which is of Teut. origin; cp. OHG. baro, 'man', 
prop, 'warrior', which is rel. to ON. berjask, 
'to fight', and cogn. with OSlav. horjg, boriti, 
'to fight'. All these words prob. derive fr. l.-E. 
base *bher-, 'to bear, carry'. See bear, 'to carry". 
Derivatives: baron-age, n., baron-ess, n., baron- 
et, n. and tr. v., baron-et-age, n., baron-et-cy, n., 
baron-etic-al, baron-ial, adjs., barony (q.v.) 

barony, n., 1) a baron's domain; 2) dignity or 
rank of a baron. — OF. baronie (F. baronnie), 
fr. baron. See prec. word and -y (representing 
OF. -ie). 

baroque, adj., pertaining to an artistic style char- 
acterized by grotesque forms. — F., not fr. 
Port, barroco, 'irregularly shaped pearl', as 
generally assumed, but from the name of the 
founder of the baroque style, Federigo Barocci 
Derivative : baroque, n. 



baroscope, n., an instrument showing the changes 
of the pressure of the atmosphere. — Compound- 
ed of baro- and Gk. -mtdmov, fr. axo7reiv, 'to 
look at, examine'. See -scope. 
Derivatives: baroscop-ic, baroscop-ical, adjs. 

Barosma, n., a genus of plants of the rue family 
(bot.) — ModL., lit. 'of a heavy smell', fr. baro- 
and Gk. 6<j[x^, 'smell, odor'. See osmium. 

barosmin, n., diosmin (pharm) — Formed fr. 
Barosma with chem. suff. -in. 

barouche, n., a kind of four-wheeled carriage. — ■ 
G. Banttsche, fr. It. baroccio, a collateral form 
of earlier biroccio, fr. VL. *birrotium, 'a two- 
wheeled carriage', fr. L. birotus (for bis-rotus), 
'two-wheeled', fr. bis, 'twice', and rota, 'wheel'. 
See bi- and rota and cp. britska. 

barque, n. — A variant of bark, 'sailing vessel'. 

barquentine, n. — See barkentine. 

barracan, n., an Oriental fabric, camlet. — F., fr. 
Arab, barrakdn, 'camlet', which is of Persian 

barracks, n. pi., soldiers' lodgings. — F. baroque, 
fr. Sp. barraca, orig. 'hut of bricks', a derivative 
of barro, 'clay', which is prob. of Iberian origin. 

barracuda, also barracouta, n., a large sea fish. — 
Sp. barracuda, of uncertain origin. 

barrage, n., dam. — F., fr. barrer, 'to bar, ob- 
struct'. See bar, v., and -age. 

barrage, n., curtain fire (mil.) — Fr. F. tir de 
barrage, 'curtain fire'. See prec. word. 

barranca, n., ravine. — Sp., fr. barranco, 'pre- 
cipice, ravine', fr. VL. barrancus, fr. Gk. cpdpay!;, 
gen. ^apayyoi;, 'deep chasm, ravine, gully', 
which is rel. to 9apuy$, 'throat, chasm, gulf, 
(papEiv, 'to cleave, part', and cogn. with L. 
fordre, 'to bore', OE. borian, 'to bore'. See bore 
'to pierce', and cp. pharynx. 

barrandite, n., a hydrous phosphate of iron and 
aluminum (mineral) — F., named after the 
French geologist Joachim Barrande (1799- 1883). 
For the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

barrator, n., one guilty of barratry. — ME. bara- 
tour, 'a quarrelsome person', fr. OF. barateor, 
'deceiver, swindler', fr. barater, 'to deceive, 
barter'. See barter. 

barratrous, adj., tending to barratry (law). — See 
barratry and -ous. 
Derivative: barratrous-ly, adv. 

barratry, n., fraudulent breach of duty (marine). 
— See barrator and -ry. 

barrel, n. — ME. barel, fr. OF. (= F.) baril, 
'barrel, cask', which is of Gaulish origin. The 
word came to Britain through the medium of 
the Normans; it is not related to F. barre, 'bar'. 
Cp. It. barile, OProvenc. and Sp. barril, which 
are of the same origin and meaning as OF. baril. 
Cp. also barricade, barrico, breaker, 'a small 

barren, adj. — ME. barain, barein, fr. OF. bre- 
haigne, baraigne, which is of uncertain origin. 
Derivatives: barren-Iy, adv., barren-ness, n. 

barret, n., a small cap, esp. a biretta. — F. bar- 

rette, fr. It. barretta (now berretta). See biretta. 

barricade, n. — F., fr. MF. barriquer, 'to barri- 
cade', fr. barrique, 'a large barrel', fr. baril, 
'barrel'; see barrel. Barricade orig. meant 'an 
obstruction made with barrels'. It. barricata, 
usually regarded as the etymon of F. barricade, 
is in reality a French loan word. 

barricade, tr. v. — F. barricader, fr. barricade. 
See barricade, n. 

barrico, n., a keg. — Sp. barrica, fr. barril, 'a 
barrel'. See barrel. 

barrier, n. — ME. barrere, fr. F. barrUre, 'ob- 
stacle', fr. barre, 'bar'. See bar, 'rod of metal 
or wood'. 

barrister, n. — Formed fr. bar, 'rod of metal or 
wood', with suff. -ster. 

barrow, n., mountain, mound. — ME. barewe, 
berewe, fr. OE. beorg, 'mountain', rel. to OS., 
Swed., Norw., OFris., Du., OHG., G. berg, 
'mountain', ON. bjarg, 'rock', Dan. bjerg, 
MHG. berc, 'mountain', fr. I.-E. base "bhergh-, 
'high'. See borough and cp. the second element 
in iceberg. 

barrow, n., a castrated boar._ — OE. bearg, rel. to 
OS., OHG. barg, barug, ON. -borgr, MDu. barch, 
barech, Du. barg, MHG. bare, G. Barch, and 
cogn. with OSIav. bravu, fr. earlier borvii, 'cas- 
trated young pig; wether', fr. I.-E. base *bher-, 
'to cut, bore'. See bore. 

barrow, n., a handcart. — ME. barewe, fr. OE. 
bearwe, 'basket, barrow', fr. beran, 'to carry'. 
See bear, 'to carry', and cp. bier. 

barrulet, n., a small bar (her.) — Formed with 
dimin. suff. -et fr. VL. *barrula, dirnin. ot*barra. 
See bar, 'rod of metal or wood'. 

barry, adj., traversed by an even number of bars 
(her) — F. barre, pp. of barrer, 'to bar', fr. 
barre. See bar, 'rod of metal or wood'. 

barse, n., the common perch. — OE. bssrs, 'perch', 
rel. to MDu. ba(e)rse, Du. baars, OS., MHG. 
bars, G. Barsch, 'perch', G. barsch, 'rough'; fr. 
Teut. base *bars-, 'sharp'. See bristle and cp. 
bass, 'perch', bar, 'maigre'. 

barter, intr. and tr. v. — ME. bartren, fr. OF. 
barater, 'to deceive, barter', fr. barat, 'cheat, 
deception', which is of uncertain, possibly 
Celtic, origin. Cp. Ir. brath, 'treachery', Gael. 
brath, 'to betray'. Cp. also barrator. 
Derivatives: barter, n., barter-er, n. 

barthite, n., a hydrous arsenate of zinc and cop- 
per. — Named after Barth, a mining engineer 
at Guchab, SW. Africa. For the ending see 
subst. suff. -ite. 

Bartholomew, masc. PN. — OF. Barthelemieu (F. 
Barthelemy), fr. L. Bartholomaeus, fr. Gk. Bap- 
&oXo[xa!o?, fr. Aram, bar Talmdy, 'son of Tal- 
mai'. Aram, bar, 'son', is rel. to Heb. ben, of 
s.m. ; see ben, 'son', and cp. words there referred 
to. Talmdy, a Heb. name occurring already in 
the Bible (e.g. Nu. 1 3 : 22), is rel. to Heb. telem, 

Derivative: Bartholome-an, adj. 



bartizan, n., a small tower for defense — First 
used by Walter Scott who mistook the real 
meaning of Scot, bartisene, which is nothing but 
the corrupted spelling of bratticing, 'timber- 
work', fr. brattice (q.v.) 

barton, n., barn. — ME. berton, fr. OE. beretun, 
'threshing floor, barn', lit. 'barley enclosure', fr. 
here, 'barley', and tun, 'enclosure'. See barley 
and town. 

Bartonia, n., a genus of plants of the gentian 
family (bot.) — ModL., named in honor of 
Benjamin Smith Barton of Philadelphia (died 
in 1 815). For the ending see suff. -ia. 

baruria, n., an abnormal condition in which the 
urine has a very high specific gravity (med.) — 
Medical L., compounded of Gk. fictpuq, 'heavy', 
and oOpov, 'urine'. See bary-, uro-, 'of urine', 
and -ia. 

bary-, combining form meaning 'heavy'. — Gk. 
plap'j-, fr. papii?, 'heavy', rel. to fSapoi;, 'weight'. 
See baro-. 

barycenter, barycentre, n., the center of gravity. 

— Compounded of bary- and center. 

Derivative: barycentr-ic, adj. 
barysilite, n., a lead silicate. — Coined fr. bary-. 

silicate and subst. suff. -ite. 
baryta, n., barium monoxide (chem.) — From 

next word. 

barytes, n., native barium sulfate, BaSO,; heavy 
spar (mineral.) — Coined by the Swedish chem- 
ist Karl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-86) ft- Gk. 
jiapiii;, 'heavy', which is rel. to (3apo<;, 'weight'. 
See baro- and cp. barium, barite. 

barythymia, n., melancholia (med) — Medical 
L.. compounded of bary- and -SKijio;, 'spirit, 
mind, soul'. See thio- and -ia and cp. thyme. Cp. 
also the second element in lipothymia, para- 

barytic, adj., pertaining to baryta. — Formed fr. 
baryta with suff. -ic. 

barytone, n. — See baritone. 

basal, adj., relating to the base; basic. — Formed 
with adj. suff. -al fr. base, n. 
Derivative : basal-ly, adv. 

basalt, n. — L. basaltes, explained by most lexi- 
cographers as a word of African origin. (This 
explanation is based on Pliny, Historia 36, 58.) 
In Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, s.v. basanites, 
several editions are quoted, in which basaltes 
stands for basanites. We may, therefore, assume 
that the original form is basanites, which was 
later shortened into basaltes. L. basanites (lapis) 
comes fr. Gk. (J<x<Tavt"nr)c, (Xidoi;). I tentatively 
suggest that {Jaoavtrr;; derives fr. Baaiv, 'Bash- 
an' (Bocadv is the transliteration of Heb. 
Bashan in the LXX), to which the suff. -fxr)? 
was added (see subst. suff. -ite). Accordingly, 
(laaavfrrrie. Xtdo; lit. means 'stone of Bashan'. 
This etymology is supported by the fact that 
Bashan, this well-known region east of the Jor- 
dan, first mentioned in the Bible as the Kingdom 
of Og, is especially rich in basalt. Cp. basanite. 

basan, n., tanned sheepskin. — F. basane, fr. 
OProvenc. basana, fr. Sp. badana, fr. Arab. 
bifdna h , lit. 'lining', fr. bdtana, 'he hid, covered' ; 
fr. batn, 'belly, interior'. See wad, 'soft material'. 

basanite, n., touchstone. — L. basanites (lapis), 
fr. Gk. (foaavos or paaavforj? (Xi&o.;), 'touch- 
stone'. See basalt. 

basaree, n., a Hindu flageolet (music). — Hind. 
basree, fr. OI. vamsdh, 'bamboo', which is cogn. 
with Mir. feice, Ir. feige (for *vankia), 'lintel, 
rafter'; L. vacerra, 'log, stock, post', however, 
is not cognate. 

bascule, n., an apparatus based on the principle 
of the seesaw. — F., 'seesaw', from orig. basse 
cule, altered from earlier bacule under the in- 
fluence of basse, fem. of bos, 'low'. Bacule is 
composed of the imper. of battre, 'to strike', 
and cul, 'posterior'. See batter, 'to beat', and 

base, n., bottom; foundation, pedestal. — F., fr. 
L. basis, fr. Gk. $<kau;, 'a stepping, step, pede- 
stal, foot, base', from the stem of fiaivco, 'I go', 
which prob. stands for *(3dvj,co, fr. *pd|x-iw, 
fr. l.-E. base *g w em-, 'to go; to come', whence 
also L. venid (prob. for *g u -mio), 'I come', Goth. 
qiman, OE. cuman, 'to come'. See come and cp. 
venue, 'arrival'. Cp. also basis, abasia, acrobat, 
aerobatics, amphisbaena, Anabaena, anabas, ana- 
basis, -bates, bathmism, batophobia, bema, cata- 
basis, diabase, adiabatic, diabetes, ecbatic, gyno- 
base, hyperbaton, metabasis, Odobenus, Ori- 
batidae, parabasis, presby-, stereobate, stylobate. 
As a term of chemistry base was introduced by 
the French chemist Guillaume-Francois Rou- 
elle (1703-70) in 1754- 

Derivatives: base, tr. v., to form a base for; 
intr. v., to be based (on or upon something); 
base-ment, n. 

base, adj. — ME. bas, fr. OF (= F.) bos, 'low', 
fr.Late L. bassus, 'thick fat, stumpy' (in classical 
L. occurring only as a cognomen); of un- 
certain origin. Cp. abase, bass (music), basset, 
basso, bassoon, debase. 
Derivatives: base-ly, adv., base-ness, n. 

bash, tr. v., to strike violently. — Of imitative 
origin. Cp. Swed. basa, Dan. baske, 'to strike'. 

bashaw, n. — A variant of pasha (q.v.) 

bashful, adj. — Aphetic for abash-ful. See abash 
and -ful. 

Derivatives: bashful-ly, adv., bashful-ness, n. 

bashi-bazouk, n., a Turkish irregular soldier. — 
Turk, bdshi-bozuq, lit. '(one whose) head is 
turned'. Cp. the first element in bashlyk and the 
second element in bimbashee. 

bashlyk, also bashlik, n., hood covering the cars. 
— Turk, bashlyq, 'any kind of headgear'. 

basic, adj. — Formed with suff. -ic fr. base, n. 
Cp. the second element in monobasic, di- 

Derivative : basic-al-ly, adv. 
basidium, n., a form of sporophore characteristic 
of the fungi of the class Basidiomycetes (bot) — 



ModL., fr. Gk. pdroit;, 'base'. See base, n., and 
cp. Aureobasidium. 

basil, n., any of a group of aromatic plants of the 
mint family. — OF. basile (whence F. basilic), 
fr. Late L. basilicum, fr., Gk. fia<stXi>c6v (scil. 
tpuTov), 'basil', neut. of the adjective jiaaiXixo?, 
royal'. See basilica. 

basil, n. — Corruption of basan. 

Basil, masc. PN. — L. Basilius, fr. Gk. BaatXeto?, 
lit. 'kingly, royal", fr. fictaiksbq, 'king'. See basi- 
lica and cp. basil, the plant. 

basilar, adj., pertaining to the base; basal, basic, 
fundamental. — ModL., irregularly formed fr. L. 
basis, fr. Gk. [Sooti;, 'a stepping, step, pedestal, 
foot, base'. See base, 'foundation', and adj. 
suff. -ar. 

Derivative: basilar-y, adj. 

basilic, royal. — F. basilique, fr. Gk. paatXixo?. 
See next word. 

basilica, n. — L., 'a public hall with double co- 
lonnades', fr. Gk. [3xat.XixT) (scil. oxoa), lit. 
royal colonnade', fem. of jSaaiXixo?, 'kingly, 
royal', fr. PxaiXsu?, 'king', which is of un- 
certain origin. It is possibly a loan word from 
a language of Asia Minor; cp. Lydian P<xtto<;, 
king'. Cp. basil, the plant, basilisk. 

basilic vein (anat.) — ML. vena basilica, fr. Arab. 
al-bdsiltq, fr. al-, 'the', and bdsilfq, a word of 
uncertain origin, which was confused by the 
Translators of Avicenna with Gk. pocaiXixo?, 
"royal' (see prec. word). The term vena basilica 
appears for the first time in a translation of Avi- 
cenna by Gcrardus Cremonensis. See Joseph 
Hyrtl, Das Arabische und Hebraische in der 
Anatomic, VVien, 1879, pp. 74-77. 

basilisk, n., a mythical serpent, cockatrice; a 
Central American lizard. — L. basiliscus, fr. Gk. 
SaoiXiaxoi;, 'princelet, chieftain, basilisk', di- 
min. of (ixcriXE'j?, 'king'; so called after Pliny, 
Naturalis Historia, 8, 33, from ist 'crown', i.e. 
.1 white spot on its head. See basilica and cp. 
ihc second element in aspic, 'asp'. 

basin, n. — ME., fr. OF. bacin, bassin (F. bassin), 
fr. VL. "baccimtm, fr. bacchinon (cited by Gre- 
gory of Tours as a vulgar word), fr. *bacca, 
'a water vessel' (whence F. bac, 'vat'). See 
back, 'vat', and cp. next word. 

basinet, n., a light steel helmet, later made with 
a visor. — ME., fr. OF. baciner, bassinet (F. bas- 
sinet), dimin. of bacin, bassin (F. bassin), 'basin'. 
See prec. word and -et, and cp. bassinet. 

basis, n. — L., fr. Gk. £ioi$. See base, n. 

bask, intr. and tr. v. — ME. basken, fr. ON. bada- 
sk, a reflexive verb lit. meaning 'to bathe one- 
self, fr. bada, 'to bathe' (see bathe), and reflex, 
suff. -sk. 

basket, n. — ME., fr. L. bascauda, 'a brazen ves- 
sel', referred to by the Roman poet Martial as an 
OBrit. word; cogn. with L. fascis, 'bundle, fag- 
got' ; see fasces. The orig. meaning of bascauda 
was prob. 'wicker basket'. 

bason, n. — A variant of basin. 

Basque, n. and adj. — F., fr. Sp. vasco, adj., fr. 
vascon, a., fr. L. Vascones, name of the ancient 
inhabitants of the Pyrenees. According to Wil- 
helm von Humboldt, the name Vascdnes orig. 
meant 'Foresters'. Cp. Gascon. 

bas-relief, n., low relief. — F., fr. bas, 'low', and 
relief, 'raised work', fr. relever, 'to raise'. F. bas- 
relief is a loan translation of It. bassorilievo. 
See bass, adj., and relief and cp. basso-rilievo. 

bass, n., any of various perchlike fishes. — Alter- 
ation of barse. 

bass, adj. and n. (mus.) — It. basso, fr. Late L. 
bassus, 'low'. See base, adj., and cp. bassoon 
and the second element in contrabass. 

bassanite, n., an anhydrous calcium sulfate {min- 
eral.) — Named after F. Bassani, professor of 
geology in Naples. For the ending see subst. 
suff. -ite. 

bassarid, n., a maenad (Greek mythol.) — Gk. 

paaaapii;, gen. -1S6?, fr. (3aaaapa, 'fox', a word 

of unknown etymology; so called because their 

dresses were made of foxskins. 
basset, n., a variety of small hound. — F., formed 

with dimin. suff. -et fr. bas, 'low'. See base, adj. 
bassetite, n., a phosphate of calcium and uranium 

(mineral.) — Named after the Basset mines in 


bassinet, n., cradle. — Usually derived fr. F. bas- 
sinet, 'a little basin', dim. of bassin, fr. OF. bacin 
(see basin). This derivation, however, does not 
account for the sense of the English word. Ac- 
cording to my opinion, E. bassinet is a blend of 
F. barcelonnette, 'a little cradle' (a collateral 
form of bercelonnette, fr. bercer, 'to rock'), and 
F. bassinet, 'a little basin'. 

basso, n., a bass voice. — It. See bass (mus.). 

bassoon, n., a woodwind instrument. — F. bas- 
son, fr. It. bassone, fr. basso. See bass (mus.) 
and -oon. 

bassoonist, n., player of a bassoon. — A hybrid 
coined fr. bassoon and suff. -ist. 

basso-rilievo, n., bas-relief. — It. See bas-relief 
and rilievo and cp. cavo-relievo. 

bast, n., the inner bark of the linden tree. — ME., 
fr. OE. b&st, rel. to ON., OS., MDu, OHG., 
MHG., G. , 'bast', OUG.besten, 'to sew with bast', 
and prob. cogn. with L. fascis, 'bundle', see fas- 
ces. OE. bxst, etc., orig. meant 'that which serves 
for binding'. OF. bastir (whence F. bdtir), 'to 
build', is a loan word fr. Frankish *bastjan, and 
orig. meant 'to sew or bind with bast'. Cp. baste, 
'to sew loosely'. Cp. also bastille, bastion, and 
the second element in bundobust. For sense de- 
velopment cp. G. Wand, 'wall', which is rel. to 
wenden, 'to turn, twist' (see wand). 

bastard, n., an illegitimate child. — OF. (F. bd- 
tard), identical in meaning with fits de bast, 
'acknSwledged son of a nobleman, born out of 
wedlock', prop, 'son of concubinage', fr. bast, 
'concubinage', which prob. derives fr. Teut. 
*bansti, 'barn' (cp. Goth, bansts of s.m.); ac- 
cordingly, OF. bastard lit. meant 'child born in 



a barn'. See Bloch-Wartburg, DELF., p. 60 s.v. 

Derivatives: bastard, adj., and the hybrids 
bastard-ize, tr. v., bastard-iz-ation, n. 

baste, tr. v., to soak, moisten. — Orig. pp. of a 
verb formed fr. OF. basser, 'to soak'; of un- 
certain origin. 
Derivative: bast-ing, n. 

baste, tr. v., to sew loosely. — OF. bastir (F. 
bdtir), 'to build', fr. Frankish *bastjan 'to sew 
or bind with bast', which is rel. to OHG. besten, 
of s.m., fr. bast, 'bast'. See bast. 
Derivative: bast-ing, n. 

baste, tr. v., to beat. — ON. beysta, 'to beat', rel. 
to OE. beatan. See beat. 
Derivative: bast-ing, n. 

bastille, n., a castle or fortress; specif, an ancient 
prison of Paris, destroyed by the revolutionaries 
July 14, 1789. — F., formed with change of suff. 
fr. OProvenc. bastida, fr. bastir, 'to build'. See 
baste, 'to sew loosely', and cp. bastion. 

bastinado, n., beating with a stick on the soles of 
the feet. — Sp. bastonada, 'a beating, cudgeling,' 
fr. baston, 'stick', See baston and -ado. 

bastion, n., a work projecting outward from a 
fortification. — F., variant of bastillon, dimin. 
of bastille. It. bastione, is a French loan word, 
whereas It. bastia is a back formation fr. bas- 
tione. See bastille. 

Derivatives: bastion-ary, bastion-ed, adjs. 

baston, n., a stick, staff. — OF. baston (F. baton), 
formed with the augment, suff. -on fr. Late L. 
bastum, of s.m. This word is prob. borrowed fr. 
Gk. "JiaaTov or *£ia<rra, 'support', which is a 
back formation fr. LateGk. *|iacTrav (cp. Mod- 
Gk. Paa-co), fr. Gk. paaxai^iv, 'to lift up, raise, 
carry', which is of uncertain origin. Cp. It. bas- 
tone, Sp. baston, and see -oon. Cp. also basti- 
nado, baton, and batten, 'timber'. Cp. also the 
first element in bathorse, batman. 

bat, n., the club used in cricket, etc. — ME. batte, 
bat, fr. OE. batt, 'cudgel', prob. rel. to F. batte, 
'beater, beetle', back formation fr. battre, 'to 
beat'. See batter, v., and cp. words there re- 
ferred to. 

Derivatives: bat, intr. v., to use a bat, batt-ing,n. 
bat, n., a nocturnal mammal. — A dialectal form 

of ME. bakke, a word of Scand. origin. Cp. 

Swed. natt-backa, natt-batta, 'bat' (lit. 'night 

bat'), Dan. aften-bakke, 'bat' (lit. 'evening bat'). 

For the change of k (in ME. bakke) to t (in E. 

bat) cp. apricot (from orig. apricock), havoc (fr. 

OF. havot), and the English words milt and milk, 

'milt of fishes', 
batata, n., the sweet potato. — Sp. See potato, 
batch, n. — ME. bacche, lit, 'a baking', OE. ba- 

can, 'to bake'. See bake. Batch stands to bake as 

match, 'one of a pair', stands to make. 

Derivatives: batch, tr. v., batch-er, n. 
bate, n., a solution used in tanning. — Rel. to 

Swed. beta, 'soaking, tanning', and to E. bait, 

bite (qq.v.) 

bate, v., to reduce. — Aphetic for abate. 
Derivative: bat-ed, adj. 

bate, intr. v., to beat the wings, nutter. — F. bat- 
tre, 'to beat' (in the term battre des ailes, 'to beat 
the wings'), fr. L. battuere, battere. See batter, v. 

bate, n., strife (obsol.) — Aphetic for debate. 

-bates, combining form meaning 'treading on . . .' 
as in Dendrobates, Hylobates. — Fr. Gk. pixr,?, 
'one that treads', from the stem of (Jaiveiv, 'to 
go'. See base, n. 

bath, n. — ME. bath, fr. OE. bsed, rel. to OS. 
bath,ON.bad, MDu., MHG. bat, OHG.,G.,Du. 
bad. The final dental sound corresponds to 
Teut. -pa (= I.-E. -to) and is added to the Teut. 
base appearing in OHG. ba-jan (whence MHG. 
bxn, bxjen, G. bd-heri), 'to foment', correspond- 
ing to I.-E. base *bhe-, 'to warm'. Hence OE. 
bzd, etc., orig. meant 'that which warms'. Base 
*bhdg-, 'to warm, roast, bake', a -^-enlargement 
of base bhe-, 'to warm', appears in Gk. cptiyEiv. 
'to roast', and in E. bake (q.v.) 
Derivative: bath, tr. v. 

Bath, brick, chair, etc. — Named after Bath, a 
town in Somerset, England. 

bath-, combining form. — See batho-. 

bathe, tr. and intr. v. — ME. bathien, fr. OE. 
badian, rel. to ON. bada, MDu. baden, Du. baden, 
OHG. badon, MHG., G. baden, and to OE. bxd . 
etc., 'bath'. See bath. 

Derivatives: bathe, n., bath-er, n., bath-ing, n. 

bathkol, n., a heavenly voice. — Heb. bath qdl, 
lit. 'the daughter of a voice', fr. bath, 'daughter', 
and qui, 'voice'. Bath stands for *banth, fr. orig. 
*bint , fem. of ben, 'son' ; rel. to Aram, b'rath, 
emphatic case b l ratta, Syr. (emphatic) band 
Arab. bint. Ethiop. bant, 'daughter', See ben, 
'son' and cp. the first clement in Bathsheba. For 
the second element see cowle. 

bathmism, n., the growth force (biol.) — A name 
coined by the American paleontologist Edward 
Drinker Cope (1840-97) fr. Gk. |3a{>u.o;, 'step, 
threshold', from the stem of paiveiv, 'to go', 
whence also fi&au;, 'a stepping, pedestal, foot, 
base'. See base, n., and words there referred to. 
For the ending see suff. -ism. 

batho-, bath-, combining form meaning 'depth'. 
— Gk. paOo-, fr. f}a»oc, 'depth'. See bathos. 

bathometer, n., an instrument for measuring the 
depth of water. — Compounded of batho- and 
uiTpov, 'measure'. See meter, 'poetical rhythm". 

bathorse, n., a horse that carries baggage. — 
A hybrid coined fr. F. bat, 'packsaddle' and E. 
horse. F. bat derives fr. OProvenc. bast, fr. VL. 
*bastum, 'the act of carrying', back formation 
fr. *bastdre, 'to carry', fr. Late Gk. *|3acjTav, 
'to carry', fr. Gk. pao-ra^eiv. See baston and cp. 
words there referred to. 

bathos, n., anticlimax, a descent from the sublime 
to the ridiculous. — Gr. pldc&o;, 'depth', rel. to 
pa9~i;, 'deep', and prob. also to plv&o;, 'depth' 
— which seems to have been formed on analogy 
of 7rev&o?, 'grief — and] to pijaaa (for *pJ5t&- 



ia), 'glen'; prob. cogn. with OI. gdhate, 'dives 
into', gdhdh, 'deep place', Avestic vi-ga&, 'ra- 
vine', Olr. bdidim, 'I cause to sink, drown'. The 
word bathos was first used in the above sense 
by Pope in his Dunciad. Cp. bathy-, benthos and 
the second element in isobath. 
Bathsheba, fem. PN.; in the Bible, the wife of 
King David and mother of Solomon. — Heb. 
Bathshebha' , lit. 'daughter of the oath'. For the 
first element see bathkol. The second element is 
rel. to sheva', 'seven'. Cp. nishbd' ,'he swore', 
orig. 'he bound himself by the sacred number 
seven'. See Shabuoth and cp. the second element 
in Elizabeth. 

bathy-, combining form meaning 'deep' — Gk. 

(3tx&u-, fr. (3a&6;, 'deep', which is rel. to (3a&o<;, 

'depth'. See bathos, 
bathy bias, n., a slimy substance dredged up from 

the Atlantic (zoo/.) — ModL., coined by the 

English biologist Thomas Henry Huxley (1825- 

95) in 1868 fr. Gk. (3a#ui;, 'deep' and pto?, 

'life'. See bathy- and bio-, 
bathyscaphe, n., a diving apparatus for reaching 

great depths. — Compounded of bathy- and 

Gk. axaipT], 'boat'. See scapho-. 
bathysphere, n., a spherical diving apparatus for 

the observation and study of the depths of the 

sea. — Compounded of bathy- and Gk. atpatpa, 

"ball, globe, sphere'. See sphere, 
batik, n., a method of coloring designs on cloth. 

— Javan. batik, 'spotted, speckled'. 

Derivatives: batik, tr. v., batik-er, n. 
batiste, n. — F., named after its first maker, Bap- 

tiste of Cambrai, who lived in the 13th cent, 
batman, n., an officer's servant. — A hybrid 

coined fr. F. bat, 'packsaddle', and E. man. See 


barmoney, n., allowance to an officer. A hybrid 
coined fr. Canarese bhatta, 'rice' (see batta), 
and E. money. 

baton, n., a stick, staff. — F. baton. See baston. 

batophobia, n., morbid fear of being at great 
heights or passing near high objects (merf.) — 
Medical L., compounded of Gk. PaT6?, 'pass- 
able', verbal adj. of patveiv, 'to go', and 
-<po(it5, fr. 96(30?, 'fear'. See base, n. and -pho- 
bia. The association of Gk. |3<xt6<; with height 
is due to a connection of this word with the 
second element in acrobat. (Acrobats are used 
to display their art in the height.) A more ade- 
quate name for this condition is hypsophobia. 

Batrachia,n.,pl.,the amphibians (zool.) — ModL., 
fr. Gk. (BaTpaxeio;, 'pertaining to a frog', fr. 
(3i7pa-£o;, 'frog', which is of uncertain origin. 
Derivative: batrachi-an, adj. 

barracho-, before a vowel batrach-, pertaining to 
frogs. — Gk. (3aTpocxo-, Paxpay-, fr. (3dcTpaxo<;, 
'frog'. See prec. word. 

batta, n., allowance to an officer. — From Cana- 
rese bhatta, 'rice', prob. through the medium of 
Port. Cp. barmoney. For sense development cp. 
salary, orig. 'salt money*. 

battalion, n. — F. bataillon, fr. It. battaglione, fr. 
battaglia, 'battle'. See battle and -ion and cp. 

battel, n., college accounts (at the University of 
Oxford). — Of uncertain origin. 

batten, intr. v., to grow fat. — The orig. meaning 
was 'to become better', fr. ON. batna, which is 
rel. to OE. batian, OFris. batia, MLG., Du. baten, 
OHG. basen, Goth, ga-batnan, 'to become bet- 
ter, avail, benefit', and to OE. bet, 'better' (adv.), 
betera, 'better' (adj.) See better, best. 

batten, n., timber used in flooring. — F. baton, 
'stick, staff'. See baton. 
Derivative: batten, tr. v., batten-ing, n. 

batter, tr. and intr. v., to beat violently and rapid- 
ly. — ME. bateren, batteren, fr. OF. batre, 
battre (F. battre), 'to beat, strike', fr. L. bat- 
tuere, later also battere, 'to beat, strike', which 
is of Gaulish origin; fr. I.-E. base *bhat-, 'to 
beat, strike', whence also L. con-futdre, 'to 
check, suppress', re-futdre, 'to repel, refute', and 
prob. also fatuus, 'stupid', lit. 'struck silly'. See 
beat and cp. next word, abate, abattis, abattoir, 
bascule, bat, 'club', bate, 'to reduce', bate, 'to 
flutter', battalion, battle, battledore, combat, de- 
bate and the second element in andabata. Cp. 
also confute, refute. Cp. also fade. 
Derivatives : batter-ed, adj., batter-er, n. 

batter, n., a mixture of flour, eggs and milk bea- 
ten up together. — ME. bature, batour, fr. OF. 
bature, 'a beating', fr. batre, 'to beat'. See prec. 

batter, n., slope of a wall. — Perhaps fr. batter, 
'to beat'. 

Derivative: batter, intr. v., to slope backward 
(said of walls). 

battery, n. — F. batterie, fr. battre, 'to beat'. See 
batter, 'to beat', and -y (representing F. -ie). 

battle, n. — ME. bataile, fr. OF. (= F.) bataille, 
fr. L. battudlia, battalia, 'fighting and fencing 
exercises of soldiers and gladiators', fr. battuere, 
battere, 'to strike, beat'. See batter, 'to beat'. 

battle, tr. and intr. v., to fight. — ME. batailen, 
fr. OF. bataillier, batailler (F. batailler), 'to 
fight', fr. bataille. See battle, n., and cp. em- 
battle, 'to prepare for battle'. 

battle, tr. v., to equip with battlements (archaic 
or poetic). — OF. bataillier, 'to equip with 
battlements, fortify', fr. batailles, 'battlements', 
pi. of bataille, 'battle'. See battle, n. 

battledore, n., a wooden instrument with a long 
handle and a flat board used to strike a shuttle- 
cock. _ ME., prob. fr. OProvenc. batedor, 'an 
instrument for beating', fr. L. battuere, battere, 
'to beat, strike' (see batter, 'to beat'); influenced 
in form by beetle. 

battlement, n. — ME. batelment, fr. OF. bataille- 
ment, fr. bataillier, 'to equip with battlements, 
to fortify'. See battle, 'to equip with battle- 
ments', and -ment and cp. embattle, to provide 
with battlements'. 

Derivatives : battlement,\t.y .,battle-ment-ed, adj. 



battology, n., superfluous repetition in speaking 
or writing. — Gk. (JarroXoYta, 'a speaking 
stammeringly', compounded of *[JaTTo<;, 'stam- 
merer' (cp. BaTTO?, name of a stammerer in 
Herod. 4,155; Pa-crap^Eiv, to stutter, stam- 
mer'), and -Xofia, fr. -Xoyo?, 'one who speaks 
(in a certain manner); one who deals (with a 
certain topic)'. The first element is of imitative 
origin. For the second element see -logy. 
Derivatives: battolog-ical, adj., battolog-ist, n. 

battue, n., 1) beating of woods to drive game out; 
2) the game thus shot. — F., 'beating', prop. fem. 
pp. of battre, 'to beat'. See batter, 'to beat'. 

batz, n., a small coin, formerly current in Swit- 
zerland. — G. Batz, Batzen, orig. meaning 'a 
thick piece, lump', rel. to the verb batzen, 'to be 
sticky, be adhesive', which is contracted fr. 
*backezen, freq. of backen, 'to bake; to stick 
together', but influenced in form by G. Batz, 
Petz, pet form of Bar, 'bear', the animal repre- 
sented in the arms of Bern. See bake and bezzo. 

bauble, n., jester's stick. — ME. babel, fr. OF. 
baubel, babel, 'toy' ; related to E. babe, baby. 

baud, n., (a term in telegraphic signaling) one dot 
per second. — Named after the French inventor 
Jean Baudot (1845-1903). 

baudekin, baudkin, n., baldachin (a kind of bro- 
cade). — ME., fr. OF. baudequin, fr. It. baldac- 
chino. See baldachin. 

bauson, n., badger (archaic). — ME. bausen, 'bad- 
ger', fr. OF. baucant, 'piebald' (whence also F. 
balzan, 'horse with white stockings'), fr. VL. 
*baltednus, 'provided with girdles', fr. L. bal- 
teus, 'girdle', whence also Rum. bait, 'girdle', 
bdltat, 'spotted, piebald'. See belt and cp. 

bausond, adj., having white spots or stripes (dial. 
E.) — OF. baucant. See prec. word. 

bauxite, n., a claylike hydrate of aluminum (min- 
eral) — F., fr. Les Baux, near Soles in France, 
where this compound was first found. The name 
Les Baux, fr. Provenc. Li Baus, lit. means 'the 
precipices'. Proven?, baus derives fr. L. balteus, 
'girdle', whence also Rum. bait, 'girdle', It. bal- 
zo, 'shelf', balzare, 'to spring, jump'. See belt 
and subst. suff. -ite and cp. bauson. 

bavenite, n., a calcium aluminum silicate (min- 
eral.) — Named after Baveno in Italy. For the 
ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

bavette, n., a child's bib. — F., dimin. formed fr. 
bave, 'drivel, slaver', fr. baver, 'to drivel, slob- 
ber' (whence bavarder, 'to babble, prattle'); of 
imitative origin. Bavette lit. means 'slobbering 
bib'. For the ending see suff. -ette. 

bawbee, n., 1) sixpence; 2) halfpenny. — Named 
after the Laird of Sihebawby, a mintmaster of 
Scotland in the 16th cent. 

bawd, n., procurer, procuress. — ME. bav/de, 
'joyous, merry', prob. fr. OF. baude, baud, 'bold', 
which is of Teut. origin. Cp. OE. bald, beald, 
'bold', and see bold. 
Derivatives: bawdry (q.v.), bawd-y, adj. 

bawdry, n., obscenity. — ME. bawdery, prob. fr. 
OF. bauderie, 'boldness', fr. baude, baud. See 
prec. word and -y (representing OF. -ie). 

bawl, intr. and tr. v., to howl, bellow. — Prob. 
fr. ML. bauldre, 'to bark', which is of imitative 
origin. Cp. Icel. baula, 'to low', ON. baula, 
'cow', lit. 'the lowing animal'. Cp. also bellow. 
Derivatives: bawl, n., bawl-er, n. 

baxter, n., a baker (Scot.) — Orig. 'a female 
baker', fr. OE. bsecestre, fem. of bascere, 'baker'. 
See baker and -ster. 

bay, n., inlet. — ME. baye, fr. F. bale, fr. Sp. 
bahia, which is prob. of Basque origin. See 
Meyer-Lubke in Zeitschrift fur Romanische 
Philologie, 32, 492. Cp. embay. 

bay, n., part in the wall. — OF. baee (F. baie), 
'an opening', prop. fem. pp. of baer (whence 
F. bayer, beer, 'to gape'), taken as a noun, fr. 
VL. baddre or batdre, 'to gape, yawn', a word of 
imitative origin, whence also It. badare, Prov- 
en?, badar, of s.m. Cp. abeyance, abash, badi- 
nage, baillone, beagle, bevel. 

bay, adj., of reddish brown color. — OF. (= F.) 
bai, fr. L. badius, 'chestnut-brown', which is 
cogn. with Olr. buide, 'yellow'. Cp. baize, 

Derivative: bay, n., an animal of bay color, 
esp. a bay horse, 
bay, intr. and tr. v., to bark. — ME. abayen, 
bayen, fr. OF abaier, baier (F. aboyer), 'to bark', 
which is of imitative origin. Cp. It. abbaiare. 
Cp. also Gk. pocii^eiv, L. baubdri, 'to bark', lit. 
'to utter bau'. 

Derivative: bay, n., barking, 
bay, n., the European laurel tree. — Orig. 'berry', 
fr. OF. (= F.) baie, fr. L. bdca, bacca, 'berry', 
See bacci-. 

baya, n., the weaverbird (Ploceus baya). — Hind. 
baid, baya. 

bayadere, a female dancer. — F. bayadire, fr. 
Port, bailadeira, 'ballet dancer', fr. bailor, 'to 
dance', fr. VL. balldre, 'to dance'. See ball, 
'party for dancing'. 

bayard, n., a bay horse. — OF., fr. bai. See bay, 
adj. and -ard. 

Bayard, n., a gentleman of great courage and in- 
tegrity. — From the name of Pierre du Terrail, 
seigneur de Bayard (1473-1524), the celebrated 
'Chevalier sans peur et sans reproche' ('knight 
without fear and without reproach'). 

bayberry, n. — Compounded of bay, 'the laurel', 
and berry. 

bayonet, n. — F. bayonnette, balonnette, fr. 
Bayonne in Southern France; so called because 
the first bayonets were made at Bayonne. For 
sense development cp. bilbo, Toledo. 
Derivatives: bayonet, tr. and intr. v., bayonet-ed, 
adj., bayonet-eer, n. 

bayou, n., a creek. — Amer. F., fr. Chocktaw 

baysalt, n. — Fr. Bai, place in France (near Nan- 
tes), renowned as a shipping port for sea salt in 



the 15th century. Cp. MDu. bayesout, G. Bai- 
salz, which are of the same meaning and origin. 

bazaar, n., a market place. — Ult. fr. Pers. bazar. 
'market', which is rel. to Pahlavi vacdr, of s.m. 

bazooka, n., a weapon consisting of a metal tube 
and used for launching an explosive rocket; 
first used in World War II. — Fr. bazooka, name 
of a kind of wind instrument invented and 
named by the American comedian Bob Burns 
(died in 1956). 

bazzite, n., a silicate of scandium, etc. (mineral.) 
— Named after the Italian enigineer Alessandro 
E. Bazzi (died in 1929). For the ending see 
subst. suff. -ite. 

bdellium, n., 1) a substance mentioned in the 
Bible, Gen. 2:12 and Num. 11:7; 2) a gum 
resin. — L., fr. Gk. ^SeXXtov, 'a fragrant gum', 
fr. Heb. b*d6lah. 

be, intr. v. — ME. been, beon, fr. OE. beon, 'to 
be', rel. to biom, OS. bium, OHG. bim, OHG., 
MHG., G. bin, 'I am', and cogn. with L. fui, 
'I have been', fueram, 'I had been', fuerd, 'I shall 
have been', fu-turus, 'about to be', Oscan/its/, 
'will be', L. fid, 'I become', Gk. tpiieiv, 'to make 
to grow', cpum;, 'nature', OI. bhdvati, 'be- 
comes, happens', bhutdh, 'been', bhavitram, 
world', bhumih, bhfiman-, 'earth, world', Alb. 
buj, 'I dwell, spend the night', bote, 'earth, 
world', ban(e), 'dwelling place', OSlav. byti, 'to 
be', bylu, 'was', Lith. buti, 'to be', buvo, 'was', 
Olr. biu, 'I am', buith, 'to be', bdi, 'was', OE., 
OS., OHG. buan, ON. bua, Goth, bauan, 'to 
dwell', Dan., Swed. bo, 'to dwell', Lith. biitas, 
"house', bukla, 'dwelling place', Ir. both, 'hut'. 
All these words derive fr. I.-E. base *bheu-, *bhu-, 
to be, exist, grow'. Cp. bhava, bhumi-devi, bhut, 
big, 'to build', bond, 'serf, boor, booth, bound, 
adj., bower, 'cottage', bower, 'the knave in 
cards', build, busk, 'to prepare', byre, the first 
element in bylaw, and the second element in 
neighbor. Cp. also fiat, future, phyle, physic, 
physio-, -phyte, and the second element in du- 
bious, eisteddfod, prabhu, probate, prove, superb, 
Symphytum, tribe, tribune, tribute, 
be- pref. with transitive or intensifying force. — 
OE. be-, toneless form of bi (see by); cp. OS. be, 
resp. bi, MHG., G. be-, resp. bei, Goth bi, 
(used both as a pref. and an adverb; in the 
latter case it means 'round about, by'). See by. 
beach, n. — Of uncertain origin. 
Derivatives: beach, tr. v., beach-y, adj. 
beacon, n. — ME. beekne, fr. OE. beacen, becen, 
'sign, signal', rel. to OS. bdkan, OHG. bouhhan, 
MHG. bouchen, OFris. bdken [whence MLG. 
bake, G. Bake, MDu. bdken, Du. baak, baken, 
ON. bdkn, Dan. bavn, Swed. (fyr)bdk], 'beacon', 
fr. Teut. *baukna-, which is prob. borrowed fr. 
L. bucina, 'a crooked horn or trumpet, signal 
horn'; see Kluge-Mitzka, EWDS., p.45 s.v. 
Bake. See buccinator and cp. beckon, buoy. 
Derivatives : beacon, tr. and intr. v., beaconage, n. 
bead, n. — ME. bede, 'prayer; prayer bead', fr. 

OE. bed, gebed, 'prayer', rel. to OS. beda, gibed, 
OHG. beta, 'request', gibet, MHG., G. gebet, 
'prayer', Du. bede, 'prayer, request', gebed, 
'prayer', G. Bine, 'request, entreaty', Goth, bida, 
'prayer, request', OHG., MHG., G. bitten, 'to 
ask, request', OHG. beton, MHG., G. beten, 'to 
pray', Goth, bidjan, OE. biddan, 'to ask, pray'. 
See bid. 

Derivatives: bead, tr. and intr. v., bead-ed, adj., 
bead-ing, n., bead-y, adj. 

beadle, n. — ME. bedel, fr. OF. bedel (F. bedeau), 
a Teut. loan word. Cp. OE. bydel, OS. budil, 
MLG. bbdel, boddel, MDu. buel, Du. beul, 
OHG. butil, MHG. biitel, G. Biittel, which are 
formed fr. OE. beodan, OS. biodan, etc., 'to an- 
nounce, proclaim', with agential suff. -el, -il. 
See bid and agential sulf. -le. 
Derivatives: beadle-dom, n., beadle-ship, n. 

beagle, n„ a small hound used in hare hunting. — 
ME. begle, prob. fr. OF. beegueule, fr. VL. 
batata (or badata) gula, 'open throat', fr. fem. 
pp. of batdre or baddre, 'to open,' and gula, 
'throat'; so called with reference to its bark. 
See bay, 'part in the wall' and gullet. 
Derivative : beagl-ing, n. 

beak, n. — ME. bee, fr. OF. (= F.) bee, fr. VL. 
beccus (whence a so It. becco) said by Suetonius 
(De vita Caesarum, 18) to be of Gaulish origin. 
Cp. OE. becca, 'pickax', MHG. bickel, of s.m., 
OHG. bicchan, 'to sting' Cp. also becasse and 
the first element in beccafico. 
Derivatives: beak-ed, beak-y, adjs. 
beaker, n. — ME. biker, fr. ON. bikarr, fr. VL. 
bicarium [whence also OS. bikeri, OHG. beh- 
hdri (MHG., G. becher), It. bicchiere], fr. Gk. 
Pixo?, 'earthen wine vessel'; prob. derived fr. 
Syr. buq, 'a two-handled vase or jug', a word of 
imitative origin. Cp. Heb. baqbuq, 'bottle' and 
see bacbuc. Cp. also pitcher, 
beakiron, n., the horn of an anvil; a bickern. — 
Folk-etymological alteration of bickern (as if 
compounded of beak and iron. See bickiron. 
beam, n. — ME. beem, fr. OE. beam, 'tree, beam, 
column of light', rel. to OS. bom, MLG., NLG. 
bom, MDu., Du. boom, OHG., MHG. bourn, G. 
Baum, 'tree', OFris. bam, 'tree, gallows, be^m', 
Goth, bagms, OSwed. bagnand prob. also to ON. 
badmr, 'tree' ; of uncertain etymology. Cp. boom, 
'pole', and the first element in bumboat. 
beamish, adj., beaming. — Coined by Lewis Car- 
roll (1832-98) fr. beam, in the sense of 'ray of 
light', and adj. suff. -ish. 
bean, n. — ME. bene, fr. OE bean, rel. to OS., 
OHG. bona, ON. baun, Dan. benne, Norw. 
bauna, Swed. bona, OFris. bane, MLG., MDu. 
bone, Du. boon, MHG. bone, G. Bohne; prob. 
derived from the child's word bha-, 'something 
swelling', whence also Gk. <paxo?, 'lentil'. Cp. 
L.faba, 'bean', OSlav. bobu, Russ. bob, OPruss. 
babo, 'bean', which prob. derive from the I.-E. 
child's word 'bhabhd, 'bean', reduplication of 
*bha-; see Fabaceae. 



Derivative : bean, tr. v. , to hit on the edge (slang). 

beano, n., beanfeast (slang). — Fr. prec. word. 

bear, n., the animal. — ME. bere, fr. OE. bera, 
rel. to MDu. bere, Du. beer, OHG. bero, MHG. 
ber, G. Bar, ON. bjorn, lit. 'the brown animal', 
fr. I.-E. *bhero-, 'brown', whence also Lith. 
beras, Lett, ftg rs, 'brown', L. fiber, OE. beofor, 
'beaver', lit. 'the brown animal'. Cp. beaver, the 
animal, and brown. Cp. also the first element in 

Derivatives: bear, tr. v., bear-ish, adj., bear-ish- 
ness, n. 

bear, tr. and intr. v., to carry. — ME. beren, fr. 
OE. beran, rel. to ON. bera, OFris. bera, Du. 
baren, OHG. beran, 'to bear, carry', Goth. 
bairan, 'to bear, carry, give birth to', OHG. gi- 
beran, MHG. gebern, G. gebdren, Goth, ga- 
bairan, 'to give birth to', fr. I.-E. base *bher-, 
whence also OI. bhdrati, 'bears', bhdrman, 'sus- 
tenance, care, burden', Arm. berem, 'I bear, 
carry, bring', befn, 'burden', Gk. <pspeiv, 'to 
bear, carry', <p&>p, 'thief, L. ferre, 'to bear, car- 
ry', fur, 'thief, Alb. mbar, bar, 'I carry, drag', 
bir, 'son', OSlav. berg, birati (for earlier birti), 
'to bring together, collect, take', breme, 'bur- 
den', su-boru, 'assembly', Olr. biru, 'I carry', 
W. cymeraf, 'I take', Toch. AB par, 'to 
bear, bring, fetch', and prob. also Toch. B 
prdri, 'finger'. Cp. bairn, baron, barrow, 'moun- 
tain', barrow, 'handcart', berth, bier, birth, bore, 
'tidal wave', borough, burden, 'load', burly. Cp. 
also adiaphoresis, adiaphorous, afferent, am- 
phora, anthropophora, Berenice, bhat, breba, 
brehon, cataphora, circumference, confer, cumber, 
defer, deference, differ, difference, differentiate, 
efferent, -fer, feretory, -ferous, ferret, the animal, 
fertile, fortuitous, fortune, furtive, furuncle, in- 
fer, metaphor, offer, opprobrium, paraphernalia, 
periphery, phoradendron, phoresis, Phormium, 
-phorous, phosphorous, phosphorus, prefer, prof- 
fer, refer, scirophorion, semaphore, Sobranje, 
suffer, transfer, varnish, vernix caseosa, Vero- 
nica, vociferate. 

Derivatives: bear-able, adj., bear-er, n., bear- 
ing, n. 

beard, n. — ME. fr. OE. beard, rel. to OFris. berd, 
MDu. baert, Du. board, OHG., MHG. G. ban, 
'beard', fr. I.-E. base *bhar-dhd, 'beard', whence 
also L. barba (assimilated from original *farbd, 
for *bhardhd), OSlav. brada, Russ. borodd, 
OPruss. bordus, Lett, bdrda, Lith. barzdd (this 
latter was influenced in form by Baltic *barzdd, 
'furrow'). I.-E. *bhar-dhd- prop, means 'bristle'. 
Cp. OE. byrst, 'bristle', and see bristle. Cp. also 
barb, 'beard', barbate, barbel, barber, barbet, 
barbette, barbicel, barbule and the second ele- 
ment in halberd, Langobard, lombard. 
Derivatives : beard, tr. v., beard-er, n., beard-ing, 
n., beard-less, adj., beard-less-ness, n., beard-y, 

beast, n. — ME. beste, fr. OF. beste (F. bite), 
fr. L. bestia, 'beast, wild animal', which is of un- 

certain origin. Cp. bestial, bestiary, bicho, the 
first element in beche-de-mer and the second ele- 
ment in hartebeest. 

Derivatives: beast-ly, adj. and adv., beast-Ii- 
ness, n. 

beat, tr. and intr. v. — ME. beten, fr. OE. bea- 
tan, rel. to ON. bauta, beysta, MLG. boten, 
OHG. bd33an, MHG. bd3en, 'to beat', and to 
the second element in OHG. anabds (whence 
MHG. anebd3, G. Ambofi), 'anvil', fr. I.-E. base 
*bhat- y 'to beat, strike', whence also L. con- 
futdre, 'to check, suppress', refutdre, 'to repel, 
refute', and prob. also fatuus, 'stupid', lit. struck 
silly'. Cp. batter, 'to beat', and words there re- 
ferred to. Cp. also baste, 'to beat', beetle, 'mal- 
let', boss, 'protuberance', boterol, boutade, butt, 
'to strike', butt, 'the thicker end of anything', 
butt, 'aim', button, and the second element in 

Derivatives: beat, n., beaten (q.v.), beat-er, n., 
beat-ing, n. 

beat, adj., exhausted. — ME. bete, prop, short 

form of beten, pp. of beten, 'to beat'. See beat, v. 
Beata, fem. PN. — Lit. 'happy', fem. of L. 

bedtus. See beatitude and cp. Beatrice, 
beaten, adj., prop. pp. of the verb beat. — ME. 

beten, fr. OE. beaten, pp. of beatan, 'to beat'. 

See prec. word, 
beatific, beatifical, adj., making blessed. — Late 

L. bedtificus, whence bedtificdre. See beatify and 

-lie, resp. also -al. 

Derivatives: beatifical-ly, adv., beatific-ate,\r. 
v., beatification (q.v.) 
beatification, n., process of making or becoming 
blessed. — F. beatification, fr. beatifier. See 
next word and -ation. 

beatify, tr. v., — to make blessed;to make happy. 
— F. beatifier, 'to beatify', fr. post-classical L. 
bedtificdre, 'to make happy', which is com- 
pounded of L. bedtus, 'happy, prosperous', and 
-ficdre, fr. facere, 'to make, do'. Bedtus is prop, 
pp. of bedre, 'to make happy, to bless', which is 
prob. rel. to bene, 'well', bonus, 'good'. See 
bene-, bonus, and -fy and cp. next word, beati- 
tude, Beatrice. 

beatille, n., tidbit, dainties. — F., orig. 'work 
done by nuns', fr. beate, fem. of beat, 'blessed, 
devout', fr. L. bedtus. See beatify. 

beatitude, n., blessedness, happiness. — F. beati- 
tude, fr. L. bedtitiidinem, acc. of bedtitiido, 'hap- 
piness, blessedness, coined by Cicero fr. bedtus. 
See beatify and -ude. 

beatnik, n., a person behaving and dressing in an 
unconventional manner. — A hybrid coined 
from the adj. beat and -nik, a suff. of Yiddish, 
ult. Slavic origin (see nudnik). 

Beatrice, fem. PN. — F. Beatrice, fr. L. bedtricem. 
fem. of bedtrix, 'she who makes happy', fr. bed- 
tus, 'happy', prop. pp. of bedre, 'to make happy'. 
See beatify and cp. Beata. 

beauteous, adj., beautiful. — Formed with suff. 
-ous fr. OF. beaute (F. beaute). See beauty. 



beaujolais, n., a type of burgundy. — Named 
from the Beaujolais district in the department of 
the Lyonnais in France. 

beaune, n., a type of burgundy. — ■ So called fr. 
the Beaune district in the department of the 
Cote d'Or in France, where it is produced. 

beautiful, adj. and n. — A hybrid coined fr. beau- 
ty, a word of French origin, and English full; 
first used by Tyndale. 

Derivatives: beautiful-ly, adv., beautiful-ness, n. 

beautify, tr. v. — See beauty and -fy. 

beauty, n. — ME. bealte, beaute (F. beaute), fr. 
L. bellitdtem, acc. of bellitas, 'prettiness, charm, 
loveliness, beauty', fr. bellus, 'pretty, handsome, 
charming, fine, lovely, beautiful', which stands 
for *dwenelos, *dwenlos, and is rel. to L. bene, 
'well', bonus, earlier *dwenos, 'good', prob. also 
to bedre, 'to make happy', bedtus 'happy' and 
cogn. with OI. duvas-, 'gift, honor, respect', 
duvas-ydti, 'honors, respects'. Cp. bonus, and 
words there referred to. Cp. also beatify, bel- 
dam(e), belladonna, belle, belles-lettres, Bellis, bel- 
vedere, clarabella, embellish, Christabel, Rosabel. 

beaver, n., a rodent of the genus Castor. — ME. 
bever, fr. OE. beofor, rel. to ON. bidrr, OS. bifar, 
OHG. bibar, MHG., G. biber, 'beaver', and 
cogn. with L. fiber, OSlav. bebru, Lith. bebrus 
(also dissimilated into vebrus, debrus), Lett. 
bebrs, bebris, OPruss. bebrus, W. befer, Bret. 
bieuzr, Avestic bawra, 'beaver'. All these words 
lit. denote 'the brown animal'; they derive fr. 
I.-E. *bhe-bhru-s, 'very brown', whence also OI. 
babhruh, adj., 'brown'; n., 'the larger ichneu- 
mon'. I.-E. *bhe-bhru-s is reduplication of base 
*bhero-, 'brown'. Both the bear and the beaver 
are called after their color. See bear, n., and 

beaver, n., the lower, movable, part of the hel- 
met. — ME. baviere, fr. OF. baviere, lit. 'a bib', 
fr. baver, 'to drivel, slobber', which is of imi- 
tative origin. Cp. bavette. 

beaverite, n., a hydrous sulfate of copper, lead, 
iron and aluminum {mineral.) — Named after 
Beaver County in Utah. For the ending see 
subst. sun", -ite. 

becalm, tr. v. — Formed fr. be- and calm. 

became, past tense of become. — See become 
and came. 

becasse, n., the woodcock. — F., formed fr. bee, 

'beak', with the augment, suff. -asse. See beak, 
because, adv. — ME. bi cause, fr. bi, 'by', and 

cause, 'cause'. See by and cause, 
beccafico, n., any of various migratory birds. — 

It., prop, 'fig pecker', compounded of beccare, 

'to peck' and fico, 'fig'. It. beccare derives fr. 

becco, 'beak', fr. VL. beccus; see beak. It. figo 

comes fr. h.ficus; see fig. 
bechamel, n., a rich white sauce. — F. bechamel, 

fr. the name of Louis de Bechamel, a steward 

of Louis XIV. 
bechance, tr. and intr. v. — Formed fr. be- and 


blche-de-mer, n., sea slug, trepang. — F., altered 
fr. Port, bicho-do-mar, lit. 'sea worm'. Port. bi- 
cho, 'animal, worm', derives fr. VL. bestius, 
'animal', whence also Sp. bicho, 'insect'; see 
bicho. Port, do, 'of the', is a contraction of de, 
'from, of (fr. L. de, 'from, away from'), and the 
masc. def. art. o, fr. earlier lo (fr. L. ilium, acc. 
of ille, 'that'); see de- and flle. Port, mar, 'sea', 
derives fr. L. mare, of s.m.; see mare, 'sea'. 

beck, n., sign, nod. — Fr. obsol. beck, v., short- 
enend fr. beckon (q.v.) 

beck, n., a vat. — See back, 'vat'. 

beck, n., a small stream, a brook. — ME. bek, 
fr. ON. bekkr. See bache. 

becket, n., a device used for fastening loose ends 
of ropes, oars, tackle, etc. {naut.) — Of uncertain 

Derivative : becket, tr. v. 

beckon, tr. and intr. v. — ME. beknen, bekenen, 
fr. OE. beacnian, 'to make signs, point out', fr. 
beacen, 'a sign'. See beacon. 
Derivatives: beckon, n., beckon-ed, n., beckon- 
ing, n., beckon-ing-ly, adv. 

become, intr. and tr. v. — ME. bicumen, becu- 
men, fr. OE. becuman, 'to come to, meet with, 
happen', rel. to Du. bekomen, MHG. bekomen, 
G. bekommen, 'to suit, agree' (in G. said only 
of food), Goth, biqiman, 'to come upon one', 
and to OE. gecweme, ME. iqueme, queme, OHG. 
biqudmi, MHG. bequxme, G. bequem, 'con- 
venient, fitting, suitable'. See be- and come. 

bed, n . — OE. bedd, bed, rel. to OS. beddi, bed, 
ON. bedr, Dan. bed, Swed. badd, MLG., MDu. 
bedde, Du. bed, OHG. betti, MHG. bette, bet, 
G. Belt, Goth, badi, 'bed', prop, 'a couch dug 
into the ground', fr. I.-E. base *bhedh, *bhod-, 
'to dig, pierce', whence also Hitt. beda-, 'to pier- 
ce, prick*, Gk. p6£upo<;, 'pit', L. fodere, 'to dig', 
fossa, 'ditch', Lith. badau, badyti, 'to pierce, 
prick', bedit, besti, 'to dig', Lett, badu, badit, 'to 
pierce, prick', Lith. bedre, Lett, bedu, best, 'to 
dig', bedre, 'pit', OPruss. boadis, 'prick', OSlav. 
bodp, bosti, 'to prick', bodli, 'thorn', W. bedd, 
Co. bedh, Bret, bez, 'grave'. G. Beet, 'garden- 
bed', is a variant of Bett, 'bed'. Cp. bothrium, 
fosse, fossil. 

bed, tr. v. — ME. beddien, bedden, fr. OE. beddian, 
'to place in a bed, to bed', fr. bedd, 'bed'. See 
bed, n. 

Derivatives: bedd-ed, adj. bedd-er, n. 
bedding, n. — OE., fr. bedd. See bed, n., and subst. 
suff. -ing. 

bedeck, tr. v. — Formed fr. be- and deck, v. 

bedeguar, bedegar, n., a mossy growth on rose- 
bushes. — F. bedeguar, bedegar, fr. Pers. bdda- 
ward, lit. 'wind rose', fr. bad, 'wind', and ward, 
'rose'. The first element is rel. to Avestic vdta-, 
'wind', vditi, 'blows', OI. vdtah, 'wind', vditi, 
'blows'; see wind, n. For the second element 
see rose. 

bedel, bedell, n. — Variants of beadle, 
bedevil, tr. v. — Formed fr. be- and devil. 

I 3V 

bedew, tr. v. — Formed fr. be- and dew. 

bedight, v., to adorn. — Formed fr. be- and dight. 

bedikah, n., examination, required by Jewish 
religious law. — Mishnaic Heb. b l dhiqd h , 'exam- 
ination, inspection, search', verbal noun of 
bddhdq, 'he examined, tested, scrutinized', fr. 
Biblical Hebrew, bddhdq, 'he mended, repaired', 
which is rel. to Biblical Hebrew bedheq, 'fissure, 
rent, breach', Aram. b l dhdq, 'he examined, ex- 
plored', bidhqd, 'fissure, rent, breach'. 

bedim, tr. v. — Formed fr. be- and dim. 

bedizen, tr. v. — Formed fr. be- and dizen. 

bedlam, n., a lunatic asylum. — From Bedlam, 
fr. ME. Bedlem, fr. earlier Bethlem, fr. Betle- 
hem (q.v.) ; originally name of a hospital in Lon- 
don, converted later into a lunatic asylum. 
Derivatives: bedlam-ism, n., bedlam-ite, n., bed- 
lam-ize, tr. v. 

Bedlington terrier, bedlington, n. — From Bed- 
lington, town in Northumberland, England, 
where it was first bred. 

Bedouin, n. — F. bedouin, fr. Arab, badawtn, lit. 
'desert dwellers', pi. of badawt, fr. badw (in vulgar 
pronunciation bedu), 'camp; desert'. The plural 
suff. -in in Arab, badawtn was mistaken for part 
of the word. Cp. assassin. 

bedraggle, tr. v. — Formed fr. be- and draggle. 

bedridden, adj. — ME. bedrede, fr. OE. bedrida, 
lit. 'bed rider' (in contradistinction to a 'horse 
rider'), formed fr. bed and ridan, 'to ride'. See 
bed, n., and ride. 

bee, n. — ME. bee, fr. OE. beo, rel. to OS., 
OSwed. bi, ON. by, Dan., Swed. bi, MDu. bie, 
Du. bij, OHG. bia, OS. bini, OHG. bina, MHG. 
bin, G. Biene, fr. I.-E. base *bi-, whence also 
OSlav. bilela, Lith. bite, bids, Lett, bite, OPruss. 
bitte, 'bee', OW. bydaf, 'beehive'. 

beech, n. — ME. beche, fr. OE. bice, rel. to bde, 
boc-treo, 'beech tree', OS. boke, ON. bok, Norw. 
bek, Swed. bok, Dan. beg, MDu. boeke, Du. 
beuk, OHG. buohha, MHG. buoche, G. Buche, 
and cogn. with Gk. (p^yo?, 'oak', L. fagus 
'beech', Russ. buzind, 'elder'. Cp. Kurdish buz, 
'elm'. Cp. also book, buckwheat. Cp also Fagus 
and the first element in Fagopyrum and in 

Derivatives: beech, beech-en, beech-y, adjs. 
beef, n. — ME. boef, beef, fr. OF. boef, buef (F. 
bteuf), fr. L. bovem, acc. of bos, 'ox'. See bovine 
and cp. next word. Cp. also biffin. 
Derivatives : beef-ish, adj., beef-ish-ness, n., beef- 
y, adj., beef-i-ness, n. 

beefeater, n. — Compounded of beef and eater 
and lit. meaning 'one who eats another's beef . 
For sense development cp. OE. hlaf-xta, 'ser- 
vant', lit. 'loaf eater'. 

Beelzebub, n., i) a Philistine god worshiped at 
Ekron; 2) the chief devil. — L., used in the Vul- 
gate to render Heb. bd'al z'bhiibh, god of the 
Ekronites (II Kings 1 : 2), lit. 'lord of flies', fr. 
Heb. bd'al, 'lord' and z'bhiibh, 'fly*. See Baal 
and zimb. 

been, pp. of be. — ME. ben, fr. OE. beon, 'been', 
pp. of beon, 'to be', See be. 

beer, n. — OE. beor, rel. to OS., OHG. bior, ON. 
6;or>-,OFris.War,MLG.,MDu. ber,T>u., MHG., 
G. bier, fr. Eccles. L. biber (pi. biberes), 'drink, 
beverage', fr. L. bibere, 'to drink'. See beverage. 
Derivatives: beer-ish, adj., beerish-ly, adv., beer- 
y, adj., beer-i-ly, adv., beer-i-ness, n. 

beestings, biestings, n., first milk of a cow after 
calving. — ME. bestinge, fr. OE. bysting, fr. 
byst, beost, which is rel. to OS., OHG. biost, 
MDu., Du., MHG., G. biest, 'beestings', and in 
vowel gradation to Norw. budda (for *buzda), 
'beestings', fr. I.-E. base *bhdu-, *bhu-, 'to swell'. 
See belly. 

beet, n. — ME. bete, fr. OE. bete, fr. L. beta, 
'beet', which is of Celtic origin. See Ettmayer 
in Zeitschrift fur neufranzosische Sprache und 
Literatur, vol.32, pp. 1 5 3ff . Cp. Beta. 

beetle, n., any insect of the order Coleoptera. — 
ME. betel, fr. OE. bitula, prop, 'little biter', 
formed from the base of bitan, 'to bite', with 
suff. -el. See bite and dimin. suff. -le. 

beetle, n., a heavy wooden mallet. — ME. betylle, 
fr. OE. betel, bitel, 'mallet', rel. to LG. hotel, 
of s.m., MHG. boe^el, 'cudgel'. These words lit. 
mean 'beater'. They are formed fr. Teut. base 
*baut-, 'to beat, strike', with instrumental suff. 
-el, -le. See beat and instrumental suff. -le. 
Derivatives: beetle, tr. v., beetl-er, n. 

beetle, intr. v., to project; adj., projecting. — Of 
uncertain origin; possibly rel. to beetle, 'insect'. 
Cp. next word. 

beetle-browed, adj. having projecting eyebrows. 
— ME. bitelbrowed, compounded of bitel, 'pro- 
jecting' (see prec. word), and the adj. browed, 
which is formed fr. brow with suff. -ed. 

befall, intr. and tr. v. — ME. bifallen, fr. OE. 
befeallan, 'to fall into (a habit)', fr. be- and 
feallan, 'to fall'. See fall, v. 

befit, tr. v. — Formed fr. be- and the verb fit. 
Derivatives: befitt-ing, adj., befitt-ing-ly, adv., 
befitt-ing-ness, n. 

befog, tr. v. — Formed fr. be- and fog. 

befool, tr. v. — ME. befolen, formed fr. be- and 
fol, 'fool', See fool. 

before, prep. adv. and conj. — ME. beforen, bi- 
foren, fr. OE. beforan, biforan, fr. be-, 'by' and 
adv. foran, 'in front', fr. fore, 'before'. See be- 
and fore and cp. former. 

befoul, tr. v. — Formed fr. be- and foul. 

befriend, tr. v. — Formed fr. be- and friend. 

befurred, adj. — Formed fr. be- and pp. of the 
verb fur. 

beg, tr. and intr. v. — ME. beggen, back forma- 
tion fr. AF. begger, fr. OF. begard, began, "beg- 
gar', fr. MDu. beggaert, 'mendicant'. Cp. beg- 
gar. Cp. also Beguine, biggin, 'cap'. 
Derivatives: begg-ing, n. and adj., begg-ing-ly, 

beg, n., a bey. — The same as bey. Cp. beglerbeg. 
and begum. 



began, past tense of begin. — ME. began, vr. OE. 

begann, fr. beginnan. See begin, 
beget, tr. v. — ME. bigiten, fr. OE. begitan, be- 

gietan, 'to get', fr. be- and gitan; rel. to Goth. 

bigitan, OHG. pige^an, 'to get, obtain'. See get. 

Derivative: begett-er, n. 

beggar, n. — ME. beggar, beggere, fr. OF. be- 
gard, begart. See beg, v. 

Derivatives: beggar, tr. v., beggar-ly, adj., beg- 
gar-li-ness, n., beggar-y, n. 

begin, tr. and intr. v. — ME. beginnen, fr. OE. be- 
ginnan, rel. to OS., OHG. beginnan, MDu. be- 
ghinnen, MLG., Du., MHG., G. beginnen, OFris. 
bijenna, Goth, du-ginnan, 'to begin', fr. Teut. 
*bi-ginnan, fr. bi- (see be) and *ginnan, which 
is prob. cogn. with Alb. ze and zq, 'to touch, 
begin'. Cp. gin, 'to begin'. 
Derivatives: beginn-er, n., beginn-ing, n. 

begird, tr. v. — ME. begyrden, fr. OE. begyrdan, 
fr. be- and gyrdan, 'to gird'. See gird, 'to en- 

beglerbeg, n., formerly, governor of a province in 
the Ottoman empire. — Turk., lit. 'bey of beys', 
fr. begler, pi. of beg, 'bey', and beg, 'bey'. See 
bey and cp. beg, n., begum. 

begnaw, tr. v. — OE. begnagan, fr. be- and gna- 
gan, 'to gnaw'. See gnaw. 

begone, intr. v. and interj. — Prop, two words: 
be gone [i.e. the imper. be (see be) and the pp. 
of go]. 

begonia, n. — F., named by the botanist Plumier 
(1646-1706) after Michel Begon (1638-1710), 
governor of Santo Domingo, a patron of bo- 
tanical study. For the ending see suff. -ia. 

begot, past tense of beget. 

begotten, pp. of beget. 

begrime, tr. v. — Of LG. origin; cp. MDu. be- 

ghemcn, begremen. See be- and grime, v. 
begrudge, tr. v. — Formed fr. be- and grudge. 

Derivative: begrudg-ing-ly, adv. 
beguile, tr. v. — Formed fr. be- and guile. 

Derivatives: beguile-ment, n., beguil-er, n., be- 

gui!-ing-ly, adv. 

Beguine, n., name of the members of certain lay 
sisterhoods founded in the 13th cent. — F. be- 
guine, prob. fern, of beguin, 'monk, friar', a var. 
of begard, fr. MDu. beggaert, 'mendicant'. See 
beg, v. 

begum, n. — Turk., a hybrid coined fr. beg and 
Arab, umm, 'mother', and orig. meaning 'moth- 
er of the bey'. For the first element see bey. The 
second element is rel. to Heb. em, Aram.-Syr. 
em, Ethiop. em, Akkad. ummu, 'mother'. 

begun, pp. of begin. 

behalf, n. — ME., in the phrase on mibehalfe, 'on 
my side', fr. OE. be healfe, 'by the side', fr. be, 
'by', and healfe, 'half, part, side'. See be- and 

behave, tr. and intr. v. — ME. behaven, fr. OE. 
behabban, 'to restrain', formed fr. be- mdhabhan, 
'to have' (see have). The orig. meaning was 'to 
have (oneself) under one's control'. 

behavior, behaviour, n. — Irregular formation fr. 
behave, owing to a confusion with havior, 'pos- 

behaviorism, n. (psychoid) — Coined by the Ame- 
rican psychologist John Broadus Watson 1878- 
1958) in 1913 fr. behavior and suff. -ism. 

behaviorist, n. — See prec. word and -ist. 
Derivatives: behaviorist-ic, adj., behaviorist-ic- 
al-ly, adv. 

behead, tr. v. — ME. bihefden, biheden, fr. OE. 
beheafdian, fr. be- and OE. heafod, 'head'. See 

beheld, past tense and pp. of behold. 

behemoth, n., a huge beast, probably the hippo- 
potamus. — Heb. behemoth, used in the sense 
of a plural of intensity of b e hemd", 'beast' (see 
Job 40 : 1 5-24). The assumed connection of Heb. 
behemoth with Egypt, p-ehe-mau, 'ox of the 
water', was justly rejected by W.Max Miiller. 

behen, n., the plant Centaurea behen. — Arab. 
bdhman, in vulgar pronunciation behmen, fr. 
Pers. bahman, a kind of root resembling a large 

behest, n. — ME. behest, bihest, fr. OE. behxs, 
'promise, vow', fr. behatan. See next word and 
cp. hest. 

benight, tr. v., to entrust, commit. — The orig. 
meaning was 'to promise, vow'; ME. bihalen, 
fr. OE. behatan, 'to promise, vow', fr. be- and 
hdtan, 'to command'. See hight and cp. prec. 

behind, prep, and adv. — ME. behinden, fr. OE. 
behindan, fr. be- and hindan, 'behind'. See hind, 

Derivative: behind, n. 
behold, tr. v. — ME. beholden, fr. OE. beheatdan. 

behaldan,'tohold by, possess', fr. be- and healdan. 

haldan, 'to hold'. See hold, v. 

Derivatives: beholden (q.v.), behold-er, n. 
beholden, adj. — Prop. pp. of behold, used in its 

earlier sense as 'held by, attached to', 
behoof, n. — ME. behof (chiefly in the dat. behove 

with the prep, to, 'for the use of), fr. OE. behof 

'profit, benefit, advantage, need', rel. to OFris.. 

MLG. behof, Du. behoef, MHG. behuof G. 

Behuf 'benefit, use, advantage', Dan. behov, 

Swed. behof, 'need, necessity', and in gradational 

relationship to E. have and heave, 
behove, tr. and intr. v. — ME. behoven, fr. OF. 

behofian, 'to need, require', fr. behof See prec. 


beige, n., 1) undyed and unbleached wool fabric; 
2) its grayish brown color; adj. grayish brown. 
— F., 'of natural color, undyed' (said of wool), 
of uncertain origin; not fr. It. bambagia, 

being, n. — Formed fr. be with subst. suff. -ing. 
bejewel, tr. v. — Formed fr. be- and jewel, 
bekah, n., half a shekel. — Heb. beqa\ lit. 'frac- 
tion, part', from the base of baqa\ 'he cleaved, 
broke through', which is rel. to Aram. b e qd\ 
Syr. p e qd\ of s.m., Mishnaic Heb. pdqd\ 'split, 



sprang off, p'qd'ath, 'coil, ball', Arab, fdqa'a, 
vulgar faqa'a, ba'aqa, ba'aja, of s.m., Ethiop. 
abqdwa, 'he opened wide his mouth'. 

Bel, n., the god of the earth in Babylonian my- 
thology. — Akkad. Belu (whence Heb. Bel, Gk. 
ByjXoi;), lit. 'owner, master, lord', rel. to Heb. 
Bd'al. See Baal. 

bel, n., a unit for determining in logarithms the 
ratios of power. — From the name of Alexander 
Graham Bell (1847-1922), the inventor of the 

belabor, belabour, tr. v. — Formed fr. be- and 

Belamcanda, n., a genus of plants of the iris 

family (bot.) — • ModL., of East Indian origin, 
belated, adj. — Formed fr. be-, late and suff. -ed. 

Derivatives: belated-ly, adv., belated-ness, n. 
belaud, tr. v. — Formed fr. be- and laud, 
belay, tr. and intr. v. — ME. beleggen, fr. OE. 

belecgan, 'to lay round', fr. be- and lecgan, 'to 

lay'. See lay, v. 
belch, intr. and tr. v., to erect. — ME. belchen, 

fr. OE. bealcian, prob. rel. to LG. and Du. bal- 

ken, 'to shout, bellow'. 

Derivative: belch-er, n. 

belcher, n., a kind of handkerchief. — Named 
after the English prizefighter Jim Belcher 

beldam(e), n., an old woman; esp. a hideous old 
woman . — OF. beldame (F. belle dame), ' beauti- 
ful lady', formerly used in the sense of 'grand- 
mother'. See beauty and dame and cp. bella- 

beleaguer, tr. v. — Du. belegeren, 'to besiege', 
formed fr. pref. be-, which corresponds to E. 
be-, and leger, 'bed; camp; army'. See leaguer 
and cp. words there referred to. 
Derivative: heleaguer-er, n., beleaguer-ment, n. 

belemnite, n., name of a tapering fossil of a 
cephalopod resembling the cuttlefishes (paleon- 
wl.) — Formed with subst. suff. -ite fr. Gk. 
SeXejavov, 'dart', fr. fiekoq, 'dart', which stands 
in gradational relationship to [iaXXsiv, 'to 
throw'. Accordingly, belemnite prop, means 
'dart-shaped'. See ballistic. 

belfry, n., a bell tower. — ME. berfray, fr. OF. 
berfrei, berfroi (F. beffroi), fr. MHG. berevrit, 
'watchtower', fr. OHG. bergfrid, lit. 'that which 
watches over peace', fr. OHG. bergan (whence 
MHG., G. bergen), 'to save, cover', and OHG. 
fridu (whence MHG. vride,G. Friede), 'peace' .The 
first element is rel. to OE. beorgan, 'to save, pre- 
serve'; see bury. The second element is rel. to 
OE. fridu, 'peace'; see free. It. battifredo, 'bel- 
fry', is a loan word fr. F. beffroi, but was in- 
fluenced in form by an association with It. 
batter e, 'to strike' (see batter, v.) E. belfry was 
influenced by bell, with which, however, it is not 
connected derivatively. Cp. the first element in 

Belial, n., 1) worthlessness, wickedness; 2) Sa- 
tan. — Heb. b'liyyd'al, lit. 'uselessness', com- 

pounded of bHt, 'without', and yd'al, 'use, use- 

belie, tr. v. — ME. belien, fr. OE. beleogan,' ir . 
be- and leogan, 'to lie'. See lie, 'to tell an un- 

belief, n. — ME. bileafe, formed (with change of 
pref. ge- into bi-) fr. OE. geleafa, 'belief ', which 
is rel. to OS. giloVo, Du. geloof OHG. giloubo, 
MHG., gloube, G. Claube, Goth, ga- 
laubeins, 'belief, and to E. lief and love (qq.v.) 
Cp. next word. 

believe, tr. and intr. v. — ME. bileven, fr. OE. 
belifan, belefan, rel. to gelyfan, gelefan, OS. gi- 
lobian, Du. geloven, OHG. gilouben, MHG. ge- 
louben, glouben, G. glauben, Goth, galaubjan, 
'to believe', and to OE. geleafa, 'belief. See 
prec. word. 

Derivatives: believ-able, adj., believ-er, n., be- 

liev-ing, adj., believ-ing-ly, adv. 
belike, adv., probably (archaic). — Formed fr. 

be- (in the sense of by) and like, 
belittle, tr. v. — Formed fr. be- and little, 
bell, n., a hollow vessel of metal. — ME. belle, 

fr. OE. belle, rel. to MLG., MDu. belle, Du. bel, 

ON. bjalla, 'bell', and to OE. bellan, 'to bellow, 

cry'. See bellow and cp. next word. 

Derivatives: bell, tr. v., to furnish with bells, 

bell-ing, n. 

bell, intr. v., to bellow (as the stag in the rutting 
season); to roar. — ME. belien, fr. OE. bellan. 
See bell, n. 

Derivative: bell, n., a bellow (as the cry of the 
stag in the rutting season); a roar. 

belladonna, n., 1) a poisonous plant ; 2) a drug ex- 
tracted from this plant. — It. (whence F. bella- 
done), lit. 'a beautiful woman', from bella, fern, 
of bello (fr. L. bellus), 'beautiful', and donna, 
'woman, lady' (fr. L. domina) (see beauty and 
dame and cp. beldame); so called in allusion to 
the cosmetic once made from it. 

Bellatrix, n., a star in Orion (astron.) — L. belld- 
trix, 'a female warrior', fern, of belldtor, fr. 
belldre, 'to wage war', fr. bellum, 'war'. See 
bellicose and -trix. 

belle, n., a beautiful woman. — F., adj. used as 
a noun, fern, of beau, 'beautiful' fr. L. bellus. 
See beau, and cp. embellish. 

Belle, fern. PN. — Fr. prec. word. 

belleric, n., the fruit of the plant called Terminalia 
bellerica. — F. belleric, fr. Arab, balllaj, in vul- 
gar pronunciation, belilaj, fr. Pers. balilah. 

Bellerophon, n., a Greek hero, son of Glaucus 
and Eurymede (Greek mythol.) — L., fr. Gk. 
BeXXepovciv, more frequently BeXXtpo^'jvT/;;, 
which prob. means lit. 'the killer of a demon 
called Bellerus', fr. BcXXEpo::, 'Bellerus', name 
of a demon and -povTr.i;, 'killer of, fr. cpovoc, 
'murder'; see defend. The identification of the 
first element with a king of Corinth supposedly 
called Bellerus is folk etymology. 

belles-lettres, n. pi., literature. — F., lit. 'fine 
letters', fr. belles, pi. of belle, fern, of beau, 'fine, 


beautiful', and lettres, pi. of lettre, 'letter . See 

beauty and letter, 
belletrist, n., a student of belles-lettres. — Formed 

fr. prec. word with suff. -ist. 

Derivative: belletrist-ic, adj. 
bellicose, adj., warlike, hostile. — L. bellicdsus, 

'warlike', fr. bellicus, 'pertaining to war', fr. 

bellum, 'war', fr. OL. dvellum, duellum, which 

is of uncertain origin. Duellum in the sense of 

'duel' is Medieval Latin (see duel). Cp. Bellona, 

rebel, revel. For the ending see adj. suff. -ose. 

Derivatives : bellicose-ly, adv., bellicose-ness, n. 
bellicosity, n., hostility. — See prec. word and -ity. 
bellied, adj. — Formed fr. belly with suff. -ed. 
belligerency, n. — Formed fr. next word with 

suff. -cy. 

belligerent, adj., i)atwar; 2) warlike; n., a person 
or nation engaged in war. — F. belligerant, fr. 
L. belligerantem, acc. of belligerans, pres. part, 
of belligerdre, 'to wage war', fr. belliger, 'waging 
war', fr. bellum, 'war' and gerere, 'to bear, 
carry'. See bellicose and gerent. 

Bellis, n., the genus of daisies (bot.) — L., 'daisy', 
prop, 'the handsome flower', formed on anal- 
ogy of Greek nouns ending in -15 fr. L. bellus, 
'pretty'. See beauty and cp. words there re- 
ferred to. 

Bellona, n., the goddess of war in Roman mythol- 
ogy. — L., fr. OL. Duelldna, fr. duellum, 'war'. 
See bellicose. For the suff. -na cp. L. Ldtd-na 
(fr. Dor. Aoctc!), Gk. Ar)xa>) and mdtrd-na, 'ma- 
tron' (fr. mater, 'mother') ; see Latona, matron. 

bellote, n., the edible acorn of the holm oak. — 
Sp. bellota fr. Arab, balluta", in vulgar pronun- 
ciation bell6(a, 'acorn'. 

bellow, intr. v., to make a loud noise, to roar. — ■ 
ME. belwen, fr. OE. bylgian, rel. to OE. bellan, 
'to bellow', MDu. bellen, OHG. bellan, MHG., 
G. bellen, 'to bark' and E. bell, 'to bellow' ; fr. 
I.-E. base *bhel-, 'to make a loud noise, to 
sound, ring, roar', whence also OI. bhasd-, 
'barking', bhdsate, 'speaks, talks'. Cp. bawl, 
bell, 'metallic vessel', boulder, the first element 
in balderdash and in poltergeist, and the second 
element in dubash. 
Derivatives: bellow, n., bellow-er, n. 

bellows, n. pi. — ME. bely; prop, a variant of 
belly (q.v.) 

belly.n. — ME. Mi, bely, fr. OE. bxlg, belig, belg, 
'bag, belly, bellows', related to ON. belgr, 'bag, 
bellows', Swed. balg, 'belly, bellows', Du. balg, 
'belly', OHG. balg, MHG. bale, G. Balg, 'bel- 
lows', Goth, balgs, 'wineskin', OE. -belg (in 
beanbelg, 'bean pod'), OHG. belgan, 'to swell', 
ON. bylgja, 'billow', bolstr [for *bul(h)stra], 
'bolster', lit. 'something swelled', fr. Teut. base 
*belg-, which corresponds to I.-E. base 'bhelgh-, 
'to swell', whence OPruss. bahinis (for *bhol- 
ghi-nos), 'cushion', Lett, pabdlsts, 'pillow*, 
Serbo-Croat, bldzina (for *bolzina), 'pillow', 
Olr. bolgaim, 'I swell', bolg, 'bag', W. bol, bota, 
boly, 'belly', Bret, bolc'h, 'flax pod'. (L. bulga, 

'leather knapsack', is a Gaulish loan word.) Cp. 
bellows, bilge, billow, bolster, budge, 'fur', bud- 
get, bulge. Base *bhelgh-, is an enlargement of 
base *bhel-, 'to swell'. See bull, 'male of the ox', 
and cp. words there referred to. 
Derivatives : belly, intr. v., belly-er, a., betty-ful, 

belong, intr. v. — ME. belongen, fr. longen, 'to 
concern', fr. lang, long, fr. OE. gelang, 'at hand, 
attainable, dependent on', which is rel. to MDu. 
belanghen, Du. belangen, G. belangen, 'to con- 
cern; to belong to' (whence Du. belong, resp. 
G. Belong, 'concern, interest, importance'), and 
to OE. lang, etc., 'long'. The orig. meaning of 
the above verbs prob. was 'to be alongside of. 
See long, adj., and cp. along. 
Derivatives: belong-er, n., belong-ings, n. pi. 

Belostoma, n., a genus of aquatic bugs (zool.) — 
ModL., lit. 'arrow-mouthed', fr. Gk. (3eXo?, 
'arrow, dart', and OT6u,a, 'mouth'. The first 
element stands in gradational relationship to 
fJaXXeiv, 'to throw'; see ballistic. For the se- 
cond element see stoma. 

belove, tr. v. ; now only in the passive. — ME. 
biluven, formed fr. bi- and luven, 'to love'. See 
be- and love, v. 

beloved, adj. — • Prop. pp. of belove. 
below, adv. and prep. — Formed fr. be- and the 
adj. low. 

Belshazzar, n., the last Chaldaean king of Baby- 
lon (Bible). — Heb. Belshatztzdr, contraction 
of Akkad. Bel-shar-usur i.e. 'Bel, protect the 

belt, n. — ME., fr. OE., rel. to ON. belti, OHG. 
bah, fr. L. balteus, 'girdle', a word of Etruscan 
origin. Cp. balteus, baldric, bauson, bausond, 

Derivative: belt, tr. v. 

Beltane, n., an ancient Celtic festival on May 
Day. — Gael, bealtuinn, a compound lit. mean- 
ing 'blazing fire'. For the first element see bale- 
fire. The second element is rel. to Olr. ten, 'fire' 
(for I.-E. *tepnos), and cogn. with L. tepere, 'to 
be lukewarm', tepidus, 'lukewarm'. See tepid 
and cp. words there referred to. 

beluga, n., a kind of dolphin. — Russ. be~luga, fr. 
be~liy, 'white', which is rel. to OSlav.Mu, 'white', 
Lith. bdltas, 'white', Lett, bah, 'pale', and cogn. 
with OE. bxl, 'a blazing fire', ON. bdl, 'a great 
fire'. See balefire and cp. the first element in 

belvedere, n., a turret, giving a fine view; a sum- 
merhouse. — It., lit. 'a beautiful sight', fr. bello, 
bel, 'beautiful, fine', and vedere, fr. L. videre, 'to 
see'. See beauty and vision. 

bema, n., platform, stage {Greek antiq.) — Gk. 
Police, 'step, platform', from the stein of flalveiv, 
'to g»', whence also (Wai?, 'a stepping, pedestal, 
foot, base'. See base, n. 

bemoan, tr. v. — ME. bimenen, fr. OE. benuenan, 
'to lament', fr. be- and msenan, to moan'. 
See moan. 



bemuse, tr. v. — Formed fr. be- and muse. 

Derivative: bemus-ed, adj. 
ben, adv., within (Scot.) — OE. binnan (rel. to 

OFris. binna, MDu., Du., MHG., G. binnen), 

'within' ; contraction of bi-innan, be-innan. See 

be- and in, prep, 
ben, n., the inner room (Scot.) — From prec. 


ben, n., son. — Heb. ben, 'son', rel. to Arab, ibn, 
Aram.-Syr. bar, 'son', Akkad. binbinni, 'grand- 
son'. Cp. Benjamin, B'nai B'rim, boanerges. Cp. 
also Barabbas, bar mitzvah, Barnabas, Bartho- 
lomew. For the feminine correspondences Heb. 
bath, 'daughter', etc., see bathkol and cp. 

Ben, masc. PN. — Dimin. of Benjamin (q.v.) 

bench, n. — ME., fr. OE. bene, rel. to ON. bekkr, 
Dan., Swed. bank, OS., OFris., MLG., Du., 
OHG., G. bank, MHG. banc, 'bench', ON. 
bakki, 'elevation'. Cp. bank, banket, bankrupt, 
banquet, charabanc, mountebank, saltimbanco. 
Derivatives: bench, tr. and intr. v., bench-ing, n. 

bencher, n., any of the members of the Inns of 
Court. — Formed fr. bench with agential suff. 
-er. Cp. disbench. 

bend, tr. and intr. v. — ME. benden, fr. OE. 
bendan, 'to stretch a bow; to bend, bind', rel. 
to bind (q.v.) Cp. next word and bent. Deriva- 
tives: bend, n. (q.v.), bend-ed, adj., bend-er, n. 

bend, n., a knot. — Orig. meaning 'band, bond', 
fr. OE. bend, fr. bendan (see bend, v.); prop, a 
variant of band, 'a tie' (q.v.) 

bend, n., a diagonal bend (her.) — OF. bende, 
bande, 'a bend', a Teut. loan word. See band, 
'a tie', and cp. prec. word. 

bendy, adj., divided by bends (her.) — OF. bende, 
bande (F. bande). See bend (her.) and -y (rep- 
resenting OF. -e, F. -e). 

bene-, combining form meaning 'well'. — L. bene, 
'well', fr. earlier *dwene, rel. to bonus, earlier 
*dwenos, 'good', bellus, earlier *dwenelos, *dwen- 
los, 'beautiful'. See bonus, beauty. 

beneath, prep, and adv. — ME. benethe, bene- 
othen, fr. OE. beneopan, fr. be-, 'by', and neopan, 
'below, beneath'. See be- and nether and cp. 

Benedicite, n., the canticle beginning with the 
words 'Benedicite, omnia opera Domini, Do- 
mino' (in English 'O all ye works of the Lord, 
bless ye the Lord'). — PI. imper. of benedicere, 
pp. benedictus, 'to bless'. See benediction. 

Benedick, n., a confirmed bachelor who marries. 
— From a character in Shakespeare's Much Ado 
About Nothing. For the origin and meaning of 
the name see benediction. 

Benedict, n., masc. PN. — L. benedictus, 'blessed', 
pp. of benedicere. See benediction. 

Benedicts, fern. PN. — L. benedicta, fern, of bene- 
dictus, 'blessed'. See prec. word. 

Benedictine, n., a monk of the order founded 
in 529 by St. Benedict. — F. benidictin, 
fr. Eccles. L. benedictimis, fr. Benedictus (= St. 

Benedict), name of the founder of this order, 

benediction, n. — L. benedictid, gen. -onis, fr. 
benedictus, pp. of benedicere, 'to bless', lit. *to 
speak well of, to praise', fr. bene, 'well', and 
dicere, 'to say, tell'. See bene- and diction and 
cp. benison, which is a doublet of benediction. 
Cp. also bennet, bensh. 

benedictory, adj., pertaining to a blessing. — ML. 
benedictdrius, fr. L. benedictus, pp. of benedicere. 
See prec. word and adj. suff. -ory. 

benefaction, n., a good deed, donation. — L. 
bene/actio, gen. -onis, fr. bene/actus, better writ- 
ten in two words bene factus, fr. bene, 'well', and 
factus, pp. of facere, 'to make, do'. See bene- 
and faction and cp. benefit. 

benefactor, n., one who confers a benefit. — L., 
'who performs an act of kindness', fr. bene- 
factus. See prec. word and factor. 

benefactress, n. — See prec. word and -ess. 

benefice, n., a church living. — F. benefice, fr. L. 
beneficium, 'generosity, kindness, benefit', fr. 
beneficus, 'generous, kind, beneficent, obliging', 
which is formed fr. bene, 'well' and -ficus, from 
the stem of -ficere, unstressed form of facere, 
'to make, do'. See bene- and fact. 
Derivative: benefic-ed, adj. 

beneficence, n., the quality of being beneficent, 
kind, charitable. — Either fr. F. beneficence or 
directly fr. L. beneficentia, 'kindness, generosity, 
beneficence', back formation fr. beneficentior. 
See next word and -ce. 

beneficent, adj., doing good, kind, charitable. — 
Back formation fr. L. beneficentior, compar. of 
beneficus. See benefice and -ent. 
Derivative : beneficent-ly, adv. 

beneficial, adj., helpful, advantageous. — F. be- 
neficial, fr. L. beneficidlis, 'pertaining to a favor', 
fr. beneficium. See benefice and -ial. 
Derivatives : beneficial-ly, adv., beneficial-ness, n. 

beneficiary, n., one who receives benefits. — L. 
beneficidrius, 'enjoying a favor, privileged', fr. 
beneficium. See benefice and subst. suff. -ary. 

benefit, n. — ME. benefet, benfet, fr. AF. benfet 
(rel. to OF. and F. bienfait), fr. L. benefaction, 
bene factum, 'well done'. See benefaction. 
Derivatives: benefit, tr. and intr. v., benefit-er,n. 

benevolence, n., kindliness. — OF. benivolence, 
fr. L. benevolentia, 'good will, kindness', fr. 
benevolens, gen. -entis. See next word and -ce. 

benevolent, adj. wishing to do good, kindly. — 
OF. benevolent, fr. L. benevolens, gen. -entis, 
'wishing well, benevolent', fr. bene, 'well', and 
volens, gen. -entis, pres. part, of void, velle, 'to 
will, wish'. See voluntary and -ent and cp. 

Derivative: benevolent-ly, adv. 

benight, tr. v. (rare) — Formed fr. be- and night. 
Derivative: benight-ed, adj. 

benign, adj., kindly. — ME. benigne, fr. OF. be- 
nigne (F. benin, fern, benigne), fr. L. benignus, 
'kindly, kindhearted, friendly', orig. 'of good 
nature', compounded of bene, 'well' and *gno-s 



'born, of a certain nature', fr. I.-E. base gn-, 
'to beget, bear, bring forth', whence also L. 
gignere, 'to beget, bear, bring forth', W. geni, 
'to be born'. See bene- and genus and cp. malign. 
Derivative: benign-ly, adv. 
benignant, adj., kindly. — Formed fr. benign on 
analogy of malignant. For the ending see stiff, 

Derivative: benignant-ly, adv. 
benignity, n., kindliness. — ME. benignite, fr. OF. 

henignite, fr. L. benignitdtem, acc. of benignitds, 

fr. benignus. See benign and -ity. 
benison, n., blessing, benediction. — ME., fr. OF. 

beneison, fr. L. benedictidnem, acc. of benedictid. 

See benediction. 

benitoite, n., a barium titanosilicate {mineral?) — 
Named after San Benito River in California. 
For the ending see subst. suff. -ite. 

Benjamin, masc. PN. ; in the Bible, Jacob's young- 
est son. — Heb. Binydmtn, lit. 'son of the right 
hand', fr. ben 'son', and yamtn, 'right hand*; 
see Gen. 35: 18. For the first element see ben, 
'son'. Heb. yamin means also 'south' (lit. 'the 
right hand, the right side', i.e., if one faces east). 
It is rel. to Aram.-Syr. yammtn, Ugar. ymn, 
'right hand', Arab, ydman, 'right hand, right 
side, south', ydmana, 'he was happy', lit. 'he 
turned or went to the right' (the right side was 
regarded as auspicious), Ethiop. yaman, Akkad. 
immi, 'right hand, right side'. Cp. Yemen, mai- 
mon, monkey. 

benjamin, n., gum benzoin. — Corruption of ben- 
join, an earlier form of benzoin (q.v.) 

bennet, n., a herb. — ME. herbe beneit, 'the bless- 
ed herb', fr. F. benoite, prop. fern. pp. of OF. 
beneir (F. benir), 'to bless', fr. L. benedicere. 
See benediction. 

bensh, tr. and intr. v., to bless; to say grace. — 
Yiddish benshen, fr. dial. OF. *bencheir (OF. 
beneir, F. benir), fr. L. benedicere. See benediction. 

bent, adj., curved. — Pp. of bend. 

bent, n., inclination. — Fr. prec. word. 

bent grass, also bent, n. — OE. beonot- (in place 
names), rel. to OS. bi